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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "PRC" redirects here. For other uses, see PRC disam!iguation". #his article is a!out the People$s Repu!lic of China. For the Repu!lic of China, see #ai%an. For other uses, see China disam!iguation".

People's Republic of China

Zhnghu Rnmn Gnghgu


&ational 'm!lem

Anthem: Yyngjn Jnxngq Pinyin"

"(arch of the )olunteers"

(enu *:**

+rea controlled !y the People$s Repu!lic of China sho%n in dark green, claimed !ut uncontrolled regions sho%n in light green. Capital Largest city Official languages

123445& 6673815' 9 12.26:3& 667.1;13'

Recognised regional languages

<hanghai/60 <tandard Chinese/80/!0 (ongolian #i!etan =yghur >huang

various others

?fficial %ritten language ?fficial script

)ernacular Chinese <implified Chinese/80 26.46@ Aan/10 Ethnic groups 44 minorities/c0 /sho%0 Demonym Chinese Government <ingleBparty socialist state B President Ci Jinping/d0 B Premier Di EeFiang B Congress Chairman >hang Ge.iang B Conference Chairman Hu >hengsheng &ational People$s Legislature Congress ormation =nification of China under B 886 -C' the Iin Gynasty B Repu!lic esta!lished 6 January 6268 B People$s Repu!lic proclaimed 6 ?cto!er 62J2 Area 2,:*7,276 km8/e0 1rd9Jth" B #otal 1,:J:,;:2 sF mi B Water @" *.8;@/f0 Population B 8*68 estimate 6,14*,724,***/;0 6st" B 8*6* census 6,112,:8J,;48/20 6st" 8*66 estimate:/6*0 6JJ9km8 B Gensity ;1rd" 1:19sF mi GDP PPP" 8*61 estimate B #otal K61.1:J trillion/660 8nd" B Per capita K2,;8;/660 28nd" GDP nominal" 8*61 estimate B #otal K;.212 trillion/660 8nd" B Per capita K7,472/660 ;:th" J:.J/680 Gini 8*68" high *.722/610 !D" 8*68" medium # 6*6st Renmin!i yuan" L" CNY" Currency China <tandard #ime $ime %one =#CM;"

Date format Drives on the Calling co&e "'O ()** co&e "nternet $LD

yyyyBmmBdd or yyyy m d C', C'B62J2"

right M;7 C&


.cn . .

China i9tanN9, Chinese: , pinyin: Zhnggu", officially the People's Republic of China, is a sovereign state located in 'ast +sia. Ot is the %orld$s most populous country, %ith a population of over 6.14 !illion. #he PRC is a singleBparty state governed !y the Communist Party, %ith its seat of government in the capital city of Ot ePercises .urisdiction over 88 provinces, five autonomous regions, four directBcontrolled municipalities,, <hanghai, and ChongFing", and t%o mostly selfBgoverning special administrative regions Aong Eong and (acau". #he PRC also claims #ai%an Q %hich is controlled !y the Repu!lic of China R?C", a separate political entity Q as its 81rd province, a claim controversial due to the compleP political status of #ai%an and the unresolved Chinese Civil War./640 Covering approPimately 2.7 million sFuare kilometres, China is the %orld$s secondBlargest country !y land area,/670 !ut only the third or fourthBlargest !y total area, depending on the method of measurement./h0 China$s landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes and the Ro!i and #aklamakan deserts in the arid north to su!tropical forests in the %etter south. #he Aimalaya, Earakoram, Pamir and #ian <han mountain ranges separate China from <outh and Central +sia. #he HangtSe and Hello% Rivers, the thirdB and siPthBlongest in the %orld, run from the #i!etan Plateau to the densely populated eastern sea!oard. China$s coastline along the Pacific ?cean is 6J,4** kilometres 2,*** mi" long, and is !ounded !y the -ohai, Hello%, 'ast and <outh China <eas. #he ancient Chinese civiliSation Q one of the %orld$s earliest Q flourished in the fertile !asin of the Hello% River in the &orth China Plain. For millennia, China$s political system %as !ased on hereditary monarchies, kno%n as dynasties, !eginning %ith the semiBmythological Cia of the Hello% River !asin c. 8*** -C'". <ince 886 -C', %hen the Iin Gynasty first conFuered several states to form a Chinese empire, the country has ePpanded, fractured and !een reformed numerous times. #he Repu!lic of China R?C" overthre% the last dynasty in 6266, and ruled the Chinese mainland until 62J2. +fter the defeat of the 'mpire of Japan in World War OO, the Communist Party defeated the nationalist Euomintang in mainland China and esta!lished the People$s Repu!lic of China in on 6 ?cto!er 62J2, %hile the Euomintang relocated the R?C government to its present capital of #aipei. <ince the introduction of economic reforms in 62:;, China has !ecome one of the %orld$s fastestBgro%ing ma.or economies. +s of 8*61, it is the %orld$s secondBlargest economy !y !oth nominal total RGP and purchasing po%er parity PPP", and is also the %orld$s largest ePporter and importer of goods./6:0 China is a recogniSed nuclear %eapons state and has the %orld$s largest standing army, %ith the secondBlargest defense !udget./6;0 #he PRC has !een a =nited &ations mem!er since 62:6, %hen it replaced the R?C as a permanent mem!er of the =.&. <ecurity Council. China is also a mem!er of numerous formal and informal multilateral

organiSations, including the W#?, +P'C, -ROC<, the <hanghai Cooperation ?rganisation, the -CO( and the RB8*. China is a regional po%er %ithin +sia and has !een characteriSed as a potential superpo%er !y a num!er of commentators./620/8*0


6 'tymology 8 Aistory o 8.6 Prehistory o 8.8 'arly dynastic rule o 8.1 Omperial China o 8.J 'nd of dynastic rule o 8.4 Repu!lic of China 6268Q62J2" o 8.7 People$s Repu!lic of China 62J2Qpresent" 1 Reography o 1.6 Political geography o 1.8 Dandscape and climate o 1.1 -iodiversity o 1.J 'nvironmental issues J Politics o J.6 +dministrative divisions o J.8 Foreign relations J.8.6 #rade relations J.8.8 #erritorial disputes J.8.1 'merging superpo%er status o J.1 <ociopolitical issues and reform 4 (ilitary 7 'conomy o 7.6 'conomic history and gro%th o 7.8 China in the glo!al economy o 7.1 Class and income eFuality o 7.J OnternationaliSation of the renmin!i : <cience and technology o :.6 Aistorical o :.8 (odern era ; Onfrastructure o ;.6 Communications o ;.8 #ransport 2 Gemographics o 2.6 'thnic groups o 2.8 Danguages o 2.1 =r!aniSation o 2.J 'ducation o 2.4 Aealth o 2.7 Religion 6* Culture o 6*.6 Cuisine o 6*.8 <ports

66 <ee also 68 Footnotes 61 References 6J Further reading 64 'Pternal links

(ain article: &ames of China +sho,-China


+sho,-$ransliterations +sho,-$ransliterations +sho,-$ransliterations $his article contains Chinese te.t/ Without proper rendering support, you may see Fuestion marks, !oPes, or other sym!ols instead of Chinese characters.

#he %ord "China" is derived from the Persian %ord Cin ", %hich is from the <anskrit %ord Cna "./810 Ot is first recorded in 6467 in the .ournal of the Portuguese ePplorer Guarte -ar!osa./8J0 Ot first appears in 'nglish in a translation pu!lished !y Richard 'den in 6444./840 Ot is commonly thought that the %ord is derived from the name of the Iin Chin, " Gynasty./870 #he common Chinese names for the present country are Zhnggu Chinese: , from zhng, "central" or "middle", and gu, "state" or "states," and in modern times, "nation"" and Zhnghu Chinese: ", although the country$s official name has !een changed numerous times !y successive dynasties and modern governments. #he term Zhnggu appeared in various ancient tePts, such as the Classic of is!ory of the 7th century -C',/i0 and in preB imperial times it %as often used as a cultural concept to distinguish the AuaPia tri!es from perceived "!ar!arians". #he term, %hich can !e either singular or plural, referred to the group of states or provinces in the central plain, !ut %as not used as a name for the country as a %hole until the nineteenth century. #he Chinese %ere not uniFue in regarding their country as "central", since other civiliSations had the same vie% of themselves./8:0

(ain articles: Aistory of China and #imeline of Chinese history

Jade deer ornament dating from the <hang Gynasty 6:thQ66th centuries -C'"

<ome of the thousands of lifeBsiSe #erracotta Warriors of the Iin Gynasty, ca. 86* -C'

(ain article: Chinese prehistory +rchaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inha!ited China !et%een 84*,*** and 8.8J million years ago./8;0 + cave in >houkoudian near presentBday" ePhi!its hominid fossils dated at !et%een 7;*,*** and :;*,*** -C'./820 #he fossils are of Peking (an, an ePample of o"o #r#c!us %ho used fire./1*0 #he Peking (an site has also yielded remains of o"o sa$i#ns dating !ack to 6;,***Q66,*** -C'./160 <ome scholars assert that a form of protoB%riting ePisted in China as early as 1*** -C'./180 +ccording to Chinese tradition, the first imperial dynasty %as the Cia, %hich emerged around 8*:* -C'./110 Ao%ever, the dynasty %as considered mythical !y historians until scientific ePcavations found early -ronSe +ge sites at 'rlitou, Aenan in 6242./1J0 Ot remains unclear %hether these sites are the remains of the Cia Gynasty or of another culture from the same period./140

Early &ynastic rule

Further information: Gynasties in Chinese history #he first Chinese dynasty that left historical records, the loosely feudal <hang Hin",/170 settled along the Hello% River in eastern China from the 6:th to the 66th century -C'./1:0 #he oracle !one script of the <hang Gynasty represents the oldest form of Chinese %riting yet found,/1;0 and is a direct ancestor of modern Chinese characters./120 #he <hang %ere conFuered !y the >hou, %ho ruled !et%een the 68th and 4th centuries -C', until its centraliSed authority %as slo%ly eroded !y feudal %arlords. (any independent states eventually emerged from the %eakened >hou state and continually %aged %ar %ith each other in the 1**Byear <pring and

+utumn Period, only occasionally deferring to the >hou king. -y the time of the Warring <tates period of the 4thQ1rd centuries -C', there %ere seven po%erful sovereign states in %hat is no% China, each %ith its o%n king, ministry and army.

"mperial China
#he Warring <tates period ended in 886 -C', after the state of Iin conFuered the other siP kingdoms and esta!lished the first unified Chinese state. Iin <hi Auang, the emperor of Iin, proclaimed himself the "First 'mperor" " and imposed reforms throughout China, nota!ly the forced standardiSation of the Chinese language, measurements, length of cart aPles, and currency. #he Iin Gynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after Iin <hi Auang$s death, as its harsh legalist and authoritarian policies led to %idespread re!ellion./J*0/J60

#he Rreat Wall of China %as !uilt !y several dynasties over t%o thousand years to protect the sedentary agricultural regions of the Chinese interior from incursions !y nomadic pastoralists of the northern steppes. #he su!seFuent Aan Gynasty ruled China !et%een 8*7 -C' and 88* C', and created a lasting Aan cultural identity among its populace that has endured to the present day./J*0/J60 #he Aan Gynasty ePpanded the empire$s territory considera!ly %ith military campaigns reaching Eorea, )ietnam, (ongolia and Central +sia, and also helped esta!lish the <ilk Road in Central +sia. Aan China gradually !ecame the largest economy of the ancient %orld./J80 #he Aan Gynasty adopted Confucianism, a philosophy developed in the <pring and +utumn period, as its official state ideology. Gespite the Aan$s official a!andonment of Degalism, the official ideology of the Iin, Degalist institutions and policies remained and formed the !asis of the Aan government./J10 +fter the collapse of Aan, a period of disunion kno%n as the period of the #hree Eingdoms follo%ed./JJ0 On 4;* C', China %as reunited under the <ui./J40 Ao%ever, the <ui Gynasty declined follo%ing its defeat in the RoguryeoQ<ui War 42;Q76J"./J70/J:0 =nder the succeeding #ang and <ong dynasties, Chinese technology and culture entered a golden age./J;0 #he #ang 'mpire %as at its height of po%er until the middle of the ;th century, %hen the +n <hi Re!ellion destroyed the prosperity of the empire./J20 #he <ong Gynasty %as the first government in %orld history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to esta!lish a permanent standing navy./4*0 -et%een the 6*th and 66th centuries, the population of China dou!led in siSe to around 6** million people, mostly due to the ePpansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of a!undant food surpluses. #he <ong Gynasty also sa% a flourishing of philosophy and the arts, as landscape art and portrait painting %ere !rought to ne% levels of maturity and complePity,/460 and social elites gathered

to vie% art, share their o%n and trade precious art%orks. #he <ong Gynasty sa% a revival of Confucianism, in response to the gro%th of -uddhism during the #ang./480

Getail from %long !h# &i'#r (uring !h# )ing"ing *#s!i'al, a 68thBcentury painting sho%ing everyday life in the <ong Gynasty$s capital city, today$s Eaifeng" On the 61th century, China %as gradually conFuered !y the (ongol empire. On 68:6, the (ongol leader Eu!lai Ehan esta!lished the Huan Gynasty, the Huan conFuered the last remnant of the <ong Gynasty in 68:2. + peasant named >hu HuanShang overthre% the Huan Gynasty in 617; and founded the (ing Gynasty. =nder the (ing Gynasty, China en.oyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the %orld and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture. Ot %as during this period that >heng Ae led ePplorations throughout the %orld, reaching as far as +frica./410 On the early years of the (ing Gynasty, China$s capital %as moved from & to Guring the (ing Gynasty, thinkers such as Wang Hangming further critiFued and ePpanded &eoB Confucianism %ith concepts of individualism and innate morality. On 67JJ, %as sacked !y a coalition of re!el forces led !y Di >icheng, a minor (ing official %ho led the peasant revolt. #he last (ing ChongShen 'mperor committed suicide %hen the city fell. #he (anchu Iing Gynasty then allied %ith (ing Gynasty general Wu <angui and overthre% Di$s shortBlived <hun Gynasty, and su!seFuently seiSed control of, %hich !ecame the ne% capital of the Iing Gynasty.

En& of &ynastic rule

+ 62thBcentury painting depicting the #aiping Re!ellion of 6;4*Q6;7J #he Iing Gynasty, %hich lasted from 67JJ until 6268, %as the last imperial dynasty of China. On the 62th century, the Iing Gynasty ePperienced Western imperialism follo%ing t%o ?pium Wars 6;12QJ8 and 6;47Q7*" %ith -ritain. China %as forced to sign uneFual treaties, pay compensation, allo% ePtraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Aong Eong to the -ritish./4J0 #he First <inoBJapanese War 6;2JT24" resulted in Iing China$s loss of influence in the Eorean Peninsula, as %ell as the cession of #ai%an to Japan./440

#he %eakening of the Iing regime led to increasing domestic disorder. On 6;4*s and 6;7*s, the failed #aiping Re!ellion ravaged southern China. ?ther costly re!ellions included the PuntiQAakka Clan Wars 6;44Q7:", the &ien Re!ellion 6;46Q7;", the (iao Re!ellion 6;4JQ:1", the Panthay Re!ellion 6;47Q:1" and the Gungan revolt 6;78Q::"./470/4:0 #hese re!ellions each resulted in an estimated loss of millions of lives, and had a devastating impact on the fragile economy./4;0/420/7*0 On the 62th century, the great Chinese Giaspora !egan. 'migration rates %ere strengthened !y conflicts and catastrophes such as the &orthern Chinese Famine of 6;:7Q6;:2, %hich claimed !et%een 2 and 61 million lives in northern China./760 On 6;2;, the RuangPu 'mperor drafted a reform plan to esta!lish a modern constitutional monarchy, !ut he %as overthro%n !y the 'mpress Go%ager CiPi in a coup d$Utat. #he illBfated antiBWestern -oPer Re!ellion of 6;22Q 62*6 further %eakened the Iing Gynasty. #he Cinhai Revolution of 6266Q68 !rought an end to the Iing Gynasty and esta!lished the Repu!lic of China.

Republic of China 0)1)23)1415

(ain articles: Repu!lic of China 6268Q62J2" and Aistory of the Repu!lic of China

<un HatBsen, the father of modern China seated on right", and Chiang EaiBshek, later President of the Repu!lic of China ?n 6 January 6268, the Repu!lic of China %as esta!lished, and <un HatBsen of the Euomintang the E(# or &ationalist Party" %as proclaimed provisional president./780 Ao%ever, the presidency %as later given to Huan <hikai, a former Iing general, %ho in 6264 proclaimed himself 'mperor of China. On the face of popular condemnation and opposition from his o%n -eiyang +rmy, he %as forced to a!dicate and reesta!lish the repu!lic./710 +fter Huan <hikai$s death in 6267, China %as politically fragmented. Ots -ei.ingB!ased government %as internationally recogniSed !ut virtually po%erless, regional %arlords controlled most of its territory./7J0/740 On the late 628*s, the Euomintang, under Chiang EaiB shek, %as a!le to reunify the country under its o%n control %ith a series of deft military and political maneuverings, kno%n collectively as the &orthern 'Ppedition./770/7:0 #he Euomintang moved the nation$s capital to & and implemented "political tutelage", an intermediate stage of political development outlined in <un HatBsen$s <anBmin program for transforming China into a modern democratic state./7;0/720 #he political division in China made it difficult for Chiang to !attle the Communists, against %hom the Euomintang had !een %arring since 628: in the Chinese Civil War. #his %ar continued successfully for the Euomintang, especially after the Communists retreated in the Dong (arch, until Japanese aggression and the 6217 Ci$an Oncident forced Chiang to confront Omperial Japan./:*0/:60

#he <econd <inoBJapanese War 621:Q62J4", a theater of World War OO, forced an uneasy alliance !et%een the Euomintang and the Communists. Japanese forces committed numerous %ar atrocities against the civilian population, in all, as many as 8* million Chinese civilians died./:80/:10 +n estimated 8**,*** Chinese %ere massacred in the city of & alone during the Japanese occupation./:J0 Japan unconditionally surrendered to China in 62J4. #ai%an, including the Pescadores, %as put under the administrative control of the Repu!lic of China, %hich immediately claimed sovereignty. China emerged victorious !ut %arBravaged and financially drained. #he continued distrust !et%een the Euomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil %ar. On 62J:, constitutional rule %as esta!lished, !ut !ecause of the ongoing unrest many provisions of the R?C constitution %ere never implemented in mainland China./:40

People's Republic of China 0)1413present5

(ain article: Aistory of the People$s Repu!lic of China

(ao >edong proclaiming the esta!lishment of the PRC in 62J2 (a.or com!at in the Chinese Civil War ended in 62J2 %ith the Communist Party in control of mainland China, and the Euomintang retreating offshore, reducing the R?C$s territory to only #ai%an, Aainan, and their surrounding islands. ?n 6 ?cto!er 62J2, Communist Party Chairman (ao >edong proclaimed the esta!lishment of the People$s Repu!lic of China./:70 On 624*, the People$s Di!eration +rmy succeeded in capturing Aainan from the R?C,/::0 occupying #i!et,/:;0 and defeating the ma.ority of the remaining Euomintang forces in mainland China./:20/;*0 (ao encouraged population gro%th, and under his leadership the Chinese population almost dou!led from around 44* million to over 2** million./;60 Ao%ever, (ao$s Rreat Deap For%ard, a largeBscale economic and social reform pro.ect, resulted in an estimated J4 million deaths !et%een 624; and 6276, mostly from starvation./;80 -et%een 6 and 8 million landlords %ere ePecuted as "counterrevolutionaries."/;10 On 6277, (ao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution, sparking a period of political recrimination and social upheaval %hich lasted until (ao$s death in 62:7. On ?cto!er 62:6, the PRC replaced the Repu!lic of China in the =nited &ations, and took its seat as a permanent mem!er of the <ecurity Council./;J0 +fter (ao$s death in 62:7 and the arrest of the faction kno%n as the Rang of Four, %ho %ere !lamed for the ePcesses of the Cultural Revolution, Geng Ciaoping took po%er and led the country to significant economic reforms. #he Communist Party su!seFuently loosened governmental control over citiSens$ personal lives and the communes %ere dis!anded in favor of private land leases. #his turn of events marked China$s transition from a planned economy to a miPed economy %ith an increasingly open market environment./;40 China adopted its

current constitution on J Gecem!er 62;8. On 62;2, the violent suppression of student protests in #iananmen <Fuare !rought condemnation and sanctions against the Chinese government from various countries./;70

<hanghai skyline President Jiang >emin and Premier >hu Rong.i led the nation in the 622*s. =nder their administration, China$s economic performance pulled an estimated 64* million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual gross domestic product gro%th rate of 66.8@./;:0/;;0 #he country formally .oined the World #rade ?rganiSation in 8**6, and maintained its high rate of economic gro%th under Au Jintao$s presidency in the 8***s. Ao%ever, rapid gro%th also severely impacted the country$s resources and environment,/;20/2*0 and caused ma.or social displacement./260/280 Diving standards continued to improve rapidly despite the lateB8***s recession, !ut centraliSed political control remained tight./210 Preparations for a decadal Communist Party leadership change in 8*68 %ere marked !y factional disputes and political scandals./2J0 Guring China$s 6;th &ational Communist Party Congress in &ovem!er 8*68, Au Jintao and Wen Jia!ao %ere replaced as President and Premier !y Ci Jinping and Di EeFiang, %ho formally took office in 8*61./240/270 =nder Ci, the Chinese government !egan largeBscale efforts to reform its economy,/2:0/2;0 %hich has suffered from structural insta!ilities and slo%ing gro%th./220/6**0/6*60/6*80 Ci$s administration also announced ma.or reforms to the oneBchild policy and prison system./6*10

(ain article: Reography of China

+ composite satellite image sho%ing the topography of China

Dongsheng Rice #errace in RuangPi

#he Di River in RuangPi

Political geography
#he People$s Repu!lic of China is the secondBlargest country in the %orld !y land area/6*J0 after Russia, and is either the thirdB or fourthBlargest !y total area, after Russia, Canada and, depending on the definition of total area, the =nited <tates./.0 China$s total area is generally stated as !eing approPimately 2,7**,*** km8 1,:**,*** sF mi"./6*40 <pecific area figures range from 2,4:8,2** km8 1,727,6** sF mi" according to the +ncyclo$,-ia .ri!annica,/6*70 2,427,276 km8 1,:*4,J*: sF mi" according to the =& Gemographic Hear!ook,/40 to 2,427,276 km8 1,:*4,J*: sF mi" according to the CO+ World Fact!ook./:0 China has the longest com!ined land !order in the %orld, measuring 88,66: km 61,:J1 mi" from the mouth of the Halu River to the Rulf of #onkin./:0 China !orders 6J nations, more than any other country ePcept Russia, %hich also !orders 6J. China ePtends across much of 'ast +sia, !ordering )ietnam, Daos, and -urma in <outheast +sia, Ondia, -hutan, &epal and Pakistan/k0 in <outh +sia, +fghanistan, #a.ikistan, EyrgySstan and EaSakhstan in Central +sia, and Russia, (ongolia, and &orth Eorea in Onner +sia and &ortheast +sia. +dditionally, China shares maritime !oundaries %ith <outh Eorea, Japan, )ietnam, the Philippines and #ai%an.

Lan&scape an& climate

#he <outh China <ea coast at Aainan #he territory of China lies !et%een latitudes 6;3 and 4J3 &, and longitudes :13 and 6143 '. China$s landscapes vary significantly across its vast %idth. On the east, along the shores of the Hello% <ea and the 'ast China <ea, there are ePtensive and densely populated alluvial plains, %hile on the edges of the Onner (ongolian plateau in the north, !road grasslands predominate.

<outhern China is dominated !y hills and lo% mountain ranges, %hile the centralBeast hosts the deltas of China$s t%o ma.or rivers, the Hello% River and the HangtSe River. ?ther ma.or rivers include the Ci, (ekong, -rahmaputra and +mur. #o the %est sit ma.or mountain ranges, most nota!ly the Aimalayas. Aigh plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the #aklamakan and the Ro!i Gesert. #he %orld$s highest point, (ount 'verest ;,;J;m", lies on the <inoB&epalese !order./6*:0 #he country$s lo%est point, and the %orld$s thirdBlo%est, is the dried lake !ed of +yding Dake T64Jm" in the #urpan Gepression.

+ ma.or environmental issue in China is the continued ePpansion of its deserts, particularly the Ro!i Gesert./6*20/66*0 +lthough !arrier tree lines planted since the 62:*s have reduced the freFuency of sandstorms, prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices have resulted in dust storms plaguing northern China each spring, %hich then spread to other parts of 'ast +sia, including Eorea and Japan. +ccording to China$s environmental %atchdog, <epa, China is losing a million acres J,*** kmV" per year to desertification./6660 Water Fuality, erosion, and pollution control have !ecome important issues in China$s relations %ith other countries. (elting glaciers in the Aimalayas could potentially lead to %ater shortages for hundreds of millions of people./6680 China$s climate is mainly dominated !y dry seasons and %et monsoons, %hich lead to pronounced temperature differences !et%een %inter and summer. On the %inter, northern %inds coming from highBlatitude areas are cold and dry, in summer, southern %inds from coastal areas at lo%er latitudes are %arm and moist. #he climate in China differs from region to region !ecause of the country$s highly compleP topography.

(ain article: Wildlife of China

+ giant panda, China$s most famous endangered and endemic species, at the Wolong &ational &ature Reserve in <ichuan China is one of 6: megadiverse countries,/6610 lying in t%o of the %orld$s ma.or ecoSones: the Palearctic and the Ondomalaya. -y one measure, China has over 1J,7;: species of animals and vascular plants, making it the thirdBmost !iodiverse country in the %orld, after -raSil and Colom!ia./66J0 #he country signed the Rio de Janeiro Convention on -iological Giversity on 66 June 6228, and !ecame a party to the convention on 4 January 6221./6640 Ot later produced a &ational -iodiversity <trategy and +ction Plan, %ith one revision that %as received !y the convention on 86 <eptem!er 8*6*./6670 China is home to at least 446 species of mammals the thirdBhighest such num!er in the %orld",/66:0 6,886 species of !irds eighth",/66;0 J8J species of reptiles seventh"/6620 and 111

species of amphi!ians seventh"./68*0 China is the most !iodiverse country in each category outside of the tropics. Wildlife in China share ha!itat %ith and !ear acute pressure from the %orld$s largest population of ho"o sa$i#ns. +t least ;J* animal species are threatened, vulnera!le or in danger of local ePtinction in China, due mainly to human activity such as ha!itat destruction, pollution and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional Chinese medicine./6860 'ndangered %ildlife is protected !y la%, and as of 8**4, the country has over 8,1J2 nature reserves, covering a total area of 6J2.24 million hectares, 64 percent of China$s total land area./6880 China has over 18,*** species of vascular plants,/6810 and is home to a variety of forest types. Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country, supporting animal species such as moose and +sian !lack !ear, along %ith over 68* !ird species./68J0 #he understorey of moist conifer forests may contain thickets of !am!oo. On higher montane stands of .uniper and ye%, the !am!oo is replaced !y rhododendrons. <u!tropical forests, %hich are predominate in central and southern China, support as many as 6J7,*** species of flora./68J0 #ropical and seasonal rainforests, though confined to Hunnan and Aainan Osland, contain a Fuarter of all the animal and plant species found in China./68J0 #he num!er of species of fungi recorded in China, including lichenBforming species, ePceeds 6*,***./6840 (ore than 4,*** species of "higher fungi" Q mainly !asidiomycetes %ith some ascomycetes Q %ere reported in 8**6 for tropical China alone,/6870 and nearly J,*** species of fungi %ere reported in 8**4 for north%estern China./68:0

Environmental issues
(ain article: 'nvironmental issues in China <ee also: Water resources of the People$s Repu!lic of China

Wind tur!ines in Cin.iang. #he Ga!ancheng pro.ect is +sia$s largest %ind farm. On recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution. /68;0/6820 While regulations such as the 62:2 'nvironmental Protection Da% are fairly stringent, they are poorly enforced, as they are freFuently disregarded !y local communities and government officials in favour of rapid economic development./61*0 =r!an air pollution is a severe health issue in the country, the World -ank estimated in 8*61 that 67 of the %orld$s mostBpolluted cities are located in China./6160 China is the %orld$s largest car!on dioPide emitter./6180 #he country also has %ater pro!lems. Roughly 82; million Chinese in rural areas do not have access to safe drinking %ater,/6110 and J*@ of China$s rivers had !een polluted !y industrial and agricultural %aste !y late 8*66./61J0 #his crisis is compounded !y increasingly severe %ater shortages, particularly in the northBeast of the country./6140/6170 Ao%ever, China is the %orld$s leading investor in rene%a!le energy commercialisation, %ith =<K48 !illion invested in 8*66 alone,/61:0/61;0/6120 it is a ma.or manufacturer of rene%a!le energy technologies and invests heavily in localBscale rene%a!le energy pro.ects./6J*0/6J60 -y

8**2, over 6:@ of China$s energy %as derived from rene%a!le sources Q most nota!ly hydroelectric po%er plants, of %hich China has a total installed capacity of 62: RW./6J80 On 8*66, the Chinese government announced plans to invest four trillion yuan =<K76;.44 !illion" in %ater infrastructure and desalination pro.ects over a tenByear period, and to complete construction of a flood prevention and antiBdrought system !y 8*8*./6140/6J10 On 8*61, China !egan a fiveByear, =<K8:: !illion effort to reduce air pollution, particularly in the north of the country./6JJ0

(ain article: Politics of the People$s Repu!lic of China #he People$s Repu!lic of China is one of the %orld$s fe% remaining socialist states espousing communism. #he Chinese government has !een variously descri!ed as communist and socialist, !ut also as authoritarian and corporatist,/6J40 %ith heavy restrictions remaining in many areas, most nota!ly on the Onternet, the press, freedom of assem!ly, reproductive rights, social organiSations/6J70 and freedom of religion./6J:0 Ots current political and economic system has !een termed !y its leaders as "socialism %ith Chinese characteristics". #he country is ruled !y the Communist Party of China CPC", %hose po%er is enshrined in China$s constitution./6J;0 #he Chinese electoral system is hierarchical, %here!y local People$s Congresses are directly elected, and all higher levels of People$s Congresses up to the &ational People$s Congress &PC" are indirectly elected !y the People$s Congress of the level immediately !elo%./6J20 #he political system is partly decentraliSed,/64*0 %ith limited democratic processes internal to the party and at local village levels, although these ePperiments have !een marred !y corruption. #here are other political parties in China, referred to in China as democratic parties, %hich participate in the &ational People$s Congress and the Chinese People$s Political Consultative Conference CPPCC".

#he Rreat Aall of the People in, %here the &ational People$s Congress convenes Compared to its closedBdoor policies until the midB62:*s, the li!eraliSation of China has resulted in the administrative climate !eing less restrictive than !efore. China supports the Deninist principle of "democratic centralism",/6460 !ut the elected &ational People$s Congress has !een descri!ed as a "ru!!er stamp" !ody./6480 #he incum!ent President is Ci Jinping, %ho is also the Reneral <ecretary of the Communist Party of China and the Chairman of the Central (ilitary Commission./240 #he current Premier is Di EeFiang, %ho is also a senior mem!er of the CPC Polit!uro <tanding Committee. #here have !een some moves to%ard political li!eraliSation, in that open contested elections are no% held at the village and to%n levels./6410/64J0 Ao%ever, the Party retains effective control over government appointments: in the a!sence of meaningful opposition, the CPC %ins !y default most of the time. Political concerns in China include the gro%ing gap !et%een rich and poor and government corruption./6440/6470 &onetheless, the level of pu!lic support for the

government and its management of the nation is among the highest in the %orld, %ith ;7@ of Chinese citiSens ePpressing satisfaction %ith their nation$s economy according to a 8**; Pe% Research Center survey./64:0

A&ministrative &ivisions
(ain articles: +dministrative divisions of China, Gistricts of Aong Eong, and (unicipalities of (acau #he People$s Repu!lic of China has administrative control over 88 provinces and considers #ai%an to !e its 81rd province, although #ai%an is currently governed !y the Repu!lic of China, %hich disputes the PRC$s claim./64;0 China also has five su!divisions officially termed autonomous regions, each %ith a designated minority group, four municipalities, and t%o <pecial +dministrative Regions <+Rs", %hich en.oy a degree of political autonomy. #hese 88 provinces, five autonomous regions, and four municipalities can !e collectively referred to as "mainland China", a term %hich usually ePcludes the <+Rs of Aong Eong and (acau. &one of these divisions are recogniSed !y the R?C government, %hich claims the entirety of the PRC$s territory. Provinces 05

+nhui " Fu.ian " Ransu " Ruangdong " RuiShou "

Aainan " Ae!ei " Aeilong.iang " Aenan " Au!ei "

Aunan " Jiangsu " JiangPi " Jilin " Diaoning "

Iinghai " <haanPi " <handong " <hanPi " <ichuan "

Hunnan " >he.iang "

Claimed Province #ai%an " governed !y R?C

Autonomous regions 05

7unicipalities 05

RuangPi " Onner (ongolia 9 /#i 0ongol " &ingPia " Cin.iang " #i!et 9 1izang " " ChongFing " <hanghai " "

'pecial a&ministrative regions 0 5 Aong Eong 9 1ianggang "

(acau 9 %o"#n "

oreign relations
(ain article: Foreign relations of China

Au Jintao %ith =< President Reorge W. -ush in 8**7 #he PRC has diplomatic relations %ith 6:6 countries and maintains em!assies in 678./6420 Ots legitimacy is disputed !y the Repu!lic of China and a fe% other countries, it is thus the largest and most populous state %ith limited recognition. On 62:6, the PRC replaced the Repu!lic of China as the sole representative of China in the =nited &ations and as one of the five permanent mem!ers of the =nited &ations <ecurity Council./67*0 China %as also a former mem!er and leader of the &onB+ligned (ovement, and still considers itself an advocate for developing countries./6760 +long %ith -raSil, Russia, Ondia and <outh +frica, China is a mem!er of the -ROC< group of emerging ma.or economies and hosted the group$s third official summit at <anya, Aainan in +pril 8*66./6780 =nder its interpretation of the ?neBChina policy, has made it a precondition to esta!lishing diplomatic relations that the other country ackno%ledges its claim to #ai%an and severs official ties %ith the government of the Repu!lic of China. Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions %hen foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to #ai%an,/6710 especially in the matter of armament sales./67J0 Political meetings !et%een foreign government officials and the 6Jth Galai Dama are also opposed !y China, as the latter considers #i!et to !e formally part of China./6740 (uch of current Chinese foreign policy is reportedly !ased on >hou 'nlai$s Five Principles of Peaceful CoePistence, and is also driven !y the concept of "harmony %ithout uniformity", %hich encourages diplomatic relations !et%een states despite ideological differences. #his policy has led China to support states that are regarded as dangerous or repressive !y Western nations, such as >im!a!%e, &orth Eorea and Oran./6770 China has a close economic and military relationship %ith Russia,/67:0 and the t%o states often vote in unison in the =& <ecurity Council./67;0/6720/6:*0

+ meeting of R4 leaders in 8**:, %ith China$s Au Jintao second from right $ra&e relations

On recent decades, China has played an increasing role in calling for free trade areas and security pacts amongst its +siaBPacific neigh!ors. On 8**J, it proposed an entirely ne% 'ast +sia <ummit '+<" frame%ork as a forum for regional security issues./6:60 #he '+<, %hich includes +<'+& Plus #hree, Ondia, +ustralia and &e% >ealand, held its inaugural summit in 8**4. China is also a founding mem!er of the <hanghai Cooperation ?rganisation <C?", along %ith Russia and the Central +sian repu!lics. China !ecame a mem!er of the World #rade ?rganiSation W#?" on 66 Gecem!er 8**6. On 8***, the =nited <tates Congress approved "permanent normal trade relations" P&#R" %ith China, allo%ing Chinese ePports in at the same lo% tariffs as goods from most other countries./6:80 China has a significant trade surplus %ith the =nited <tates, its most important ePport market./6:10 On the early 8*6*s, =< politicians argued that the Chinese yuan %as significantly undervalued, giving China an unfair trade advantage./6:J0/6:40/6:70 On recent decades, China has follo%ed a policy of engaging %ith +frican nations for trade and !ilateral coB operation,/6::0/6:;0/6:20 in 8*68, <inoB+frican trade totalled over =<K67* !illion./6;*0 China has furthermore strengthened its ties %ith ma.or <outh +merican economies, !ecoming the largest trading partner of -raSil and !uilding strategic links %ith +rgentina./6;60/6;80 $erritorial &isputes

(ap depicting territorial disputes !et%een the PRC and neigh!oring states. For a larger map, see here. (ain article: Foreign relations of ChinaWOnternational territorial disputes <ee also: Dist of %ars involving the People$s Repu!lic of China On addition to claiming all of #ai%an, China has !een involved in a num!er of other international territorial disputes. <ince the 622*s, China has !een involved in negotiations to resolve its disputed land !orders, including a disputed !order %ith Ondia and an undefined !order %ith -hutan. China is additionally involved in multilateral disputes over the o%nership of several small islands in the 'ast and <outh China <eas./6;10/6;J0 Emerging superpo,er status China is regularly hailed as a potential ne% superpo%er, %ith certain commentators citing its rapid economic progress, gro%ing military might, very large population, and increasing international influence as signs that it %ill play a prominent glo!al role in the 86st century./8*0 /6;40 ?thers, ho%ever, %arn that economic !u!!les and demographic im!alances could slo% or even halt China$s gro%th as the century progresses./6;70/6;:0 <ome authors also Fuestion the definition of "superpo%er", arguing that China$s large economy alone %ould not Fualify it as a

superpo%er, and noting that it lacks the military and cultural influence of the =nited <tates.

'ociopolitical issues an& reform

<ee also: Auman rights in China, Aukou system, <ocial %elfare in China, 'lections in the People$s Repu!lic of China, Censorship in China, and Feminism in China

ProBCantonese protests in RuangShou, 8*6* #he Chinese democracy movement, social activists, and some mem!ers of the Communist Party of China have all identified the need for social and political reform. While economic and social controls have !een significantly relaPed in China since the 62:*s, political freedom is still tightly restricted. #he Constitution of the People$s Repu!lic of China states that the "fundamental rights" of citiSens include freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the right to a fair trial, freedom of religion, universal suffrage, and property rights. Ao%ever, in practice, these provisions do not afford significant protection against criminal prosecution !y the state. /6;20/62*0/6260 Censorship of political speech and information, most nota!ly on the Onternet,/6280/6210 is openly and routinely used in China to silence criticism of the government and the ruling Communist Party./62J0/6240 On 8**4, Reporters Without -orders ranked China 642th out of 67: states in its +nnual World Press Freedom OndeP, indicating a very lo% level of perceived press freedom./6270 Rural migrants to China$s cities often find themselves treated as secondBclass citiSens !y the hu2ou household registration system, %hich controls access to state !enefits./62:0/62;0 Property rights are often poorly protected,/62:0 and taPation disproportionately affects poorer citiSens./62;0 Ao%ever, a num!er of rural taPes have !een reduced or a!olished since the early 8***s, and additional social services provided to rural d%ellers./6220/8**0 + num!er of foreign governments and &R?s also routinely criticiSe China$s human rights record, alleging %idespread civil rights violations such as detention %ithout trial, forced confessions, torture, restrictions of fundamental rights,/6J:0/8*60/8*80 and ePcessive use of the death penalty./8*10/8*J0 #he government has suppressed demonstrations !y organiSations that it considers a potential threat to "social sta!ility", as %as the case %ith the #iananmen <Fuare protests of 62;2. #he Chinese state is regularly accused of largeBscale repression and human rights a!uses in #i!et and Cin.iang, including violent police crackdo%ns and religious suppression./8*40/8*70 #he Chinese government has responded to foreign criticism !y arguing that the notion of human rights should take into account a country$s present level of economic development and the "people$s rights to su!sistence and development"./8*:0 Ot emphasiSes the rise in the Chinese standard of living, literacy rate and average life ePpectancy since the 62:*s, as %ell as

improvements in %orkplace safety and efforts to com!at natural disasters such as the perennial HangtSe River floods./8*:0/8*;0/8*20 Furthermore, some Chinese politicians have spoken out in support of democratisation, although others remain more conservative./86*0 <ome ma.or reform efforts have !een conducted, for an instance in &ovem!er 8*61, the government announced its plans to the a!olish the muchBcriticiSed reBeducation through la!or program./6*10 +lthough the Chinese government is increasingly tolerant of &R?s that offer practical, efficient solutions to social pro!lems, such "third sector" activity remains heavily regulated.

(ain article: People$s Di!eration +rmy

+ PD++F Chengdu JB6* fighter aircraft With 8.1 million active troops, the People$s Di!eration +rmy PD+" is the largest standing military force in the %orld, commanded !y the Central (ilitary Commission C(C"./8680 #he PD+ consists of the People$s Di!eration +rmy Rround Force PD+RF", the People$s Di!eration +rmy &avy PD+&", the People$s Di!eration +rmy +ir Force PD++F", and a strategic nuclear force, the <econd +rtillery Corps. +ccording to the Chinese government, China$s military ePpenditure in 8*68 totalled =<K6** !illion, constituting the %orld$s secondB largest military !udget./8610 Ao%ever, other nations, such as the =nited <tates, have claimed that China does not report its real level of military spending, %hich is allegedly much higher than the official !udget./86J0 +s a recognised nuclear %eapons state, China is considered !oth a ma.or regional military po%er and a potential military superpo%er./8640 +ccording to a 8*61 report !y the =< Gepartment of Gefense, China fields !et%een 4* and :4 nuclear OC-(s, along %ith a num!er of <R-(s./6;0 Ao%ever, compared %ith the other four =& <ecurity Council Permanent (em!ers, China has a relatively limited po%er pro.ection capa!ilities./8670 #o offset this, it has developed numerous po%er pro.ection assets Q its first aircraft carrier entered service in 8*68, /86:0/86;0/8620/88*0 and it maintains a su!stantial fleet of su!marines, including several nuclearB po%ered attack and !allistic missile su!marines./8860 China has furthermore esta!lished a net%ork of foreign military relationships that has !een compared to a string of pearls./8880

(em!ers of a Chinese military honor guard China has made significant progress in moderniSing its air force since the early 8***s, purchasing Russian fighter .ets such as the <ukhoi <uB1*, and also manufacturing its o%n modern fighters, most nota!ly the Chengdu JB6* and the <henyang JB66, JB64 and JB67./86:0/8810 China is furthermore engaged in developing an indigenous stealth aircraft and numerous com!at drones./88J0/8840/8870 China has also updated its ground forces, replacing its ageing <ovietBderived tank inventory %ith numerous variants of the modern #ype 22 tank, and upgrading its !attlefield C1O and CJO systems to enhance its net%orkBcentric %arfare capa!ilities./88:0 On addition, China has developed or acFuired numerous advanced missile systems,/88;0/8820 including antiBsatellite missiles,/81*0 cruise missiles/8160 and su!marineBlaunched nuclear OC-(s./8180

(ain articles: 'conomy of China, +griculture in China, and Dist of Chinese administrative divisions !y RGP

#he <hanghai <tock 'Pchange !uilding in <hanghai$s Du.iaSui financial district. <hanghai has the 84thBlargest city RGP in the %orld, totalling =<K1*J !illion in 8*66./8110 +s of 8*61, China has the %orld$s secondBlargest economy in terms of nominal RGP, totalling approPimately =<K;.88: trillion according to the Onternational (onetary Fund O(F"./660 Of purchasing po%er parity PPP" is taken into account =<K68.J*4 trillion in 8*68", China$s economy is again second only to the =nited <tates. On 8*68, its PPP RGP per capita %as =<K2,676,/660 %hile nominal RGP per capita %as =<K7,*:4. -oth cases put China !ehind around ninety countries out of 6;1 countries on the O(F list" in glo!al RGP per capita rankings./660

Economic history an& gro,th

(ain article: 'conomic history of China 62J2Qpresent" From its founding in 62J2 until late 62:;, the People$s Repu!lic of China %as a <ovietBstyle centrally planned economy. Follo%ing (ao$s death in 62:7 and the conseFuent end of the Cultural Revolution, Geng Ciaoping and the ne% Chinese leadership !egan to reform the economy and move to%ards a more marketBoriented miPed economy under oneBparty rule. +gricultural collectiviSation %as dismantled and farmlands privatiSed, %hile foreign trade !ecame a ma.or ne% focus, leading to the creation of <pecial 'conomic >ones <'>s". Onefficient stateBo%ned enterprises <?'s" %ere restructured and unprofita!le ones %ere closed outright, resulting in massive .o! losses. (odernBday China is mainly characteriSed as

having a market economy !ased on private property o%nership,/81J0 and is one of the leading ePamples of state capitalism./8140/8170 #he state still dominates in strategic "pillar" sectors such as energy production and heavy industries, !ut private enterprise has ePpanded enormously, %ith around 1* million private !usinesses recorded in 8**;./81:0/81;0/8120/8J*0

& Road, a ma.or shopping street in <hanghai <ince economic li!eraliSation !egan in 62:;, China$s investmentB and ePportBled/8J60 economy has gro%n more than a hundredfold/8J80 and is the fastestBgro%ing ma.or economy in the %orld./8J10 +ccording to the O(F, China$s annual average RGP gro%th !et%een 8**6 and 8*6* %as 6*.4@. -et%een 8**: and 8*66, China$s economic gro%th rate %as eFuivalent to all of the R: countries$ gro%th com!ined./8JJ0 +ccording to the Rlo!al Rro%th Renerators indeP announced !y Citigroup in Fe!ruary 8*66, China has a very high 1R gro%th rating./8J40 Ots high productivity, lo% la!or costs and relatively good infrastructure have made it a glo!al leader in manufacturing. Ao%ever, the Chinese economy is highly energyBintensive and inefficient,/8J70 China !ecame the %orld$s largest energy consumer in 8*6*,/8J:0 relies on coal to supply over :*@ of its energy needs, and surpassed the =< to !ecome the %orld$s largest oil importer in <eptem!er 8*61./8J;0/8J20 China$s economic gro%th and industrialiSation has damaged its environment. On the early 8*6*s, China$s economic gro%th rate !egan to slo% amid domestic credit trou!les, %eakening international demand for Chinese ePports, and glo!al economic turmoil./84*0/8460/8480

China in the global economy

China is a mem!er of the W#? and is the %orld$s largest trading po%er, %ith a total international trade value of =<K1.;: trillion in 8*68./6:0 Ots foreign ePchange reserves reached =<K8.;4 trillion !y the end of 8*6*, an increase of 6;.:@ over the previous year, making its reserves !y far the %orld$s largest./8410/84J0 +s of 8**2, China o%ns an estimated K6.7 trillion of =< securities./8440 China, holding over =<K6.67 trillion in =< #reasury !onds,/8470 is the largest foreign holder of =< pu!lic de!t./84:0/84;0 On 8*68, China %as the %orld$s largest recipient of in%ard foreign direct investment FGO", attracting K841 !illion./8420 China also invests a!road, %ith a total out%ard FGO of K78.J !illion in 8*68,/8420 and a num!er of ma.or takeovers of foreign firms !y Chinese companies./87*0 China$s undervalued ePchange rate has caused friction %ith other ma.or economies,/6:40/8760/8780 and it has also !een %idely criticised for manufacturing large Fuantities of counterfeit goods./8710/87J0

+ graph comparing the 8*68 nominal RGPs of ma.or economies in =<K !illions, according to O(F data/8740

China ranked 82th in the Rlo!al Competitiveness OndeP in 8**2,/8770 although it is only ranked 617th among the 6:2 countries measured in the 8*66 OndeP of 'conomic Freedom./87:0 On 8*66, 76 Chinese companies %ere listed in the Fortune Rlo!al 4**./87;0 (easured !y total revenues, three of the %orld$s top ten most valua!le companies in 8*66 %ere Chinese, including fifthBranked <inopec Rroup, siPthBranked China &ational Petroleum and seventhB ranked <tate Rrid the %orld$s largest electric utilities company"./87;0

Class an& income e8uality

<ee also: Oncome ineFuality in China China$s middleBclass population defined as those %ith annual income of at least =<K6:,***" had reached more than 6** million !y 8*66./8720 +ccording to the Aurun Report, the num!er of =< dollar !illionaires in China increased from 61* in 8**2 to 846 in 8*68, giving China the %orld$s secondBhighest num!er of !illionaires./8:*0/8:60 China$s domestic retail market %as %orth over 8* trillion yuan =<K1.8 trillion" in 8*68/8:80 and is gro%ing at over 68@ annually as of 8*61,/8:10 %hile the country$s luPury goods market has ePpanded immensely, %ith 8:.4@ of the glo!al share./8:J0 Ao%ever, in recent years, China$s rapid economic gro%th has contri!uted to severe consumer inflation,/8:40/8:70 leading to increased government regulation. /8::0 China has a high level of economic ineFuality,/8:;0 %hich has increased in the past fe% decades./8:20 On 8*68, China$s Rini coefficient %as *.J:J./680

"nternationali%ation of the renminbi

(ain article: OnternationaliSation of the renmin!i On &ovem!er 8*6*, Russia !egan using the Chinese renmin!i in its !ilateral trade %ith China. /8;*0 #his %as soon follo%ed !y Japan,/8;60 +ustralia,/8;80 <ingapore,/8;10 and the =nited Eingdom./8;J0 +s a result of the rapid internationaliSation of the renmin!i, it !ecame the eighthBmostBtraded currency in the %orld in 8*61./8;40 +ccording to the <ociety for World%ide Onter!ank Financial #elecommunication <WOF#", the path of R(- internationalisation can !e divided into three phases: 6. =sage of the R(- in trade finance 8. =sage of the R(- in international investments 1. 'sta!lishment of the R(- as a reserve currency/8;70

'cience an& technology

!istory of science an& technology in China

Onventions Giscoveries 6y era Aan Gynasty #ang Gynasty <ong Gynasty People$s Repu!lic of China PresentBday China #his !oP: vie% talk


(ain articles: <cience and technology in China and Chinese space program

China %as a %orld leader in science and technology until the (ing Gynasty. +ncient Chinese discoveries and inventions, such as papermaking, printing, the compass, and gunpo%der the Four Rreat Onventions", later !ecame %idespread in +sia and 'urope. Chinese mathematicians %ere the first to use negative num!ers./8;:0/8;;0 Ao%ever, !y the 6:th century, the Western %orld had surpassed China in scientific and technological development./8;20 #he causes of this Rreat Givergence continue to !e de!ated. +fter repeated military defeats !y Western nations in the 62th century, Chinese reformers !egan promoting modern science and technology as part of the <elfB<trengthening (ovement. +fter the Communists came to po%er in 62J2, efforts %ere made to organiSe science and technology !ased on the model of the <oviet =nion, in %hich scientific research %as part of central planning./82*0 +fter (ao$s death in 62:7, science and technology %as esta!lished as one of the Four (oderniSations,/8260 and the <ovietBinspired academic system %as gradually reformed./8280

7o&ern era
<ince the end of the Cultural Revolution, China has made significant investments in scientific research,/8210 spending over =<K6** !illion on scientific research and development in 8*66 alone./82J0 <cience and technology are seen as vital for achieving economic and political goals, and are held as a source of national pride to a degree sometimes descri!ed as "technoB nationalism"./8240 ChineseB!orn scientists have %on the &o!el PriSe in Physics four times and the &o!el PriSe in Chemistry once to date.

#he launch of a Chinese Dong (arch 1- rocket. China is rapidly developing its education system %ith an emphasis on science, mathematics and engineering, in 8**2, it produced over 6*,*** Ph.G. engineering graduates, and as many as 4**,*** -<c graduates, more than any other country./8270 China is also the %orld$s secondB largest pu!lisher of scientific papers, producing 686,4** in 8*6* alone, including 4,8** in leading international scientific .ournals./82:0 Chinese technology companies such as Aua%ei and Denovo have !ecome %orld leaders in telecommunications and personal computing,/82;0 /8220/1**0 and Chinese supercomputers are consistently ranked among the %orld$s most po%erful. /1*60/1*80 China is furthermore the %orld$s largest investor in rene%a!le energy technology./6120 #he Chinese space program is one of the %orld$s most active, and is a ma.or source of national pride./1*10/1*J0 On 62:*, China launched its first satellite, Gong Fang Aong O. On 8**1, China !ecame the third country to independently send humans into space, %ith Hang Di%ei$s spaceflight a!oard <henShou 4, as of June 8*61, ten Chinese nationals have .ourneyed into space. On 8*66, China$s first space station module, #iangongB6, %as launched, marking the first step in a pro.ect to assem!le a large manned station !y the early 8*8*s./1*40

(ain article: #elecommunications in China China currently has the largest num!er of active cellphones of any country in the %orld, %ith over 6 !illion users !y Fe!ruary 8*68./1*70 Ot also has the %orld$s largest num!er of internet and !road!and users,/1*:0 %ith over 426 million internet users as of 8*61, eFuivalent to around JJ@ of its population./1*;0 + 8*61 report found that the national average internet connection speed is 1.6J (-9s./1*20 +s of July 8*61, China accounts for 8J@ of the %orld$s internetB connected devices./16*0 China #elecom and China =nicom, the country$s t%o largest !road!and providers, accounted for 8*@ of glo!al !road!and su!scri!ers, %hereas the %orld$s ten largest !road!and service providers com!ined accounted for 12@ of the %orld$s !road!and customers. China #elecom alone serves more than 4* million !road!and su!scri!ers, %hile China =nicom serves more

than J* million./1660 <everal Chinese telecommunications companies, most nota!ly Aua%ei and >#', have !een accused of spying for the Chinese military./1680

(ain article: #ransport in China

Jingshen 'Ppress%ay <ince the late 622*s, China$s national road net%ork has !een significantly ePpanded through the creation of a net%ork of high%ays, kno%n as the &ational #runk Aigh%ay <ystem &#A<". On 8*66 China$s high%ays had reached a total length of ;4,*** km 41,*** mi", making it the longest high%ay system in the %orld./1610 Private car o%nership is gro%ing rapidly in China, %hich surpassed the =nited <tates as the %orld$s largest automo!ile market in 8**2, %ith total car sales of over 61.7 million./16J0 +nalysts predict that annual car sales in China may rise as high as J* million !y 8*8*./1640 + sideBeffect of the rapid gro%th of China$s road net%ork has !een a significant rise in traffic accidents,/1670 %ith poorly enforced traffic la%s cited as a possi!le causeXin 8*66 alone, around 78,*** Chinese died in road accidents. /16:0 On ur!an areas, !icycles remain a common mode of transport, despite the increasing prevalence of automo!iles Q as of 8*68, there are approPimately J:* million !icycles in China./16;0 China$s rail%ays, o%ned !y the state,/1620 are the !usiest in the %orld, handling a Fuarter of the %orld$s cargo and passenger travel./18*0 Gue to huge demand, the system is regularly su!.ect to overcro%ding, particularly during holiday seasons, such as Chunyun during the Chinese &e% Hear./18*0 #he Chinese rail net%ork carried an estimated 6.7; !illion total passengers in 8*6* alone./1860

+ highBspeed maglev train leaving Pudong Onternational +irport, <hanghai, in 8**7. China also possesses over 2,7:7 km 7,*68 mi" of highBspeed rail./1880 On Gecem!er 8*68, China opened the %orld$s longest highBspeed rail line, running from to RuangShou./1810 China intends to operate approPimately 67,*** km 2,2** mi" of highBspeed rail lines !y 8*8*./1860 Rapid transit systems are also rapidly developing in China$s ma.or cities, in the form

of net%orks of underground or light rail systems./18J0 China is additionally developing its o%n satellite navigation system, du!!ed -eidou, %hich !egan offering commercial navigation services across +sia in 8*68,/1840 and is planned to offer glo!al coverage !y 8*8*./1870 +s of 8*61, more than t%oBthirds of airports under construction %orld%ide are in China,/18:0 and -oeing ePpects that China$s fleet of active commercial aircraft in China %ill gro% from 6,26* to 8*66 to 4,2;* in 8*16./18:0 Ao%ever, ;*@ of China$s airspace remains restricted for military use, and Chinese airlines made up eight of the 6* %orstBperforming +sian airlines in terms of delays./18;0

(ain article: Gemographics of China

+ 8**2 population density map of the People$s Repu!lic of China. #he eastern coastal provinces are much more densely populated than the %estern interior. #he national census of 8*6* recorded the population of the People$s Repu!lic of China as approPimately 6,1:*,417,;:4. +!out 67.7*@ of the population %ere 6J years old or younger, :*.6J@ %ere !et%een 64 and 42 years old, and 61.87@ %ere over 7* years old./1820 #he population gro%th rate for 8*61 is estimated to !e *.J7@./11*0 +lthough a middleBincome country !y Western standards, China$s rapid gro%th has pulled hundreds of millions of its people out of poverty since 62:;. #oday, a!out 6*@ of the Chinese population lives !elo% the poverty line of =<K6 per day, do%n from 7J@ in 62:;. =r!an unemployment in China reportedly declined to J@ !y the end of 8**:, although true overall unemployment may !e as high as 6*@./1160 With a population of over 6.1 !illion and d%indling natural resources, China is very concerned a!out its population gro%th rate and has attempted, %ith miPed results,/1180 to implement a strict family planning policy, kno%n as the "oneBchild policy." #his seeks to restrict families to one child each, %ith ePceptions for ethnic minorities and a degree of flePi!ility in rural areas. China$s family planning minister indicated in 8**; that the oneBchild policy %ould !e maintained until at least 8*8*,/1110 although a ma.or loosening of the policy %as announced in 8*61./6*10 #he oneBchild policy is resisted, particularly in rural areas, primarily !ecause of the need for agricultural la!our and a traditional preference for !oys. Families %ho !reach the policy often lie during the census./11J0 Gata from the 8*6* census implies that the total fertility rate may no% !e around 6.J./1140

Population of China from 62J2 to 8**;. #he policy, along %ith traditional preference for !oys, may !e contri!uting to an im!alance in the seP ratio at !irth./1170/11:0 +ccording to the 8*6* census, the seP ration at !irth %as 66;.*7 !oys for every 6** girls,/11;0 %hich is !eyond the normal range of around 6*4 !oys for every 6** girls./1120 #he 8*6* census found that males accounted for 46.8: percent of the total population./11;0 Ao%ever, it also found that China$s seP ratio is more !alanced than it %as first taken into account in the census in 6241, %hen males accounted for 46.;8 percent of the total population./11;0

Ethnic groups
(ain articles: Dist of ethnic groups in China, 'thnic minorities in China, and 'thnic groups in Chinese history China officially recogniSes 47 distinct ethnic groups, the largest of %hich are the Aan Chinese, %ho constitute a!out 26.46@ of the total population./20 #he Aan Chinese Q the %orld$s largest single ethnic group/1J*0 Q outnum!er other ethnic groups in every provincialB level division ePcept #i!et and Cin.iang./1J60 'thnic minorities account for a!out ;.J2@ of the population of China, according to the 8*6* census./20 Compared %ith the 8*** population census, the Aan population increased !y 77,41:,6:: persons, or 4.:J@, %hile the population of the 44 national minorities com!ined increased !y :,178,78: persons, or 7.28@./20 #he 8*6* census recorded a total of 421,;18 foreign citiSens living in China. #he largest such groups %ere from <outh Eorea 68*,:4*", the =nited <tates :6,J21" and Japan 77,642"./1J80

(ain articles: Danguages of China and Dist of endangered languages in China

622* map of Chinese ethnolinguistic groups. #he languages most spoken in China !elong to the <inoB#i!etan language family. #here are also several ma.or linguistic groups %ithin the Chinese language itself. #he most spoken varieties are (andarin spoken !y :*@ of the population/1J10", Wu includes <hanghainese", Hue includes Cantonese and #aishanese", (in includes Aokkien and #eoche%", Ciang, Ran, and Aakka. &onB<initic languages spoken %idely !y ethnic minorities include >huang, (ongolian, #i!etan, =yghur, Among and Eorean./1JJ0 <tandard (andarin, a variety of (andarin !ased on the dialect, is the official national language of China and is used as a lingua franca !et%een people of different linguistic !ackgrounds. Classical Chinese %as the %ritten standard in China for thousands of years, and allo%ed for %ritten communication !et%een speakers of various unintelligi!le languages and dialects in China. Written vernacular Chinese, or 3aihua, is the %ritten standard, !ased on the (andarin dialect and first populariSed in (ing Gynasty novels. Ot %as adopted, %ith significant modifications, during the early 8*th century as the national standard. Classical Chinese is still part of the high school curriculum, and is thus intelligi!le to some degree to many Chinese. <ince their promulgation !y the government in 6247, <implified Chinese characters have !ecome the official standardiSed %ritten script used to %rite the Chinese language %ithin mainland China, supplanting the use of the earlier #raditional Chinese characters.

<ee also: Dist of cities in China, Dist of cities in China !y population, and (etropolitan regions of China China has ur!aniSed significantly in the past fe% decades. #he percent of the country$s population living in ur!an areas has increased from 8*@ in 622* to J7@ in 8**:./1J40 Ot is estimated that China$s ur!an population %ill reach one !illion !y 8*1*./1J40 +s of 8*68, there are more than 878 million migrant %orkers in China./1J70 (ost of them are from rural areas and seek %ork in the cities. China has over 67* cities %ith a population of over one million,/1J:0 including the seven megacities cities %ith a population of over 6* million" of ChongFing, <hanghai,, RuangShou,, <henShen, and Wuhan./1J;0/1J20/14*0 -y 8*84, it is estimated that the country %ill !e home to 886 cities %ith over a million inha!itants./1J40 #he figures in the ta!le !elo%

are from the 8*6* census,/10 and are only estimates of the ur!an populations %ithin administrative city limits, a different ranking ePists %hen considering the total municipal populations %hich includes su!ur!an and rural populations". #he large "floating populations" of migrant %orkers make conducting censuses in ur!an areas difficult,/1460 the figures !elo% include only longBterm residents.

v t e

Largest cities or to,ns of China

<iPth &ational Population Census of the People$s Repu!lic of China 8*6*" Ran: ;ame Province 6 'hanghai <hanghai 8 6ei<ing 1 Chong8ing ChongFing J $ian<in 4 Guang%hou Ruangdong 7 'hen%hen Ruangdong : >uhan Au!ei ; Dongguan Ruangdong 2 Cheng&u <ichuan Pop/ Ran: ;ame 88,164,J87 66 ;an<ing 6;,;8:,*** 68 'henyang 64,82J,844 61 !ang%hou 66,*2*,16J 6J !arbin 66,*:*,74J 64 'u%hou 6*,14:,21; 67 =inan 6*,68*,*** 6: ?i'an ;,88*,21: 6; >u.i :,681,72: 62 !efei Province Jiangsu Diaoning >he.iang Aeilong.iang Jiangsu <handong <haanPi Jiangsu +nhui Pop/ 7,;48,2;J 4,:J1,:6; 4,724,161 J,46:,4J2 J,*:J,*** 1,288,6;* 1,;2*,*2; 1,4J8,162 1,148,*:7 1,1J6,:**


6* !ong @ong Aong Eong :,*44,*:6 8* Changchun Jilin

(ain articles: 'ducation in the People$s Repu!lic of China and Dist of universities in China$s #singhua =niversity, %idely considered one of the !est universities in China. On 62;7, China set the longBterm goal of providing compulsory !asic education to every child. On Fe!ruary 8**7, the government pledged to provide completely free nineByear education, including tePt!ooks and fees./1480 +nnual education investment has gone from less than =<K4* !illion in 8**1 to more than =<K84* !illion in 8*66./1410 Ao%ever, there remains an ineFuality in education spending. On 8*6*, the annual education ePpenditure per secondary school student in totaled 8*,*81 yuan, %hile in RuiShou, one of the poorest provinces in China, only totaled 1,8*J yuan./14J0 Free compulsory education in China consists of

elementary school and middle school !et%een the ages of 7 and 64. On 8*66, around ;6.J@ of Chinese have received secondary education./1440 -y 8**:, there %ere 127,47: primary schools, 2J,667 secondary schools, and 8,817 higher education institutions in China./1470 +s of 8*6*, 2J@ of the population over age 64 are literate,/14:0 compared to only 8*@ in 624*. /14;0 On 8**2, Chinese students from <hanghai achieved the %orld$s !est results in mathematics, science and literacy, as tested !y the Programme for Onternational <tudent +ssessment PO<+", a %orld%ide evaluation of 64ByearBold school pupils$ scholastic performance./1420

(ain article: Aealth in China <ee also: Pharmaceutical industry in China

Chart sho%ing the rise of China$s Auman Gevelopment OndeP from 62:* to 8*6*. #he (inistry of Aealth, together %ith its counterparts in the provincial health !ureauP, oversees the health needs of the Chinese population./17*0 +n emphasis on pu!lic health and preventive medicine has characteriSed Chinese health policy since the early 624*s. +t that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Aealth Campaign, %hich %as aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as %ell as treating and preventing several diseases. Giseases such as cholera, typhoid and scarlet fever, %hich %ere previously rife in China, %ere nearly eradicated !y the campaign. +fter Geng Ciaoping !egan instituting economic reforms in 62:;, the health of the Chinese pu!lic improved rapidly due to !etter nutrition, although many of the free pu!lic health services provided in the countryside disappeared along %ith the People$s Communes. Aealthcare in China !ecame mostly privatised, and ePperienced a significant rise in Fuality. On 8**2, the government !egan a 1Byear largeBscale healthcare provision initiative %orth =<K68J !illion./1760 -y 8*66, the campaign resulted in 24@ of China$s population having !asic health insurance coverage./1780 On 8*66, China %as estimated to !e the %orld$s thirdBlargest supplier of pharmaceuticals, !ut its population has suffered from the development and distri!ution of counterfeit medications./1710 Dife ePpectancy at !irth in China is :4 years,/17J0 and the infant mortality rate is 68 per thousand./1740 -oth have improved significantly since the 624*s./l0 Rates of stunting, a condition caused !y malnutrition, have declined from 11.6@ in 622* to 2.2@ in 8*6*./17;0 Gespite significant improvements in health and the construction of advanced medical facilities, China has several emerging pu!lic health pro!lems, such as respiratory illnesses caused !y %idespread air pollution,/1720 hundreds of millions of cigarette smokers,/1:*0 and an increase in o!esity among ur!an youths./1:60/1:80 China$s large population and densely populated cities have led to serious disease out!reaks in recent years, such as the 8**1 out!reak of <+R<, although this has since !een largely contained./1:10 On 8*6*, air pollution caused 6.8 million premature deaths in China./1:J0

(ain article: Religion in China

#he RuoFing #emple on (ount #iantai, !uilt in 42; C', %as the founding site of the #iantai !ranch of Chinese -uddhism. Freedom of religion is guaranteed !y China$s constitution, although religious organiSations %hich lack official approval can !e su!.ect to state persecution./8*60/1:40 'stimates of religious demographics in China vary. + 8**: survey found that 16.J percent of Chinese a!ove the age of 67 %ere religious,/1:70 %hile a 8**7 study found that J7@ of the Chinese population %ere religious./1::0 ?ver the millennia, the Chinese civiliSation has !een influenced !y various religious movements. China$s 4an Jiao "three doctrines" or "three religions"" include Confucianism,/m0 -uddhism, and #aoism, and historically have had a significant impact in shaping Chinese culture./1:20/1;*0 <yncretism of these three !elief systems, often in the form of popular or folk religious !eliefs, remains a common phenomenon in China./1;60 + 8**; survey of rural villagers in siP provinces found that "more than t%oBthirds of selfBproclaimed religious !elievers or 16.*2@ of all sample villagers" do not or cannot clearly identify their faith...#hese people !elieve that there are supernatural po%ers that dominate or strongly influence the fate of human !eings, and they think their fates can !e changed through offering sacrifices to gods or ancestors. #hese !eliefs and practices are often deeply rooted in traditional Chinese cultures and customs of local communities."/1::0 + 8**: survey !y the AoriSon Research Consultancy Rroup found that individuals %ho selfB identify as -uddhists made up 66Q67@ of China$s adult population, %hile Christians comprised around 1QJ@, and (uslims comprised approPimately 6@./1;80 <ome of the ethnic minorities of China practice uniFue ethnic religions Q Gong!aism is the traditional religion of the &akhi people, (oism that of the >huang people, and Ruism that of the Iiang people. #he traditional indigenous religion of #i!et is -Yn, %hile most #i!etans follo% #i!etan -uddhism, a form of )a.rayana./1;10

(ain articles: Chinese culture and Culture of the People$s Repu!lic of China

+ traditional opera !eing performed.$s For!idden City, sho%ing its classical Chinese architectural style. <ince ancient times, Chinese culture has !een heavily influenced !y Confucianism and conservative philosophies. For much of the country$s dynastic era, opportunities for social advancement could !e provided !y high performance in the prestigious imperial ePaminations, %hich have their origins in the Aan Gynasty./1;J0 #he literary emphasis of the ePams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China, such as the !elief that calligraphy, poetry and painting %ere higher forms of art than dancing or drama. Chinese culture has long emphasiSed a sense of deep history and a largely in%ardBlooking national perspective./8*0 'Paminations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today. #he first leaders of the People$s Repu!lic of China %ere !orn into the traditional imperial order, !ut %ere influenced !y the (ay Fourth (ovement and reformist ideals. #hey sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sePism, and the Confucian system of education, %hile preserving others, such as the family structure and culture of o!edience to the state. <ome o!servers see the period follo%ing the esta!lishment of the PRC in 62J2 as a continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history, %hile others claim that the Communist Party$s rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture, especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution of the 627*s, %here many aspects of traditional culture %ere destroyed, having !een denounced as "regressive and harmful" or "vestiges of feudalism". (any important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, art, literature, and performing arts like Peking opera,/1;40 %ere altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time. +ccess to foreign media remains heavily restricted, only 1J foreign films a year are allo%ed to !e sho%n in Chinese cinemas./1;70 #oday, the Chinese government has accepted numerous elements of traditional Chinese culture as !eing integral to Chinese society. With the rise of Chinese nationalism and the end of the Cultural Revolution, various forms of traditional Chinese art, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival,/1;:0/1;;0 and folk and variety art in particular have sparked interest nationally and even %orld%ide./1;20 China is no% the thirdB mostBvisited country in the %orld,/12*0 %ith 44.: million in!ound international visitors in 8*6*.


Ot also ePperiences an enormous volume of domestic tourism, an estimated :J* million Chinese holidaymakers travelled %ithin the country in ?cto!er 8*68 alone./1280

#raditional Chinese food in, including dumpling and guo!acai.

(ain article: Chinese cuisine Chinese cuisine is highly diverse, dra%ing on several millennia of culinary history. #he dynastic emperors of ancient China %ere kno%n to host !anFuets %ith over 6** dishes served at a time,/1210 employing countless imperial kitchen staff and concu!ines to prepare the food. <uch royal dishes gradually !ecame a part of %ider Chinese culture. China$s staple food is rice, !ut the country is also %ell kno%n for its meat dishes. <pices are central to Chinese cuisine. &umerous foreign offshoots of Chinese food, such as Aong Eong cuisine and +merican Chinese food, have emerged in the various nations %hich play host to the Chinese diaspora.

(ain articles: <port in the People$s Repu!lic of China and China at the ?lympics

Gragon !oat racing, a popular traditional Chinese sport. China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the %orld. #here is evidence that a form of association foot!all %as played in China around 6*** +G./12J0 #oday, some of the most popular sports in the country include martial arts, !asket!all, foot!all, ta!le tennis, !adminton, s%imming and snooker. -oard games such as go kno%n as 5#iqi in China", PiangFi, and more recently chess, are also played at a professional level./1240 Physical fitness is %idely emphasiSed in Chinese culture, %ith morning ePercises such as qigong and !6ai chi ch6uan %idely practiced,/1270 and commercial gyms and fitness clu!s

gaining popularity in the country./12:0 Houng people in China are also keen on foot!all and !asket!all, especially in ur!an centers %ith limited space and grass areas. #he +merican &ational -asket!all +ssociation has a huge follo%ing among Chinese youths, %ith ethnic Chinese players such as Hao (ing !eing held in high esteem./12;0 On addition, China is home to a huge num!er of cyclists, %ith an estimated J:* million !icycles as of 8*68./16;0 (any more traditional sports, such as dragon !oat racing, (ongolianBstyle %restling and horse racing are also popular./1220 China has participated in the ?lympic Rames since 6218, although it has only participated as the PRC since 6248. China hosted the 8**; <ummer ?lympics in, %here its athletes received 46 gold medals Q the highest num!er of gold medals of any participating nation that year./J**0 China also %on the most medals of any nation at the 8*68 <ummer Paralympics, %ith 816 overall, including 24 gold medals./J*60/J*80 China hosted the 8*61 'ast +sian Rames in and %ill host the 8*6J <ummer Houth ?lympics in &

'ee also
China portal People's Republic o China portal !sia portal

OndeP of ChinaBrelated articles Onternational rankings of China ?utline of China

6. 8. 1. J. =ump up A ?r previously" "Peking". =ump up A Portuguese (acau only", 'nglish Aong Eong only". =ump up A 'thnic minorities that are recogniSed officially. =ump up A Ci Jinping holds four concurrent positions: Reneral <ecretary of the Communist Party of China, President of the People$s Repu!lic of China, and Chairman of the Central (ilitary Commission for !oth state and party./J0 4. =ump up A #he area given is the official =nited &ations figure for the mainland and ePcludes Aong Eong, (acau and #ai%an./40 Ot also ePcludes the #ransB Earakoram #ract 4,;** km8 8,8** sF mi", +ksai Chin 1:,8JJ km8 6J,1;* sF mi" and other territories in dispute %ith Ondia. #he total area of China is listed as 2,4:8,2** km8 1,727,6** sF mi" !y the +ncyclo$,-ia .ri!annica./70 For further information, see #erritorial changes of the People$s Repu!lic of China. 7. =ump up A #his figure %as calculated using data from the CO+ World Fact!ook./:0 :. =ump up A 'Pcept Aong Eong and (acau. ;. =ump up A #he total area ranking relative to the =nited <tates depends on the measurement of the total areas of China and the =nited <tates. <ee Dist of countries and outlying territories !y area for more information. 2. =ump up A Z: 6*. =ump up A +ccording to the +ncyclo$,-ia .ri!annica, the total area of the =nited <tates, at 2,488,*44 km8 1,7:7,J;7 sF mi", is slightly smaller than that of

China. (ean%hile, the CO+ World Fact!ook states that China$s total area %as greater than that of the =nited <tates until the coastal %aters of the Rreat Dakes %as added to the =nited <tates$ total area in 6227. From 62;2 through 6227, the total area of =< %as listed as 2,1:8,76* km8 1,76;,:;* sF mi" land area plus inland %ater only". #he listed total area changed to 2,782,*26 km8 1,:6:,;61 sF mi" in 622: %ith the Rreat Dakes areas and the coastal %aters added", to 2,716,J6; km8 1,:6;,:66 sF mi" in 8**J, to 2,716,J8* km8 1,:6;,:6* sF mi" in 8**7, and to 2,;87,71* km8 1,:2J,*;* sF mi" in 8**: territorial %aters added". 66. =ump up A China$s !order %ith Pakistan and part of its !order %ith Ondia falls in the disputed region of Eashmir. #he area under Pakistani administration is claimed !y Ondia, %hile the area under Ondian administration is claimed !y Pakistan. 68. =ump up A #he national life ePpectancy at !irth rose from a!out 16 years in 62J2 to :4 years in 8**;,/1770 and infant mortality decreased from 1** per thousand in the 624*s to around 11 per thousand in 8**6./17:0 61. =ump up A Whether or not Confucianism can !e classified as a religion is disputed./1:;0

6. =ump up A Chan, Eam Wing 8**:". "(isconceptions and ComplePities in the <tudy of China$s Cities: Gefinitions, <tatistics, and Omplications". +urasian 7#ogra$hy an- +cono"ics 4B J": 1;1QJ68. doi:6*.8:J:9641;B:867.J;.J.1;1. +rchived from the original on 64 January 8*61. Retrieved : +ugust 8*66. p. 124 8. [ Jump up to: a b "Da% of the People$s Repu!lic of China on the <tandard <poken and Written Chinese Danguage ?rder of the President &o.1:"". Chinese Rovernment. 16 ?cto!er 8***. Retrieved 86 June 8*61. "For purposes of this Da%, the standard spoken and %ritten Chinese language means Putonghua a common speech %ith pronunciation !ased on the dialect" and the standardiSed Chinese characters." 1. [ Jump up to: a b "#a!ulation of the 8*6* Census of the People$s Repu!lic of China". China <tatistics Press. J. =ump up A "&e% man at helm: Ci Jinping elected to lead China". 64 &ovem!er 8*68. Retrieved 8 January 8*61. 4. [ Jump up to: a b "Gemographic Hear!ookX#a!le 1: Population !y seP, rate of population increase, surface area and density". =& <tatistics. 8**:. Retrieved 16 July 8*6*. 7. =ump up A "China". 'ncyclopaedia -ritannica. Retrieved 67 &ovem!er 8*68. :. [ Jump up to: a b c "CO+ Q #he World Fact!ook". Retrieved 81 &ovem!er 8*61. ;. =ump up A "Population #otal"". #he World -ank. Retrieved 84 &ovem!er 8*61. 2. [ Jump up to: a b c d "CommuniFuU of the &ational -ureau of <tatistics of People$s Repu!lic of China on (a.or Figures of the 8*6* Population Census &o. 6"". &ational -ureau of <tatistics of China. 8; +pril 8*66. Retrieved 6J June 8*61. 6*. =ump up A "Population density people per sF. km of land area"". World -ank. Retrieved 6 Gecem!er 8*61. 66. [ Jump up to: a b c d e g "World 'conomic ?utlook Gata!ase: China". Onternational (onetary Fund. ?cto!er 8*61 data. Retrieved 8: ?cto!er 8*61. 68. [ Jump up to: a b "Oncome ineFuality: Gelta !lues". 8h# +cono"is!. 81 January 8*61. Retrieved 81 January 8*61.


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17;. =ump up A <tone, R. 8*68". "Gespite Rains, (alnutrition +mong China$s Rural Poor <parks Concern". 4ci#nc# ((* 7*;*": J*8. doi:6*.66879science.117.7*;*.J*8. P(OG 88412726. edit 172. =ump up A (cRregor, Richard 8 July 8**:". ":4*,*** a year killed !y Chinese pollution". *inancial 8i"#s. Retrieved 88 July 8**:. 1:*. =ump up A "China$s #o!acco Ondustry Wields Auge Po%er" article !y Gidi Eirsten #atlo% in 8h# /#5 Yor2 8i"#s 6* June 8*6* 1:6. =ump up A "<erving the people^". 6222. -ruce Eennedy. C&&. Retrieved 6: +pril 8**7. 1:8. =ump up A "?!esity <ickening China$s Houng Aearts". J +ugust 8***. :#o$l#6s (aily. Retrieved 6: +pril 8**7. 1:1. =ump up A "China$s latest <+R< out!reak has !een contained, !ut !iosafety concerns remain". 6; (ay 8**J. World Aealth ?rganiSation. Retrieved 6: +pril 8**7. 1:J. =ump up A "+ir Pollution Dinked to 6.8 (illion Premature Geaths in China". /#5 Yor2 8i"#s. 6 +pril 8*61. 1:4. =ump up A Cons!i!u!ion of !h# :#o$l#6s &#$u3lic of China. Chapter 8, +rticle 17. 1:7. =ump up A "+siaBPacific c <urvey finds 1**m China !elievers". --C &e%s. : Fe!ruary 8**:. Retrieved 64 June 8**2. 1::. [ Jump up to: a b Hu #ao. % 4olo@ a (u#!@ or an +ns#"3l#S %nalysing !h# &#c#n! (#'#lo$"#n! of &#ligious Co""uni!i#s in Con!#"$orary &ural China O:(*P. 'uropeBChina Research and +dvice &et%ork. =niversity of &ottingham. p. :, 66. Retrieved 8; <eptem!ef 8*61. 1:;. =ump up A <un, +nna 8*61". Confucianis" as a =orl- &#ligion9 Con!#s!#is!ori#s an- Con!#"$orary &#ali!i#s. Princeton =niversity Press. p. ;7. 1:2. =ump up A Hao, CinShong 8*6*". Chin#s# &#ligion9 % Con!#x!ual %$$roach. Continuum. p. 66. 1;*. =ump up A (iller, James 8**7". Chin#s# &#ligions in Con!#"$orary 4oci#!i#s. +-CBCDO?. p. 4:. 1;6. =ump up A Cie, >hi!in 8**7". &#ligious (i'#rsi!y an- :u3lic &#ligion in China. +shgate Pu!lishing. p. :1. 1;8. =ump up A "Religion in China on the 've of the 8**; ?lympics". Pe% Forum. 6 (ay 8**;. Retrieved 6: ?cto!er 8*66. 1;1. =ump up A Gan <myer Hu 8*66". 8h# 4$r#a- of 8i3#!an .u--his" in China D Charis"a@ 0on#y@ +nligh!#n"#n!. Routledge. 1;J. =ump up A China9 Nn-#rs!an-ing >!s :as!. =niversity of Aa%aii Press. 622:. p. 82. 1;4. =ump up A "#our Ruide!ook:". China &ational #ourism +dministration. Retrieved 6J July 8*61. 1;7. =ump up A "Why China is letting dG.ango =nchained] slip through its censorship regime". IuartS. 61 (arch 8*61. Retrieved 68 July 8*61. 1;:. =ump up A ""China: #raditional arts". Di!rary of Congress Q Country <tudies". Dc%e! Retrieved 6 &ovem!er 8*66. 1;;. =ump up A "China: Cultural life: #he arts". +ncyclo$,-ia .ri!annica. Retrieved 6 &ovem!er 8*66. 1;2. =ump up A ""China: Folk and )ariety +rts". Di!rary of Congress Q Country <tudies". Dc%e! Retrieved 6 &ovem!er 8*66. 12*. =ump up A "What is the %orld$s favourite holiday destination^". --C. J +ugust 8*61. Retrieved 4 +ugust 8*61.

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urther rea&ing

(eng, Fanhua 8*66". :h#no"#non of Chin#s# Cul!ur# a! !h# 8urn of !h# ABs! c#n!ury. <ingapore: <ilkroad Press. O<-& 2:;B2;6BJ118B14BJ. Farah, Paolo 8**7". "Five Hears of China$s W#? (em!ership: '= and =< Perspectives on China$s Compliance %ith #ransparency Commitments and the #ransitional Revie% (echanism". ;#gal >ssu#s of +cono"ic >n!#gra!ion. Elu%er Da% Onternational. )olume 11, &um!er 1. pp. 871Q1*J. +!stract. Aeilig, Rerhard E. 8**798**:". China .i3liogra$hy D <nlin#C JacFues, (artin 8**2".=h#n China &ul#s !h# =orl-9 8h# +n- of !h# =#s!#rn =orlan- !h# .ir!h of a /#5 7lo3al <r-#r. Penguin -ooks. Revised edition 8; +ugust 8*68". O<-& 2:;B6B42J8*B6;4B6. <ang He 8**7". China Can-i-9 8h# :#o$l# on !h# :#o$l#6s &#$u3lic. =niversity of California Press. O<-& *B48*B8J46JB;. <elden, (ark 62:2". 8h# :#o$l#6s &#$u3lic of China9 (ocu"#n!ary is!ory of &#'olu!ionary Chang#. &e% Hork: (onthly Revie% Press. O<-& *B;41J4B418B4.

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