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GENETIC ENGINEERING Process of genetic engineering: Selection of desired characteristics Isolation of the genes responsible for the characteristics

tics Insertion of the genes into other organisms Replication of the genetically modified organisms

Animation: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_ocr_gateway/living_growing/ newgenesrev4.shtml

1. Identification of the gene interest; 2. Isolation of the gene of interest; 3. Amplifying the gene to produce many copies; 4. Associating the gene with an appropriate promoter and poly A sequence and insertion into plasmids; 5. Multiplying the plasmid in bacteria and recovering the cloned construct for injection; 6. Transference of the construct into the recipient tissue, usually fertilized eggs; 7. Integration of gene into recipient genome; 8. Expression of gene in recipient genome; and 9. Inheritance of gene through further generations.

Genetic engineering in insulin: Animation: http://www.abpischools.org.uk/res/coResourceImport/modules/hormones/enflash/geneticeng.cfm One of the earliest uses of genetic engineering in pharmaceuticals was gene splicing to manufacture large amounts of insulin, made using cells of E. coli bacteria.

Where else is genetic engineering used? Uses of Transgenic plants: In order to improve the quality and quantity of plants, traditional method of plant breeding is replaced by the creation of transgenic plants.

The transgenic plants are plants carrying foreign genes introduced deliberately into them to develop a new character useful for the plant. The infection of plants by microorganism mostly viruses, poor production and decline in quality of plants due to attack by insects and the plants inability to withstand the pesticide or the weedicide used in the agriculture process welcomed the genetic engineering technology to develop transgenic plants with new characters like resistance to infections, defensive against the attacking insects and resistance to pesticides or weedicide. The transfer of gene responsible for the protein protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis to plants to develop resistance against the attacking insects is a remarkable example. Also the digestive action of the insects on the plants is restricted or inhibited by transfer of gene responsible for a particular protein with the property to arrest protease activity. The pesticides and weedicides used to destroy the pests and weeds is also a threat to the cultivated plants. The effects of such chemicals are alleviated by developing a new character called resistance to chemicals in plants. Development of resistance in plants against the weedicide glyphosate states the role of genetic engineering in plant breeding.

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