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American Literature

Teacher: Nieves Pascual Bibliography: Conliffe, The Literature of the United States. Conn, Literature on America. An Illustrated History.

Unit 1
Formative period: 1620-1836 1 1 Coloni!ation an" #mmigration: The $rench an" the #n"ian %ar The &evolution The Ne' &epublic 1 ( Colonial literature: Literary mo"els an" metho"s importe" from )reat Britain The Puritan theory of style 1 * To'ar"s a national+istic literature: the frontier 1 , The -nlinghtenment Ne'spapers, almanacs an" maga!ines 1 . The beginnings of &omanticism Historical background /enry 0###, 1ing of -nglan", 'ante" to "ivorce, but that 'as not allo'e" by the &oman Catholic Church /e "i" not get on 'ell 'ith the Pope That is 'hy, he "eci"e" to create a ne' religion in 'hich the hea" of that Church 'oul" be the 2ing of -nglan" 3o, that 'as the beginning of the Anglican Church All the rituals are very important in this ne' Church, an" it counts 'ith a strong hierarchy in its organisation 3ome people 'ere against this ne' Church an" its hierarchies, so these people emigrate" to /ollan" These people 'ere rather conservative an" 'ere 1no'n as the Puritans 4n the one han", they "i" not have many problems living in /ollan", though, on the other han", they "iscovere" that living there "utchifie" their culture an" lives #n the en", they "eci"e" to go to America #n or"er to achieve this aim, they nee"e" a 5charter6 7it 'as a sort of permission to resi"e in America legally in one of the British Colonies8 Apart from this permission, they also nee"e" money $inally, they got it from the 0irginia Company of Lon"on They ma"e a 1in" of "eal 'ith this company, they gave them the money for the trip an" the Puritans sen" the 0irginia Company fresh pro"ucts They 'ent to America in the 9ayflo'er ship, they 'ere mi:e" 'ith other people that "i" not share their beliefs 1,; people set saile" but <ust half of them arrive" alive in America in 1=(> The original plan 'as to arrive at the colony of 0irginia, ho'ever, they arrive" at Ne' -nglan" Colony The problem 'as that they "i" not have any legal permission, the charter, to establish in that part of the British colonies 3o, in theory if they establishe" there 'oul" be illegal Nonetheless, they establishe" the same, if they all agree" to live there it 'oul" not be illegal They foun"e" the Plymouth Plantation The 'riter, %illiam Bra"for" 'as one of them The 'hole <ourney too1 ( months After /enry 0###, the ne' 1ing Charles # imposes e:pensive ta:es on the citi!ens, he "issolve" the Parliament Apart from all the political problems, 'e have to mention the big plague that 1ille" thousan"s of people in the 'hole country $or that reason, many "eci"e" to go to America 4ne of this people 'as ?ohn %inthrop /e 'ent to the 9assachusetts Bay Colony in 1=*> This colony 'as near the Plymouth

Plantation but they 'ere not puritans, they 'ere more liberals The Puritans from the Plymouth Plantation "eci"e" to create a &epublic At that moment there 'ere <ust 1* colonies Puritans elie!s Puritans sustaine" that they 'ere "ifferent to the rest of the 'orl" They believe" that )o" 'oul" save them Their i"eology 'as base" on the fact that all A"am an" -ve@s "escen"ants 'oul" be "amme" /o'ever, those that 'ere Abraham@s offspring 'oul" be save" They believe" in something calle" 5pre"estination6, your life is "etermine" beforehan" 3o, ta1ing into account this conception of life you 'ere con"emne" That is 'hy, they e:amine" their o'n lives As for Puritans everybo"y 'as eAual, though some 'ere more eAual than others They "i" not have a hierarchy, an" they 'ere not con"itione" by money As a religious movement, they pro"uce" religious literature: autobiographies, "iaries, <ournals, religious poetry, etc A very popular genre 'as that of 5sermons6 because they 'ere ma"e by the preacher This figure tol" people ho' to save their con"emne" lives Brama 'as forbi""en in this community, it 'as not consi"ere" morally correct, though the Brama of the Northern colonies 'as very popular They focusse" on the e:amination of their o'n lives Puritans pai" too much attention to the stu"y of the Apocalypses in the Ne' Testament They interprete" the symbols that 'ere given in this boo1 They 'aite" for the secon" coming of ?esus, the 1>>> years reign, the fight bet'een )o" an" 3atan, an" the Booms"ay They associate" the symbols in the Apocalypses 'ith the reality they 'ere living As far as slavery 'as concerne", as # have sai" before, everybo"y 'as eAual but some 'ere more eAual than others The first colonisers receive" a lot of help from the Natives or #n"ians /o'ever, 'hen they realise" that Natives 'ere every'here, they began fighting against them &oger %illiams 'rote about Natives /e 'rote The Bloo"y Tenant of Persecution, he "efen"e" #n"ian rights, he also 'ante" the "ivision of religion an" state $or his i"eology, he 'as banne" an" he establishe" a ne' colony %e can fin" some other 5heresy6 groups such as the Cua1ers They "ealt 'ith the inner life, every single person has )o" in them, so, you <ust follo' your instincts Baptists "i" not baptise chil"ren 'hen they 'ere born, they "i" it 'hen they 'ere a"ults so they 'ere consi"ere" heretic as 'ell $inally, Lutherans 'ere consi"ere" cannibals because they celebrate" the ritual that consiste" on eating the bo"y an" the bloo" of Christ 7the same as Catholics8 Puritans 'ere separatists, they "i" not 'ant to have anything to "o 'ith the Anglican Church Though, the ones that to the 9assachusetts colony 'ere not separatists "#at is literature$ Literature is consi"ere" to be the best 'ritten an" oral te:ts that have been pro"uce" By means of this 'e can "iscover ne' 'orl"s, an" ne' people %e can 'itness "ifferent lives an" 'ays of thin1ing Literature gives us culture, it enriches us Literature e:presses opinions, i"eologies, etc #t also has to "o 'ith form, style, etc

3ub<ectivity 4pinions D &eal Life D 9ulticulturalism Breams D #magination D 3oul Aesthetics: beautyEuglyness Best oral an" 'ritten te:ts &ea"er 7convince8 #"eologies Practise lessons "illiam rad!ord: Of Plymouth Plantation%

&#apter 1: 3atan is the Pope Bra"for" 'as consi"ere" a Puritan 3aint, they all consi"ere" themselves 3aintsF They 'ere against the Anglican Church an" the Pope of the &oman Catholic Church too They 'ere the real Church of )o" They 'ante" to recover the original Church The para"o: of the te:t is that it is a""resse" to the Puritans 'ho have forgotten their i"eals &#apter ': Their mission 'as an evangelistic one Their i"ea 'as that of 5a city upon a hill6, above the rest of the 'orl" 3o, this ne' colonise" 'orl" 'as a privilege" site of the 9illennium that 'as about to come This colonial 'orl" 'as base" on the rea"ing of the Bible The 3outhern colonies ha" a totally "ifferent perception of the 'orl", they <ust care" about the money They 'ere un"erstoo" as 5vale of plenty6 Natives 'ere consi"ere" "iabolic an" they 'ere not people -ven the Pope sai" that they ha" no souls 3o, the colonisers "i" not fin" a para"ise, <ust the opposite America 'as a horrible lan" There 'as a myth that sai" that the natives apart from savages 'ere cannibals /o'ever, this ba" image of America 'ill change after the in"epen"ence #n this part of the te:t, the 'riter also spea1s about their life in /ollan" At the very beginning 'as o1, but as # have mentione" in the historical bac1groun", living there 5"utchifie"6 their tra"itions Puritans al'ays thin1 that everything 'oul" be alright They 'ere Abraham@s "escen"ants, )o" 'as on their si"e an" they have goo" en"sF &#apter 11: %illiam Bra"for" 'rote the history of the Plymouth Plantation /e use" the 1 st person narrator, but 'hen he referre" to the Puritans he use" the *r" person narrator /e use" this techniAue because he 'ante" to be ob<ective /e 'as in charge" of telling the 5history6 of the Plymouth Plantation /alf of the people that 'ere in the 9ayflo'er 'ere not Puritans, they 'ere 5strangers6 They "i" not 'ant to obey the Puritans, they <ust 'ante" to be free They ha" the charter to establish in Ne' -nglan" not in 0irginia 3o, the ma"e a pact 7PactECivil Bo"y PoliticsG8 that 'as as firm as any patent As they 'ante" to establish a ne' government, they "i" not care about the charter

They establishe" a &epublic 'hich entaile" having offices, acts, etc they Puritans rule" themselves They 'ill choose a Car"inal before signing the pact The main problem for the 'as heresy They conceive" colonisation in an evangelical 'ay (nne radstreet: To My Dear and Loving Husband% Anne Bra"street suffere" from "ifferent "iseases, physical bo"y is important in her poetry 3he ha" H chil"ren, 'riting 'as forbi""en for 'omen 3he marrie" a man from 9assachusetts that 'ante" to become a governor This is a love poem #t is a very mystical poem #t is a""resse" to her husban", but it coul" have been a""resse" to )o" as 'ell

(nne radstreet
Anne 'as a very 'ellEe"ucate" -nglish 'oman 3he 'as influence" by several 'riters an" boo1s such as /istory of the %orl"I 3ha1espeare@s 'or1sI Anatomy of 9elan"roly by &obert ButtonI 3ylvester@s translation of Bivine %ee1s an" %or1s by )uillaume "e BartasI Acts an" 9onuments by ?ohn $o:eI %inthrope, etc 3he "ealt 'ith t'o types of poetry, one 'as focusse" on cosmic issues an" the other one 'as more personal -"'ar" Taylor@s poetry 'as very baroAue, but her poetry is Auite simple 3he set sail in 1=*> an" travelle" through several colonies /er brotherE inEla' publishe" one of her boo1s in Britain an" she "i" not 1no' it The boo1 ha" plenty of mista1es an" she became really angry %e 'ill rea" the prologue to that boo1 #t is sestets an" it 'as 'ritten in iambic pentameter 1st 3tan!a 3he 'ill spea1 about small things 'ith no importance, big things are mean (n" 3tan!a Protestant 3aints, Bartas@ poetry 'as too ornamental, 5sugare" lines6 The 3aint 'as inspire" by several muses 3he says that her s1ill is inferior to that of the Bartas@ *r" 3tan!a Bartas has his muses, she has hers /er 9uses have faults, those faults are irreparable 3o, her poetry 'ill have faults ,th 3tan!a #t spea1s about the orator in this stan!a, art is seen as therapy /o'ever, it cannot be therapist if it has faults, as her poetry .th 3tan!a A 'oman shoul" "o the house'or1, not 'rite #f she 'rites 'ell 'oul" be "ue to t'o reasons: she "i" it 'ell by chance or she stole those lines from somebo"y else =th 3tan!a )ree1s 'ere better 'ith 'omen because of the ; 9uses of their mythology These 9uses inspire" art an" they 'ere 'omen Jth 3tan!a 9en are better than 'omen, they are superior Though, 'omen can also be goo" at something Hth 3tan!a /er poetry is simple, by means of this she sho's that in comparison, men@s is better #n this stan!a 'e can fin" some metaphors, Auills refer to the feathers of the hamlets of the sol"iers The prey is the 'oman The 'riter <ust 'ant parsley not laurel

The Author to Her Book )1*+8, #t is a""resse" to her other boo1 publishe" in Britain 3he consi"ers her poetry as her chil"ren, but those chil"ren are illEforme" 3he says that if her brain is 'ea1, her chil"ren 7her poetry8 'oul" be illEforme" 3he "i" not her boo1 'as being publishe" in Britain, so her offspring "i" not remain 'ith her 0erses are li1e chil"ren marching to the press -verybo"y 'oul" see her mista1es an" they 'ill become bigger 7the mista1es8 3he 'as ashame", she felt embarrasse" /er chil"ren shoul" call her mother 3he tries to ma1e those "eformities "isappear 'ith her affection 7li1e a rubber stains everything, 'hen she tries to correct the "eformities it is 'orst8 /er chil"ren 'ere "ress in rags, but she 'oul" li1e them to 'ear better "resses Critics 'ill "estroy her chil"ren because they are vulgar, they can <ust move among vulgar people 3he is a poor mother an" cannot 1eep her chil"ren Personal Poem: Here Follows ome !erses u"on the Burning of Our House #uly $%th& $'''( )o"ied Out of a Loose Pa"er )16+8,% #t is 'ritten in iambic pentameter because it is closer to the 'ay 'e spea1 #n fact, it 'as not her "esire to lose everything But she is suppose" to accept it because it is )o"@s 'ill 7#n my opinion, this is a very goo" poem an" very easy to rea", for further "etail <ust rea" it 8

-ar. /o0landson
3he 'as hel" captive by the Natives for 11 'ee1s /er 'or1 is religious on purpose an" it "erive" into frontier tales an" 'il" 'est thrillers /er literature can be groupe" 'ithin the Captive Literary subEgenre Being a *arrative of the )a"tivity and +estauration of Mrs( Mary +owlandson )1682, #t is a realistic narrative, though it is not totally true #t is consi"ere" realistic because 'e can fin" plenty of "etails #t is 'ritten in 1 st person 3he 'rites on stereotypes an" uses her imagination This e:plains 'hy if she 'as in her house she coul" see all the things that happene" outsi"e it 3he reinforce" the Native stereotypes propose" by %illiam Bra"for" 3he says that no' she coul" 'itness 'hat the Natives "i" 3he reinforces this i"ea presenting us 'ith mothers an" their chil"ren, she tries to inspire compassion 'ith the image of chil"ren in her mothers@ arms 7li1e those a"s to give money to the thir" 'orl"8 3he 'ill be free in the en" because )o" is on her si"e %e 'ill al'ays fin" the "ichotomy )oo" vs -vil 3he 'rote about the Plymouth Plantation an" the i"ea that the Natives 'ere cannibals 5"evour us6, but she ha" not 'itnesse" that %e can also see the contrast 3heep vs %olves+Beasts 3he has to survive because it is Lor"@s "esire an" she has to tell everybo"y 'hat she ha" seen #n"ians are seen as "evils 3he 'rote this to "iminish Natives KKK

#n the northern colonies 'e 'oul" fin" the Plymouth Plantation This place 'as foun"e" by the Puritans that 'ent to Ne' -nglan" on the 9ayflo'er #t is important to ma1e emphasis on the i"ea that Puritans believe" that everybo"y 'as con"emne" or save since one 'as born This i"eology is 1no'n as 5pre"estination6 /o'ever, they also believe" that you coul" fin" absolution if you 'or1 har" on your life an" that is 'hy they spent so much time e:amining themselves #f 'e move to the 3outhern colonies, 'e 'ill see a completely "ifferent reality As 'e have sai" above they 'ere very much concerne" on money Their literature is Auite similar to that of the people in the North, but they 'ere more intereste" in style an" form, rather than in content 3ome goo"s e:amples of the type of literature 'e coul" fin" in the 3outh 'ere: sermons, poetry, autobiographies They also 'rote treatises 7trata"os8 in 'hich 'e coul" see the importance of aestheticism, as 'e have <ust sai", but also utilitarianism This has to "o 'ith a very common fashion of the age, you 'rote for very specific reasons Lou e:plaine", for instance, ho' to manage a plantation, or ho' to 'rite letters, etc Another important movement of that age 'as the -nlightenment #t appeare" in the 1Hth century %e coul" see a "ifferent approach to life from this ne' conception of the 'orl" )o" 'as not the centre of the 'orl" anymore, no', men 'oul" occupy that important place #n this movement, 'e can highlight the importance of the search of 1no'le"ge All these is connecte" 'ith some other conceptions an" i"eologies such as Beism, in 'hich 'e fin" people li1e Ben<amin $ran1lin These people thought that )o" coul" be foun" in nature, 'e coul" see )o" in every tree or river )o" 'as every'here, so this is a geometrician image of )o" ?ohn Loc1e "efen"e" this ne' conception of religion, he state" that 'e get information from our senses 'e are not born 'ith a certain amount of 1no'le"ge as the Puritans believe" #t "i" not have anything to "o 'ith intuition 3o, as for ?ohn Loc1e literature 'as use" to "istribute 1no'le"ge 3o, 'e can see a mi:ture of i"eologies, on the one han" he 'as part of the -nlightenment, but on the other he ha" a Puritan tra"ition -"'ar" 'as the one that starte" this movement, # thin1 it 'as Beism, recovering the importance of )o" using Loc1e@s i"eas #n the scheme that Nieves copie" on the blac1boar" it says that Loc1e publishe" Perio"icals in 'hich 'e coul" fin" poetry, mathematical pu!!les an" social announcements, an" boo1s in general ?onathan -"'ar"s spo1e about The )reat A'a1ening 1#omas 2e!!erson 71J,*E1H(=8 Thomas ?efferson 'as the author of the Beclaration of the #n"epen"ence in 1JJ= The colonies "eci"e" to separate from -nglan" because Lon"on imposes very high ta:es an" they "i" not have representation on the Parliament They rebelle" an" "eclare" the #n"epen"ence in 1JJ= Thomas ?efferson 'as a politician, he gave t'o very important conferences, an" he 'as also a scientist ++ ?efferson has been praise" as a champion of "emocracy, eAuality, an" human rights, but he has also been criticise" for suppose" betrayals of his o'n i"eals or outright failures of character 9ost recently such criticism has ten"e" to focus on the tension bet'een his claim that all men have inalienable natural rights, 'ith liberty chief among them, an" his continuing o'nership of slaves an" issue also raise"

in his o'n lifetime by those 'ho 'ishe" to "iscre"it his egalitarianism 1 7(>>(: ;=H8 ++ Thomas ?efferson stu"ie" la', he playe" a part in 0irginia colonial politics, an" became increasingly critical of -nglan"@s attempts to e:ert authority in the American colonies /e 'as also a scientist, he 'rote many theories, notes, etc $or instance, he 'rote Notes on the State of Virginia 71JHJ8 #t 'as both a pioneering attempt at a scientific stu"y of a community an" an effort to "irect the culture an" political formation of the postE revolutionary state ++ Li1e many later 'hite abolitionists, ?efferson 'as able to simultaneously maintain an opposition to slavery 'ith 'hat 'e 'oul" regar" as a basically racist attitu"e Critics have charge" that his racist feelings e:plain his apparent reluctance to "o more to oppose slavery, but the problem is more comple: The re<ection in 1JJ= of his subseAuent un'illingness of the 0irginia legislature to ta1e up emancipationE its la'sE 'oul" have ma"e him realise the opinions of his 0irginian contemporaries #n a""ition, ?efferson 'as un'illing to ostracise himself from his neighbours 'hen he thought that there 'as more he coul" "o in 0irginia to secure a free society 7(>>(: ;=;8 ++ /e also became Presi"ent of the Unite" 3tates of America %e coul" a"" that ?efferson 'as a man of contra"ictions As 'e have seen, he 'as in favour of abolition but at the same time he ha" a big plantation 'ith many slaves /e "efen"e" religious free"om by la', the separation of the church an" the state /e 'as a &epublican Bemocrat but at the same time consi"ere" himself a gentleman ?efferson 'as marrie" an" ha" 1> alive chil"ren 9oreover, he ha" a long intimate relationship 'ith a mulatto slave calle" 3ally /emmings Declaration of Independence 71JJ=8 %e 'ill see some of the main features of the Beclaration of #n"epen"ence %e have to bear in min" that the -nlightenment movement ha" establishe" at this time, though ?efferson ha" a Puritan tra"ition 3o, in his Beclaration 'e 'oul" see a mi:ture of both tra"itions $rom the -nlightenment perspective the eAuality issue 'oul" be "ealt Puritans "efen"e" that 'e are not all eAual, because 'e 'ere pre"estine" since 'e 'ere born As for )o", as 'e have seen above, it 'as conceive" as geometrician )o" coul" be foun" in nature 3ome other aspects 'ere liberty the search for happiness, 'hich 'as ta1en from the -nlightenment 7Puritans <ust loo1e" for salvation not for happiness8 They too1 the i"ea from &ousseau an" Loc1e of a 5social contract6 That sai" that they coul" abolish government if it "i" not behave in the e:pecte" 'ay The main aim of this Beclaration 'as to e:plain an" e:pose the causes of their in"epen"ence revolution They felt the nee" of rebellion because the in<uries 'ere too painful They ha" enough, an" they coul" stan" it no more )reat Britain 'as evil an" a sort of tyranny Tea 3tamp ActF The te:t 'oul" be "ivi"e" into * main parts: 1 Thesis ( -vi"ence * Phrasing or conclusion #n this "eclaration 'e still see the same stereotypical image of the Natives as savages %omen an" slaves 'ere not mentione" at allF %ith the Beclaration they

Coryell P , 9 )illespie et ali (>>( The Heath Anthology of American Literature Boston: /oughton 9ifflin Company

obtaine" political in"epen"ence, not economical in"epen"ence #n or"er to constitute a ne' country they 'oul" have to follo' some steps, such as establishing a government 7'hich 'as alrea"y chosen8I a constitutionI an" one of the most important things 'as that they ha" to invent their o'n i"entity, 'hich 'oul" be ma"e by means of literature 2o#n 3reenlea! "#ittier 71H>JE1H;(8 ?ohn )reenleaf %hittier 'as consi"ere" an abolitionist first, an" a poet secon" /e 'as brought up in a Cua1er family ++ The %hittiers ha" been farmers since 1=,H #t 'as a costly battle: heavy physical labour in chil"hoo" bro1e %hittier@s constitution, an" in later life he 'oul" be sub<ect to chronic hea"aches an", on several occasions, severe mental brea1"o'ns /is formal e"ucation 'as necessarily limite", an" though as a Cua1er he 'as encourage" to stu"y an" e:press himself, fe' boo1s 'ere allo'e" him beyon" the Bible an" the <ournals of early $rien"s M N 7he 'as very much influence" as a teenager by the poetry of &obert Burns8 The habits of min" an" spirit 'hich he "evelope" in that Cua1er homestea" "re' %hittier into a life "e"icate" to social reform Though Cua1ers 'ere no longer openly prosecute", their history an" faith still set them on the margin of Ne' -nglan" society, an" gave them a critical perspective on that society as 'ell as a ten"ency to loo1 'ith compassion an" un"erstan"ing on the outcast an" the oppresse" Their belief in the 4nner 5ig#t, by 'hich )o"@s grace may move in any human being, regar"less of out'ar" con"ition Lle" them to honour all souls Oinclu"ing 'omen, Native Americans, an" blac1sE as eAually precious in )o"@s sight, an" therefore in man@s: to treat a human being as property 'as an outrageous violation of both man an" )o" /e 'as electe" as a "elegate to the National AntiE3lavery Convention in Phila"elphia, 'hich in turn le" to his election in 1H*. to a term in the 9assachusetts legislature An" 'hile he poure" out antiEslavery poetry for political <ournals, he 'as tireless an" s1ilful manipulator of politicians in the %hig party an" later the antiEslavery Liberty party 7'hich he helpe" foun" in 1H*;8 /is association 'ith the abolition movement "oome" for several "eca"es any hopes he might have ha" for popular acceptance as a poet, but it also monopolise" his creative energies throughout the 1H*>s an" much of the P,>s an" P.>s M N As a "evout Cua1er, he believe" that his verses shoul" not en"s of spiritual un"erstan"ing an" practical piety O means by 'hich goo" 'or1s in the 'orl" coul" be generate" 7(>>(: 1=1*E1=1.8++ /e supporte" slavehol"ing 'hen he 'as an a"ult but he "i" the opposite 'hen he 'as young

#chabo" 71H.>8, ?ohn )reenleaf %hittier

7This poem is about a politician 'ho supporte" slavery8 %e have some images, light vs night, that represents past or youth vs present %hen it says 5the Tempter6 it refers to the "evil /e suggests that everybo"y shoul" be

forgiven because: everybo"y can sin, an" 'hen he 'as young he 'as goo" an" no' that he is ol" he is "evil -verybo"y is goo" once in his+her life #n class 'e "iscuss 'hether this 'as a propagan"istic poem or not, so these are the results: For: The poems is propagan"istic because it is Auite "irect, Auic1 #t refers to a politician, an" the poems tries to convince the rea"er #t spea1s about general values, it uses imperatives an" it i"ealises man an" their values (gainst: #t "oes not use simple language, it "oes not refer to a particular issue The passage of time affects a person@s soul an" bo"y The poem is use" to e:press the narrator@s opinions #t is a 1in" of "iary not a social paper H: %hat is a propagan"a in the Q0### an" in the QQ# centuriesG H: Are sermons propagan"isticG

?ohn %oolman 71J(>E1JJ(8

++/is family on both si"es ha" strong roots in the Cua1er colony they ha" helpe" to settle an" then to shape 4ne of thirteen chil"ren, %oolman gre' up surroun"e" by a large an" supportive family, an" he early "isplaye" a sensitivity for spiritual matters an" a love for nature an" Cua1er tra"itions M N %oolman marrie" 3arah -llis, they ha" t'o chil"ren, but only one, a "aughter, survive" into a"ulthoo" %oolman gave up mercantile tra"e altogether an" "evote" his energies almost e:clusively to his family, his farm, an" his 'or1 as a Cua1er spo1esperson %oolman@s "eliberate 'ith"ra'al from the 'orl" of commerce is consistent 'ith Cua1er beliefs that life shoul" be con"ucte" in a simple an" "irect manner an" that the internal spiritual 'orl" shoul" al'ays ta1e prece"ence over the e:ternal material 'orl" Above all, Cua1ers believe that all in"ivi"uals harbour 'ithin themselves an innate sense of right an" 'rong, 'hich the term the 5#nner Light6 #t is the responsibility of the in"ivi"ual to cultivate the 'or1ings of the 5#nner Light6 by removing oneself from all unnecessary "istractions an" encumbrances They attempte" to practice a simple lifestyle base" on har" 'or1, frugality, an" contemplation M N %oolman@s abhorrence of slavery began early in life 'hen the man 'hom he 'as apprentice" as1e" him to 'rite a bill of sale for a slave belonging to a senior member of the Cua1ers /is "isli1e of slavery continue" to gro', especially after he ha" laboure" in the 3outh an" seen firsthan" the "egra"ation that slavery brought to both slave an" slavehol"er Al'ays Auiet an" persistent in his "etermination to convince the 'orl" that slavery an" Christianity 'ere totally incompatible M N /e refuse", for e:ample, to use sugar pro"ucts or "yes because these items 'ere obtaine" largely through reliance on slave labour, an" "uring his travels he insiste" on paying a remuneration to any slave 'ho 'or1e" in homes 'here he lo"ge" 3uch behaviour 'as his 'ay of "ra'ing attention to his convictions 7(>>(: ==,E===8 ++ Notes from Nieves: E Thoreau Commitment of 3implicity

Pacifist A Plea for the Poor Some onsiderations on the !eeping of Negroes 71J.,8 Abolitionist movement Pay a loo1 at the practise te:tsFFF %oolman 'ill influence: - -merson transcen"entalism - Theo"or Breiser naturalism

/e 'as a sort of mystic, he "efen"e" a simple 'ay of living Thoreau 'as a against that, he 'as li1e %oolman As1 Nieves about all these, because # "i" not get that muchFFF

%illiam Cullen Bryant 71J;,E1HJH8

%e have to bear in min" that the -nlightenment movement 'as present at that timeFFF #t emphasises reason an" 1no'le"ge, there 'as a return to the Classical 9o"els Calvinist upbringing 3tu"ie" la' -"ite" Ne' Lor1 &evie' 2nic1erbor1er 3chool 7%ashington #rving, $ Cooper8 Conservative R Progressive position: free tra"e unions prison reform abolition

#nfluences: )raveyar" 3chool 7"eath an" melancholy8: &obert Blair -"'ar" Loung )ray &omanticism O1H>( %illiam Cullen Bryant 'as born as a Calvinist, he "evote" to poetry an" aban"one" his career as a layer ++ Bryant@s style 'as influence" by his rea"ing of -nglish poets othe prece"ing generation, such as Thomas )ray, &obert Blair, etc M N 9oving to Ne' Lor1 in 1H(., Bryant happily aban"one" his <ob as <ustice of the peace in Ber1shire County to become an e"itor of The Ne' Lor1 &evie' an" Athenaeum, but 'hen the publication fol"e" in 1H(J he rene'e" his license to practice la' in Ne' Lor1 Let his return to the legal profession 'as brief, for he 'as offere" a <ob as assistant e"itor to the Ne' Lor1 -vening Post an" in 1H(; became its e"itorEinEchief, a position he hel" until his "eath in 1HJH 7(>>(: (H1(8++ /e 'as part of that school for 'riters, %ashington #rving 'as the foun"er Cooper too1 part, at the very beginning of his life he 'as a conservative but then he became a progressive /e "efen"e" all those things -nlightenment it 'as a ne' conception of the 'orl" They too1 the Classics as a mo"el Cullen began 'riting in the Q#Q century, the century of the &omanticism 3o, from the )raveyar" 3chool he receive" the Classical influence 7Ne' Classics8, an" he also 'as influence" by the &omantics, especially by %or"s'orth an" his Lyrical "allads

&omanticism i"eology state": - $ree from the rules - 3ource of poetry - NatureE stimulation, me"itation - Commonplace on plain style - 3uper natural in the familiar - Bemocratisation of poetry E Thanatopsis 71H1.8 71H1J8 5#nscriptions for the -ntrance to a %oo"6 1H(E1= lines %illiam Cullen Bryant 'as gui"e" by the prefi: of the Lyrical "allads Nature an" inspiration 'ere the source of poetry Nature stimulate" 3upernatural in nature Poetry plain style an" common places Poetry shoul" be for everyoneFFF Bemocratisation poetry 'as for everyone -verybo"y coul" 'rite but then they 'ere the gui"es, an" they felt as lea"ers The poem is about "eath Cullen Bryant finishe" his poem an" left it on the table of his home /is father too1 it an" publishe" it, the thing 'as that he publishe" t'o poems together 3ome years later in 1H(1 he 'or1e" again the poem, an" a final version 'as release" that same year

Thanatopsis 71H1.E1H1J8
The title of this poem means 5me"itation on "eath6 ++ The poem is also a me"itation on nature, an" in implicit pantheism the poems loo1s bac1 at once bac1'ar" to %illiam %or"s'orth@s Lyrical "allads an" for'ar" to the Transcen"entalists #n this poem 'e 'ill see ho' he sees nature #t is seen as a 5she6 As something beautiful, aesthetic pleasure, etc /e goes to nature to me"itate 7so, it is un"erstoo" as place for me"itation8 Lou go to nature for consolation, to feel un"erstoo" an" better %e can see the healing po'er of natureF 5Listen to Nature@s teaching6 Nature comes through you an" you "isappear an" feel better /e spea1s about "eath, 'hich is seen as something goo" #n &omantic poetry, Beath is a source of life, but in this case "ea" is not seen as something nice %e have 'or"s li1e 5#nsensible6, 5sluggish6, 5ru"e6 These are influences of the Ne' Classics The consolation that 'e fin" in this poem is that everybo"y "ies %e see the influence of the &omantics in the lan"scape #t feels 'hat you are feeling at that moment Nature is seen as part or as a "ecoration of the tomb of men, so in this case the influence is from the Ne' Classics %e fin" the conclusion that there are more people "ea" than alive The narrator a"vises us that 'e have to en<oy life, &arpe 6iemFFF Lou have to go to "ea" 'ith "ecisionFFF

?ohn %oolman: (n" Part 71J(>E1JJ(8

7*>+>*+>.8 # A Plea for the Poor 3implicity of life 7Thoreau8

No 'ealth

3ome Consi"erations on the 2eeping of Negroes 71J.,8

7practise8 The style of the Puritans 'as Auite simple in or"er to convey the messages in a more "irect 'ay %oolman a"vocate" for eAuality, he uses the Bible for that purpose The Cua1ers 'ere against slavery /e travelle" aroun" the U3A, trying to convert people an" fighting against slavery The other religions believe" that some men 'ere better than others, the Cua1ers as 'e have seen, ha" a "ifferent 'ay of thin1ing The 'riter suggests in this te:t that everybo"y is eAual /e sustaine" that that 'as the essence of religion That 'as the argument that he use" against slaveryF #n conclusion, slaves 'ill be more perverse The reasoning 'as that they 'ere 'orse because they 'ere not free

? /ector 3t ?ohn 7?ean8 "e CrSvecoeur 71J*.E1H1*8

/e 'rote Letters from an American $armer 71JH(, 1J;*8 #n this manifesto he 'as the first 'riter to pose the Auestion %hat is an American CrSvecoeur 'as born in Caen, Norman"y in $rance /e 'as the son of a lan"lor" /e 'as e"ucate" in a ?esuit school, 'hen he finishe" his stu"ies he 'ent to -nglan" There, he engage" but his fiancTe "ie" The "eath of her is sai" to be the reason 'hy he move" to the $renchECana"a #n Cana"a he 'or1e" as a surveyor an" a cartographer "uring the $rench an" #n"ian 'ar /e move" to the British Colonies $or the ne:t ten years he 'or1e" as a surveyor an" tra"er an" travelle" a lot $inally, he became a citi!en of Ne' Lor1 $our years later he marrie" an" began to farm Bue to the American &evolution he "eci"e" to ta1e his family to $rance in 1JJH /e 'as imprisone" as a spy by the British, an" he 'as allo'e" to leave the colonies in 1JH> %hen his Letters from an American $armer 'ere publishe" in Britain in 1JH(, he became very 'ellE1no'n in the $rench literary an" intellectual circles, 'here he became associate" 'ith the philosophes, a group of progressive $rench intellectuals /e returne" to the 3tates in 1JH* as $rench consul in Ne' Lor1, Ne' ?ersey an" Connecticut /e foun" his 'ife "ea", his farm burne" an" his chil"ren resettle" in Boston #n 1J;> he left America for the last time 7a"apte" by me, (>>(: H;HEH;;8

$rom Letter from an American $armer $rom Letter III. %hat is an American 71JH(8
This 'as 'ritten in the 1Hth century, since the 1Jth century 'e have a Promotional Literature They nee"e" people to inhabit the 3tates That is 'hy the ne' continent 'as "escribe" as a para"ise The author sustains that in America everybo"y is eAual, there are no social classes /e says that their farmers, la'yers an" merchants are more honourable than those in -urope 7Nieve@s e:planation of multiculturalism8 Cana"a 9osaic+ 9ulticulturalism U "ifferent cultures that are together but not mi:e" U3A -elting-pot U mi:e" cultures The 'riter a"vocates for the 5meltingEpot6 in this te:tF

Another i"ea sustaine" in the te:t is that 'e are all plants, this is calle" environmentalism #n conclusion, he "efines an American as someone 'hose bloo" is mi:e", s+he has ne' i"eas an" principles, an" they are seen as pilgrims as 'ell #n or"er to create a national i"entity he uses religion an" language But 'e fin" big "ifficulties to create an American i"entity 'ith these parameters There 'as not <ust one religion in the 3tates, there 'ere plenty of them, as 'e have seen the Puritans, the Cua1ers, etc 3o, one possible ans'er to this problem coul" have been the 5tolerance6 among the "ifferent religious groups As for the language, it is true that it is spo1en by everybo"y, but it is also the language of -nglan" as 'ell %e have to un"erstan" the nation as a fiction, it is not something real This 'as another of his arguments CrSvecoeur by means of his character ?ames 7an American farmer8 sustaine" that the perfect society 'as the agriculture society 7/ere, 'e can see once more the propagan"istic message of the te:t8 #n his te:t, 'e 'ill fin" the i"ea of biological "eterminism That sai" that you are 'hat you eat an" you are as you are accor"ing to the place 'here you live 3o, #n"ians 'ere hunters, an" for that reason they ate 'il" meat an" that ma"e them savages %e have to remember that 'hite American "i" not eat too much meat 4n the other han", Negroes 'ere 'orse than 'hite people because they 'ere not free That circumstance ma"e them 'orse -vil people 'ere hunters 7#n"ians8 an" goo" people 'ere farmers 7'hite8FFF $ollo'ing his propagan"istic vie' of America, he sai" that there 'ere no criminals in this part of the 'orl" because they live" in a perfect society

%ashington #rving 71JH*E1H.18

1( languages 1; years ol" O ?onathan 4l"style, )ent A""ison an" 3teele@s 3pectator Literary Nationalism+ -uropean cultural forms The Nine %orthies O 3almagun"i The 2nic1erboc1er 3chool 7rhetoric style8 A History of Ne& 'or( The 31etch Boo1 O)eoffrey Crayon 7simple style8

%ashington #rving@s 'ritings 'ere translate" into 1( languages /e publishe" in A""ison an" 3teele@s manners, 'hen he 'as 1; he publishe" his first articles an" he use" some pseu"onyms such as ?onathan 4l"style an" )ent /e sought a national literature, but there 'as no material in the Unite" 3tates /e ha" to loo1 for that material in -urope an" then go bac1 to the 3tates an" publish there %ashington #rving forme" part of a literary circle calle" The Nine %orthies an" 'ith that group of people they publish Salmagundi, 'hich is the name of a sala" that is ma"e of several ingre"ients /e also forme" the 7nickerbocker 8c#ool, 'ith the help of Cooper an" Cullen Bryant /e also publishe" 'ith his brother A History of Ne& 'or( Then he remaine" silent for 1> years After that perio" of silence he 'ent to -urope an" publishe" The S(etch "oo( of )eoffrey rayon* )ent., it 'as highly relate" to -uropean tra"itionI it ha" the form of short stories #rving 'as a la'yer an" he 'ent to -nglan" /e too1

-uropean culture an" elements an" he Americanise them a""ing some "etails relate" to the 3tates 7Nieves@s notes8 ++A merchant@s son, born an" raise" in Ne' Lor1 #rving 'as 'riting satirical pieces for a local ne'spaper before he 'as t'enty #t 'as not until he 'as thirtyEseven, ho'ever, that he establishe" himself as a professional author The cheap importation an" repro"uction of -nglish importation an" repro"uction of -nglish boo1s ma"e literature a precarious occupation in the Unite" 3tates at the beginning of the nineteenth century MVN $or years #rving halfEhearte"ly pursue" a career in la' an" business, 'hile stealing as much time from 'or1 as possible for his 'riting 4nly in 1H1H, 'ith the ban1ruptcy of his brothers@ importing firm, on 'hich he "epen"e" financially, "i" he ris1 authorship for a living T'o years later, ho'ever, the remar1able popularity of The 31etch Boo1 ma"e him a mar1etable commo"ity in both -nglan" an" America, an" his future as the nation@s first successful professional 'riter 'as guarantee" MVN The comic perio"ical 3almagun"i, on 'hich he collaborate" 'ith his brother %illiam an" ?ames 2ir1e Paul"ing, an" the facetious ( /istory of Ne' Lor1, ostensibly 'ritten by the eccentric an" highly unreliable antiAuarian, Bie"rich 2nic1erboc1er, moc1e" literary conventions an" simultaneously ma"e fun of bourgeois manners, provincial high culture, American chauvinism, an" republican politicsEparticularly ?efferson@s $rom 1H1. to 1H*( #rving live" an" travelle" 'i"ely in -nglan" an" on the -uropean continent No' much of his 'or1 shape" itself as a consciously American response to 4l" %orl" culture 3ee1ing a large international au"ience, he became primarily a 'riter of short fiction an" personalise" s1etches an" essays BurlesAue satire gave 'ay to a gentler, more subtle humour, an" he "evelope" the more ingratiating prose style for 'hich he became famous /is persona )eoffrey Crayon, a shy, ironic, at times melancholy American bachelor 'riter travelling in -urope Oa fictionalise" version of #rving himselfE gave a "egree of thematic an" tonal unit of his miscellanies, The 31etch Boo1, Bracebri"ge /all, Tales of a Traveller an" The Alhambra #n a""ition Crayon helpe" "ramatise the author@s ambivalent feelings to'ar" both -uropean aristocracy an" American "emocracy MVN A mil" 7Uslight8 7if not rampant 7Usth ba" gro'ing in an uncontrolle" 'ay88 selfEmoc1ery is inherent in much of his satire an" fiction By 1H(> he ha" become a partial convert to romanticism, catering to the vogue for tearful sentimentality 7though he ma"e fun of it too8 an" e:hibiting romantic interests in lan"scape, fol1lore, an" the past 3ubseAuently as a historian an" biographer, he 'as to focus on colourful "rama, costumes, an" pageantry But though by temperament a "reamer, he lac1e" the high romantic@s faith in imagination The un"ermining of common sense by illusion an" the shattering of visions against an unyiel"ing reality are persistent themes in his 'or1, as in 5&ip 0an %in1le6 an" 5The Legen" of 3leepy /ollo'6 ++ 7(>>(: (>J1,(>J(8

5&ip 0an %in1le6 from The S(etch "oo( 71H1;8

/istory is base" on people, it 'as orally transmitte" There 'ere no history boo1s, 'e have to reinvent history /ome'or1: The i"ea of history an" truth in this te:tF $or more "etails go to the te:tF

#f you say that someone is being facetious, you are criticising them because they are ma1ing humorous remar1s or saying things that they "o not mean in a situation 'here they ought to be serious 7 ollins o+uild ,nglish Dictionary, 1;;. Lon"on: /arperCollins Publisher p .;,8

?ames $enimore Cooper 71JH;E1H.18

#nvente" genres an" themes novel of the frontiers Precaution 71H(>8 The Spy O 3ir %alter 3cott O #ntrigueE&evolution The Pilot 71H(*8 The Pioneers OAfter &evolution Brea" W Cheese Club The Leather#Stoc(ing Series E The Last of the -ohicans - The Prairie - The Pathfinder - The Deerslayer - Natty Bumpo Natural Aristocracy &omance O 5poetical vie' of the sub<ect6 1H(HE Notions of the Americans 3amuel Chemens - -:cess of prose - $lat

Novels of the frontier

After Cooper@s "eath his style 'as too rhetorical /e invente" genres an" the novel of the frontier /e 'as ,> 'hen he starte" 'riting /e "oes not Americanise this novel 7# thin1 it refers to Precaution8 he uses the British countrysi"e #n The Spy he americanises the elements /is most famous boo1 'as The Pioneers Natty Bumpo is the main character of all the novels in The Leather#Stoc(ing Series #t represents the sense of nature, that is to say the "ichotomy savageEcivilise" ?ames $enimore Cooper also belonge" to the 2nic1erboc1er literary group, but later on, he foun"e" his o'n group That 'oul" be calle" read and &#eese &lub /e travelle" through -urope as 'ell /e is more sceptical an" less fantastic, he "eman"s the creation of an American literature an" 'ith that an American i"entity Natural Aristocracy Button is -nglish, he 'as e"ucate" in the high class Then, he 'ent to live as Tar!an but he 'as still a civilise" 'hite man 3o, 'e fin" the story of a civilise" 'hite man living in the forest /e ha" the best Aualities of each 'orl", the savage an" the civilise" ++?ames $enimore Cooper 'as the creator of the sea fiction, the international novel, an" "istinctively American forms of the novel, of manners an" allegorical fiction Cooper e:plore" the meanings of American frontier e:perience, creating the prototypical %estern hero, Natty Bumppo 7the leatherEstoc1ing8, 'hose 'il"erness a"ventures "ramatise some of the central cultural tensions of antebellum America M N Although Cooper may not have become a 'riter in or"er to gain solvency 7family legen"s has it that he 'rote his first novel in response to a "are from his 'ife8, his literary career, once un"erta1en, 'as "riven both creative passion an" financial necessity That career began in 1H(> 'ith Precaution, an unsuccessful an" imitative novel of manners set in -nglan" an" publishe" anonymously But in the follo'ing year, Cooper foun" his form an" his au"ience 'ith The 3py #n this bestEseller, set in the /u"son &iver highlan"s above Ne' Lor1 City "uring the American &evolution, the

novelist e:ploite" the immense appeal of American history, characters, an" settings "uring a time 'hen the &evolutionary era an" its lea"ers ha" become a sub<ect for reverence an" nostalgia Pioneers 'as the first of the LeatherE3toc1ing novels, it 'as publishe" in 1H(* The secon" novel of the series 'as The Last of the -ohicans, set "uring the $rench an" #n"ian %ar 'hen Natty Bumppo 'as in vigorous mi""le age This novel is centrally concerne" 'ith the issue of #n"ian "ispossession an" 'ith the conflict of cultures M N Cooper left America in 1H(= an" spent seven years in -urope 'here he publishe" The Prairie This 'as suppose" to be the last novel of the series, but surprisingly in the early ,>s, he brought the LeatherEstoc1ing hero bac1 to life in t'o novels, The Pathfin"er 71H,>8 an" The Beerslayer 71H,18 M N Through the course of his long career, Cooper e:plore" in his fiction some of the nineteenth century America@s most important issues, especially the role of elites in a "emocracy an" the conflicting meanings of frontier e:perience That e:perience 'as embo"ie" an" ma"e mythic in Cooper@s LeatherEstoc1ing hero, on of the most en"uring an" influential figures in American literature Though many of Cooper@s 'or1s are unrea" to"ay, he 'as regar"e" throughout much of the 1; th century as America@s preeminent novelist ++ 7(>>(: (11*E(11.8

Notions of the Americans

This te:t is "ivi"e" into t'o main parts: - 0irtues of America - The nee" of an American literature #n this te:t, Cooper sustaine" that American people 'ere e"ucate" but in a more practical 'ay than -uropeans, for instance they learnt religion The country ha" several universitiesI but still Americans ha" to go to the 4l" Continent No', 'e 'ill see the secon" part of this te:t The problem of the literature in America 'as mainly financial There 'as no money support There 'as a copyright la', that ma"e publications much more e:pensive #n or"er to get something publishe", the e"itor ha" to pay the 'riter for his author@s rights /o'ever, in -urope there 'as no copyright so 'riters "i" not have this problem there Another reason 'as that 'hen the boo1s 'ere publishe" in Britain, then the American publishers 1ne' the success that that specific boo1 has achieve" in -urope 3o, they ha" some sort of a"vantage 'hen publishing something that has alrea"y been a success in -nglan" Though, the 'riter affirms that the American te:ts 'ere better %e also have to mention that it 'as cheaper to publish in -nglan" Apart from the money, American 'riters foun" a secon" obstacle, the poverty of materials in America They ha" no history, there 'as not any material to 'rite about in America This i"ea 'as maintaine" up to the (>th century 1+t# centur. &eligion 18t# centur. -nlightenment reason W religion 7Ne' Classical LiteratureI Promotional an" Political Literature8 1*t# centur. 9i"Ecentury O -mily Bic1inson + Longfello' 7-uropean 'riter

7establishe" an i"entity8

%alt %hitman + very popular at that time8 /amet Beecher 3to'e novelist: Uncle Tom@s cabin Transcen"entalism O &alph %al"o -merson E 2ant )erman E )oethe &omanticism D -aster Philosophy U NatureK E Coleri"ge -nglish &omanticism

KNature: it becomes the source of in"entity 7not language an" religion anymore8 #f you go to nature an" tranAuility, you 'ill feel )o" insi"eFFF This state is relate" to the Lyrical Balla"s of Coleri"ge an" Congreve Nature O i"entity E place of )o" D Broo1 $arm ( e:periments, they aban"one" their properties so $ruitlan" they live" in Nature 7a very har" life8 7a sort of Communist e:periment8 D Bial a maga!ine: it laste" for , years All the people in this group publishe" in this maga!ine /ome'or1: &ea" The $all of the House of Usher

&alph %al"o -merson 71H>*E1HH(8 Nature 71H*=8

A philosophy of the present he concentrates in the present #t is a poetry of insight feeling, intuition, &omanticism #nspiration from natureF Not by means of har" 'or1F %e are not going to import British history /istory 'ill have to come from inspiration Practical science things can be prove" by going to nature Art is base" on nature Nature: E a common sense, everything that has not been touche" by man The soul of nature is )o"FFF Art is conceive" as an imitation of nature fabricate" by man Art has to be useful, 'e have to bear in min" the practical necessity things have in this perio" Nature is secret an" inaccesible - #t is never mean to us - #nnocence+ 3implicity - Pleasure 0ery &omantic i"easF - 2no'le"ge - 3ecret: inaccesible Nature is the "esign of )o" 'e cannot preten" to 1no' itFFF

&alph %al"o -merson 71H>*E1HH(8

/arvar" Bivinity 3chool O Unitarianism: E 9an@s capabilities E Prospects of salvation Preache" in Boston #n 1H*( resigne" pastorate 1H*= E Nature 1H*J O The American Scholar Opresent+ instincts This is consi"ere" the intellectual "eclaration of #n"epen"enceFFF The Dial 71H,>E,,8 Lecture" in -nglan" 1H.> E .epresentati/e -en D 3ocial in<ustice 3lavery &acial 4ppression

++ /e 'as one of the first American 'riters to be recognise" by the British an" -uropean literary establishments, rea" enthusiastically by Carlyle an" Niet!sche M N /e became the foun"er of 5Transcen"entalism6 or the spo1esman for 5Nature6, the 5optimist6 'ho "oes not un"erstan" the 'orl"@s evil or pain /e is thus remove" from the march of time, i"ealise" as a 5primor"ial6 figure 'hose vision isolates him from the political an" social struggles of his age But -merson 'as never a simply "istant patriarchal figure sheltere" from the material problems of his age /e constructe" his 5optative6 e:uberance "espite the early "eaths of his father, t'o of his brothers, his belove" young 'ife, an" his first son, an" "espite his o'n serious bouts 'ith lung "isease an" eye strain /e 'as a chil" both of privilege an" penury, of family position an" "epen"ence M N -merson@s e"ucation vacillate" bet'een Boston Latin school an" private tutoring by his aunt 9ary 9oo"y -merson At /arvar", 'hich he atten"e" on scholarship, -merson struggle" 'ith the aca"emic curriculum an" 'ith his e:pecte" future as either a teacher or a minister But he also con"ucte" a more satisfying private e"ucation of rea"ing an" <ournalE'riting that 'oul" prepare him to be a 'riter, an American scholar, an" poet M N #n 1H(., he entere" /arvar" Bivinity 3chool, follo'ing nine generations of his family into the ministry Let si: years after his or"ination, he resigne" the ministry, concerne" that the 5"ogmatic theology6 of 5formal Christianity6 loo1e" only to past tra"itions an" the 'or"s of the "ea" M N The inheritance 7from his "ea" 'ife8, 'ith the earnings he receive" from his lecture tours an" his publications an" 'ith a lifetime of frugality an" fiscal planning, ma"e him financially secure /e remarrie" to Li"ian ?ac1son an" they have four chil"ren 4ne of his chil"ren "ie" at the age of five, this 'as a blo' to -merson@s faith -merson@s long career, an" his financial an" social security, allo'e" him to intervene "ecisively in the formation of American culture an" letters Although he generally resiste" the call to public a"vocacy, he 'as sought after to support various social causes: he 'as urge" to <oin the e:perimental commune of Broo1 $arm, pro""e" to ta1e a lea"ing role in the abolitionist movement an" in the lobbying for 'omen@s rights M N /e 'as 1no'n as an e:perimenter 'ho urge" Americans to re<ect their "eference to ol" mo"es an" values, to continental tra"itions M N /e calle" for a ne' age

'hen 5'e 'ill 'al1 on our o'n feetI 'e 'ill 'or1 'ith our o'n han"sI 'e 'ill spea1 our o'n min"s 6M N -merson@s 'or1 is characterise" by a combination of homely metaphors an" gran"iose goals, by his insistence on the present an" his e:pectations for the future M N Although mo"ern rea"ers are unli1ely to be upset by -merson@s "iction or references to se: an" ma"ness, he remains "isturbing, seen as a 5"ifficult6 'riter reAuiring vast annotation an" philosophic glossing ++ 7(>>(: 1.1(E1.1.8

-"gar Allan Poe 71H>;E1H,;8

D Baniel /offman Betective 7Bupin8 -"itor &evie'er E /orror storiesK E Personal -pistemologiesK E 0agabon"K - )eniusK - Literary criticK - PoetK - 3hortEstory 'riterK - )amblingK - AffairsK - Tobacco e:port businessK

Boston O Allan Poe O &ichmon" - Tamerlane and 0ther Poems - 0irginia - &ufus )ris'ol" -"gar Allan Poe ha" a very mysterious life, he invente" most of his life /is biographer 'as &ufus )ris'ol" Baniel /offman in the J>s publishe" Poe : J, there he spo1e about the "ifferent 5Poes6K /is birthplace is un1no'n, it coul" have been Bartimore or Boston %hen he 'as (> he Auarrelle" 'ith his father The real causes are a mystery as 'ell, though it is believe" that they argue" because he "i" not 'ant to go on 'ith his father@s business or, maybe, because he also ha" many "ebts 3o, he 'ent to &ichmon" At the age of (J his father got marrie" an" he "eci"e" to go to his aunt@s home There, he marrie" his cousin /e is thought to have been a "run1ar" an" opium ta1e, thought no'a"ays those assumptions lac1 of any proves The $all of the House of Usher ++ -"gar Allan Poe is one of the bestE1no'n American authors, but his literary legacy is comple: an" confusing Poe pioneere" many of the most en"uring forms of American popular culture, inclu"ing the "etective story, science fiction, an" the gothic or sensational taleI yet he also e:erte" a profoun" influence on 9o"ernism through the enthusiasm of Charles Bau"elaire an" the $rench 3ymbolist poets Poe@s fiction celebrates "ouble, C Auguste Bupin, an" the inability of philosophy to account for the perverse Poe maintaine" that authors shoul" begin by consi"ering their 'riting@s effect on the rea"erI yet he 'as highly critical of sentimentality an" "i"acticism, insisting that beauty, un"erstoo" as the elevation of the soul, 'as the essence of true poetry

Poe@s life 'as as contra"ictory as his literary legacy M NAmong the -uropeans he 'as 1no'n as a misun"erstoo" American genius 9any myths about Poe@s life have ta1en po'erful hol" on the popular imagination, partly "ue to Poe@s e:aggeration an" "istortion of his o'n life story, to his creation of memorable pathological narrators, 'hich rea"ers have confuse" 'ith Poe himself, an" to society@s "ifficulty in coming to grips 'ith the contra"iction bet'een Poe@s aesthetic of 'riterly mastery an" his apparent lac1 of control over finances, his "rin1ing, an" his career M N Born in Boston on ?uly 1;, 1H>;, -"gar Poe 'as the secon" chil" of -li!abeth an" Bavi" Poe, itinerant actor 'ho performe" in theatres in eastern seaboar" cities from 9assachusetts to 3outh Carolina Bavi" Poe aban"one" the family 'hile Poe 'as still an infant %hen his mother "ie" in Becember 1H11 'hile appearing at the &ichmon" Theatre, Poe 'as ta1en in by a prosperous 0irginia merchant an" his 'ife, ?ohn an" $rances Allan An e:porter of tobacco an" importer of a variety of merchan"ise, ?ohn Allan move" his family to -nglan" in 1H1. to set up a branch of his firm in Lon"on There, Poe atten"e" boar"ing school until he 'as eleven, 'hen Allan move" the family bac1 to &ichmon" on account of business failures Poe complete" school in &ichmon", entering the ne'ly opene" University of 0irginia in 1H(= /e e:celle" at ancient an" mo"ern languages but incurre" large gambling "ebts that Allan refuse" to pay Cuarrelling 'ith his foster father over his irresponsibility an" e:travagance, Poe fle" to Boston, arrange" the publication of his first volume of poetry O Tamerlane and 0ther Poems 71H(J8 O an" enliste" in the Unite" 3tates Army un"er the name -"gar A Perry Poe left the army an" reconcile" 'ith Allan 'hen his foster mother "ie" in 1H(;, obtaining a nomination to %est Point in part through Allan@s influence Poe resume" his stu"ies at %est Point but continue" to Auarrel 'ith Allan, 'ho refuse" to support him financially an" 'hose remarriage in the fall of 1H*> "ashe" Poe@s hopes that he eventually 'oul" become Allan@s heir Poe got himself "ismisse" from %est Point by "eliberately "isobeying or"ersI then he set out for Ne' Lor1 City Poe struggle" in the follo'ing years to support himself by his 'riting, moving to Baltimore to live 'ith his gran"mother, his aunt, an" his young cousin 0irginia Clemm, an" submitting stories for ne'spapers pri!e competitions -arly in 1H*., he began to publish tales an" boo1 revie's in a ne'ly establishe" &ichmon" maga!ine /e marrie" his cousin 0irginia in the spring of 1H*= %hile at the 9essenger, Poe "evelope" a national reputation as a 5tomaha'16 critic, one 'ho mercilessly sub<ecte" authors or unrelenting criticism in the manner of the British Auarterly revie's M N #n 1H*;, Poe finally obtaine" stea"y 'or1 in Phila"elphia as e"itor of "urton1s )entleman1s -aga2ine, 'here he publishe" 5The $all of the /ouse of Usher6 M N $ire" from "urton1s in 1H,>, Poe attempte" to garner capital an" subscribers for a literary maga!ine of his o'nI but 'hen this pro<ect prove" unfeasible, he accepte" a <ob as literary e"itor an" revie'er for )raham1s Lady1s and )entleman1s -aga2ine M N After e:perimenting 'ith the lecture circuit, Poe move" his family to Ne' Lor1 in 1H,, There, failing to fin" better 'or1, he 'rote anonymous articles as 5mechanical paragraphist6 for the Ne& 'or( -irror Poe burst onto Ne' Lor1 literary scene rather su""enly in ?anuary 1H,. 'hen ?ames &ussell Lo'ell@s favourable s1etch of Poe@s life an" 'or1s 'as follo'e" by the publication of 5The &aven,6 a poem an" anthologise" M N Poe gra"ually assume" e"itorship an" part o'nership of the "road&ay 3ournal, using it as a vehicle for printing revise" versions of tales that ha" been scattere" among a variety of ne'spapers an" maga!ines ?ust as Poe seeme" to be gaining a measure of control over his career an"

his literary corpus, ho'ever, his personal an" professional life began to unravel /e has presente" an ol" poem as if it 'ere a ne' one, an" 'hen this substitution 'as "iscovere" the Bostonians got really angry, moreover, his 'as "run1 'hen rea"ing the poem The Broa"'ay ?ournal, 'hich Poe ha" acAuire" complete control, collapse" un"er the 'eight of consi"erable "ebt M N Bestitute an" ill, Poe an" his 'ife appeare" in the papers as charity cases, much to Poe@s chagrin 0irginia@s health "ecline", an" she "ie" early in 1H,J M N Poe travelle" to &ichmon" to see1 southern support in the summer of 1H,; There he too1 the temperance ple"ge an" became engage" to his boyhoo" s'eetheart before returning north on literary business 3topping in Baltimore, he apparently bro1e his ple"ge, became "run1 an" "isoriente", an" 'as foun" unconscious outsi"e a polling station on -lection Bay Ta1en to a hospital, Poe "ie" "ays later of 5congestion of the brain6 3hortly after his funeral, his character 'as maligne" in a pseu"onymous obituary by &ufus %ilmot )ris'ol", the man Poe ha" name" as his literary e:ecutor ++ 7(>>(: (*HJE(*H;8

Nathaniel /a'thorne 71H>,E1H=,8

Puritan inheritance D Calvinism pre"estination faith D -vil nature of man1in" - 3ense of guilt seclusion in 3alem - Perio"s: - 1st Perio" 1HH.E1H*; - isolation 7in his house8 - rea"ing about the /istory of Ne' -nglan" - gothicism 7influence" by )othic movement8 - transcen"entalism - $anshadre 71H(H8 his first novel - T&ice#Told Tales 71H*J8 - 1H*; he met 3ophia Peabo"y - (n" Perio" 1H*;E1H.> travelling - Literature for chil"ren )ran"father@s Chair - 1H,( marrie" 3ophia move" to 3alem r" - * Perio" 1H.>E1H=> - The 3carlet Letter - The /ouse of the 3even )ables - ,th Perio" 1H=>E1H=, - Becline - Chaotic narration "oubts goo" an" novel psychological terror /e felt guilty for the cruelty of the PuritansI he belonge" to a *r" generation ++ Nathaniel /a'thorne 'as born in 9assachusetts on the $ourth of ?uly, 1H>,, he 'as the "escen"ant of Puritan 'orthies an" the son of a ship@s captain 'ho "ie" at sea in 1H>H Boo1s free" /a'thorne@s imagination /e live" 'ith his mother an" his t'o

sisters 7the 9annings8, in 'il"erness in &aymon", 9aine /e returne" to 3alem to prepare college an" 'or1e" partEtime in 9annings stagecoach office $rom the 3cottish philosophers, he absorbe" the concepts of faculty psychology 'hich 'oul" recur in his fiction: belief in a unitary min" 'ith separate but interacting po'ers 7inclu"ing perception, reason, memory, association of i"eas, an" imagination8 regulate" by the 'ill "uring 'al1ing hours but not in "reamsI an" a conviction that fulfilment reAuires living throughout the entire range of our faculties an" sensibilities M N #n 1H(H, at his o'n e:pense, he publishe" a slen"er novel "ra'n from his college e:perience entitle" $ansha&e, but it is characteristic of his lifelong "iffi"ence that he soon repu"iate" it an" trie" to "estroy all copies M N #n 1H*J, /a'thorne 5t'elve lonely years6 as 5the obscurest man of letters in America6 came to an en" 'hen T&ice#Told Tales 'as publishe" 'ith his name on the front cover Longfello', alrea"y 'ell establishe" as a man of letters, enthusiastically praise" the author@s poetic imagination, his style, an" his use of Ne' -nglan" materials, an" other critics follo'e" suit, though neither this collection nor the e:pan"e" 1H,( version attracte" a large au"ience M N 59y 2insman, 9a<or 9olineu:6 or 5Loung )oo"man Bro'n6: both probe the in"ivi"ual@s comple: inner life an" interrelationships 'ith society, 'arning against simplistic moral <u"gements an" challenging pious assumptions about Puritanism an" revolutionary America Both present eruptions of 'hat ha" been suppresse"I an" the narrator, 'ho as1s if the guiltEobsesse" Bro'n ha" 5only "reame" a 'il" "ream of a 'itchEmeeting6 an" ans'ers 5Be it so if you 'ill,6 reAuires the rea"er to participate in moral <u"gement M N /a'thorne met 3ophia Peabo"y, a frail amateur artist to 'hom he became secretly engage" the follo'ing year M N he began 'hat he 'oul" call 5the most romantic episo"e of his o'n life O essentially a "ay"ream an" yet a fact6: he <oine" the Utopian commune of Broo1 $arm Although sceptical about the community@s socialist i"eas, he hope" their 'ay of life 'oul" enable him to combine authorship an" marriage But the "ru"gery of farm 'or1 ma"e 'riting impossible, an" he left after half a year M N in ?uly 1H,(, /a'thorne marrie" 3ophia an" move" into the 4l" 9anse in Concor" M N #n April, 1H,=, /a'thorne became 3urveyor of the 3alem Custom /ouse an" returne" to his birthplace M N he 'as earning a comfortable livingI an" 'hen the victorious %higs "ismisse" him in 1H,;, /a'thorne struggle" for reinstatement on the groun"s that as a 3urveyor an" a man of letters, he 'as apolitical Then, anguishe" by his mother@s "eath an" frustrate" by his "ismissal, he 'rote The Scarlet Letter /is first novel, his masterpiece, is an in"ictment of Puritan America, but also of his o'n society M N /a'thorne emerges from confrontation 'ith a selfErighteous society as an in"ivi"ual of integrity, passion, an" moral superiority M N /a'thorne@s 5romantic6 belief in sub<ective perception, sho'ing ho' imagination participates in creating the 'orl" 'e inhabit M N Leaving 3alem forever, /a'thorne move" his family to a small house in the Ber1shires in the spring of 1H.>, an" soon pro"uce" his secon" novel, The House of the Se/en )a+les, centering on a 3alem family bur"ene" by ancestral guilt M N /a'thorne 'as appointe" Consul to Liverpool, serving from 1H.* to 1H.J As in his other political positions, /a'thorne 'or1e" conscientiously, but his imagination became stultifie"I e:cept for his noteboo1s, he 'rote almost nothing, Then from 1H.J to 1H.;, he live" in &ome an" $lorence, 'here his immersion in art an" acAuaintance 'ith artists generate" the last romance he 'oul" complete O The -ar+le $aun

&eturning to Concor" in 1H=> /a'thorne struggle" to complete three other romances: but his health 'as bro1en an" he 'as "istraught by the prospect an" then the actuality of civil 'ar Though he believe" slavery 'as evil an" hope" for Union victory, he remaine" sceptical about 'hat abolitionists 7or any other reformers8 coul" accomplish

Loung )oo"man Bro'n 71H*.8

/e starts a <ourney on the forest /e is young 7innocence Puritanism8 an" goo" /e met "ifferent characters Bevil 7is <ust the same 'ith "ifferent appearances8 /is 'ife is 5$aith6 at the en" he arrive" at a sort of "evil altar /e tries to ma1e them 5"iabolic6FFF the other characters to him ?ourney physical movement psychological movement 7lin1e" to /a'thorne life8 loo1ing for his o'n i"entity The forest is another character in the story 7Claustrophobic space8 There are three "ifferent parts in the story: 1st Part /e says goo"bye to the 'oman 7$aith8 /e 1no's 'hat 'ill happen $aith en" of the <ourney 7Bevil8 There@s no return %hen he returns he lives in isolation /e is not as simple as he seems, he 'ants to start his <ourney Puritan i"ea strong mission 7travel8, create a ne' 'orl" After the first apparition he 'ants to go bac1 to the village The <ourney coul" be interprete" as a pilgrimage The i"ea of the <ourney is of his o'n, but the people that appear is part of pre"estination this i"ea is associate" 'ith the Calvinist religious movement 9an1in" is seen as evilFFF 2nd Part /e meets in his <ourney 'ellE1no'n people that is part of his previous life The "evil tries to convince the character This i"ea can be also lin1e" to the Bible, ?esus Christ@s TemptationsFFF /e met ne' characters 'ith the voices of the puritan members Those characters may be a sort of illusion on the part of Loung )oo"man 9aybe, everything is in his min" /e gets lost an" becomes a'are of his o'n sins At that precise moment he starts calling for his 5$aith6

3rd Part The transformation of the protagonist a 5beast6 7page ,HJ, he is "escribe" 'ith a monstrous image8 The "evil is the priest #n the village he meets the people he has met in the forest 9:vil is t#e nature o! mankind; Nathaniel an" Bevil@s 'or"s The meaning of the story as a 'hole parabola /eaction against predestination and Puritanism% %e conclu"e that maybe he fall asleep an" everything 'as <ust a "reamV

/erman 9elville 71H1;E1H;18

3et sail 7(1 yrs 8 3outh 3eas 79arAuesas+ /aiti+ /onolulu8 - (. yrs Boston E Typee E 0moo 7polishe"8 E 1H,; -ardi 7allegorical satire8 E 1H,; .ed+urn E 1H.> %hite#3ac(et E 1H.1 -o+y Dic( 7'rite the other 'ay Bifferent to the canon8 E Pierre E incest 7)othic8 E psychological - Poems+ 3hort stories+ -ssays 1**1 /e 'as rich but his father ban1rupte" /e 'or1e" an" set sail to 9arAuesas, /aiti an" /onolulu /e 'ent bac1 to Boston an" 'rote about his <ourneys As he nee"e" money he 'rote the seAuel to Typee, that 'as calle" 0moo /e 'as not happy 'ith this novel 3o, he 'rote more satirical novels, he attac1e" the politicians of his age Although the previous novels ha" been a very great success, this ne' satirical novels 'ere very ba"ly receive" Then he continue" 'riting a"venturous novels 'hich 'ere a great success, but he "i" not li1e them 3o, he 'rote 9oby Bic1 'hich 'as a sort of balance This novel 'as very ba"ly revie'e", that cause" him a severe "epression /e coul" not 'rite canonical things After some time, he 'rote a )othic novel Pierre, 'hich 'as the title of the novel an" the main character@s name as 'ell Pierre 'as in love of his half sister, though he "i" not 1no' it This novel 'as con"emmene" as immoralFFF At that time, he 'as consi"ere" a me"iocre 'riterI he starte" to be consi"ere" seriously in the 1>>th anniversary of his "eath in 1;;1 7Nieves@s notes8 ++ %hen /erman 9elville 'as t'elve years ol", his merchant father "ie" ban1rupt The trage"y plunge" young /erman from the comfortable, patrician 'orl" of his 9elvill an" )ansevoort ancestors into the precarious, "ru"ging 'orl" of the sailors, cler1s, farm labourers, factory 'or1ers, paupers, an" slaves 'ho 'oul" subseAuently people his fiction 9elville@s uniAue perspective on his society "erives from his e:perience of living at the intersection of those opposing 'orl"s 9elville left school soon after his father "eath /e launche" on a fruitless search for a stable employment After trying several <obs, but 'ith very ba" results, he 'ent to

sea as a common sailor, first on a fourEmonth voyage to Liverpool aboar" the merchant ship 3t La'rence in 1H*;, then on a threeEyear voyage to the 3outh 3ea, aboar" a series of 'haleships beginning 'ith the Acushenet in 1H,1 9elville@s roving life as a sailor, 'hich provi"e" the material for his first si: boo1s, also schoole" his imagination -:pose" to brutal 'or1ing con"itions alongsi"e men of all races, 9elville learne" to i"entify 'ith slaves an" to "ra' analogies bet'een "ifferent forms of oppression Confronte" in the 9arAuesas, Tahiti, an" /a'aii 'ith 'arships training their guns on na1e" islan"ers, an" 'ith 5rapacious hor"es of enlightene" in"ivi"uals6 rushing to sei!e the 5"epopulate" lan"6 from the natives re"uce" to starving 5interpolerMsN6 in their o'n country, 9elville came to vie' 5the 'hite civilise" man as the most ferocious animal on the face of the earth 6 Above all, a so<ourn among one of the peoples his society "enigrate" as 5savages6 taught 9elville to Auestion his "eepest cultural assumptions #n ?uly, 1H,(, eighteen months of 5tyrannical6 usage at sea "rove 9elville an" a shipmate name" Toby )reene ot <ump ship at Nu1ahiva in the 9arAuesas 9elville "iscovere" that these repute" cannibals 5"eal more 1in"ly 'ith each other, an" are more humane6 than many selfEprofesse" Christians Although 9elville chose to escape after four 'ee1s of 5in"ulgent captivity6, he 'oul" never again ta1e for grante" either the superiority of 'hite Christian civilisation or the benefit of imposing it on others #nstea" he began reEe:amining his o'n society through the eyes of 5savages 6 The Australian 'haler Lucy Ann, on 'hich 9elville left Nu1ahiva, prove" 'orse than the Acushnet, an" he en"e" up embroile" in a mutiny that lan"e" him in a Tahitian <ail /e escape" an" spent several 'ee1s roaming aroun" Tahiti, 'ith another shipmate /e 'or1e" as a cler1 for t'o months an" a half -ventually, he <oine" the cre' of the home'ar" boun" 'arship Unite" 3tates as an or"inary seaman, arriving in Boston the follo'ing 4ctober, 1H,, 3o, his first boo1 'as Typee4 A Peep at Polynesian Life 71H,=8, 'hich 'as an instant success 9elville 'restle" 'ith the "ilemma throughout his literary career /is ne:t boo1, 0moo 71H,J8, a fictionalise" account of the mutiny aboar" the Lucy Ann an" his ensuing a"ventures in Tahiti, retracte" the concessions he ha" ma"e to the censors of Typee an" e:pose" 'hite "epre"ations in the 3outh 3eas more unsparingly than ever Thereafter, he starte" e:perimenting 'ith increasingly rea"ers@ pre<u"ices an" conveying un'elcome truths #n 1H,J he marrie" -li!abeth 3ha' $amily obligations thus a""e" to the pressures impelling 9elville to'ar" in"irection /is e:perimental allegory -ardi 71H,;8 combine" metaphysical speculation, political satire, an" antiEslavery protest 9elville@s public, ho'ever, rebelle" against his formal innovations, forcing him to return to realistic narrative in .ed+urn 71H,;8 an" %hite#3ac(et4 or The %orld in a -an#of#%ar 71H.>8 The ne' techniAue 9elville "evelope" of fusing fact an" symbol reache" fruition in his most po'erful an" original 'or1, 9obyEBic1 71H.18 Conferring epic "ignity on a class of men hitherto barre" from the purvie' of literature, an" elevating their "espise" occupation, the 'hale hunt, to mythic stature, 9obyEBic1@s matchless achievement 'as to transform the implements, ra' materials, an" processes of a lucrative, gory in"ustry, 'hich subsiste" on the plun"er of nature, into rich symbols of the struggle to fulfil humanity@s potential un"er con"itions threatening apocalyptic "estruction The boo1@s 3ha1espearean gran"eur, philosophical "epth, an" "aring mi:ture of genres an" forms reflecte" 9elville@s omnivorous rea"ing since entering literary circles

Unli1e /a'thorne, ho'ever, 9elville violate" his public@s literary taste an" offen"e" its religious an" political sensibilities Thus his ambitious epic "i" not 'in him the acclaim he hope" for, let alone the financial re'ar"s he nee"e" to support his gro'ing family #n a "esperate attempt to recapture the literary mar1etplace, 9elville set out to pro"uce a psychological romance of the type /a'thorne ha" popularise" Perversely, PierreI or, The Ambiguities 71H.(8 burlesAue" the very form it sought to emulate $eaturing incest, satirising Christianity, #mapooning the literary establishment, an" even caricaturing 9elville@s o'n family, it calle" "o'n a storm of abuse an" convince" many that 9elville ha" gone ma" #n stories li1e 5Bartleby6 71H.*8 9elville "epicte" the victims of capitalism an" slavery no longer through the eyes of a sympathetic sailor narrator, but through the eyes of an obtuse observer representing the class of 5gentlemen6 'hose smug prosperity reste" on the e:torte" labour of the 'or1ers they "ehumanise" O the class constituting 9elville@s public an" closest associates in the social milieu he ha" re<oine" 9outhing their racist clichTs, mimic1ing their social snobbery, echoing their pious platitu"es, an" e:posing their sublime obliviousness to the suffering on 'hich they fattene", 9elville mercilessly anatomise" the rea"ers he ha" given up hope of converting Let he also <arre" them out of their complacency through language that insistently provo1e" "iscomfort, an" through the 'arning vision he hel" up again an" again of the apocalyptic "oom un"erta1ing their society By 1H.=, he ha" reache" a psychological na"ir, 'hich his family attribute" to the strain of 'riting 3tepping into the breach, his fatherEinEla' ?u"ge 3ha' finance" a trip to -urope an" the 9i""le -ast 4n his return in 1H.J, 9elville trie" for three years to support his family by lecturing, but he un"er'ent a "ra'nEout repeat of the "emoralising search for remunerative employment that ha" "riven him to sea This time the search le" in 1H== to a <ob as a customs inspector, 'hich he hel" for nineteen years The "eca"e of trauma too1 a heavy toll, reaching a ne' lo' point in 1H=J, 'hen 9elville@s 'ife -li!abeth consi"ere" leaving him, fearing that he ha" gone insane, an" their el"est son 9alcolm committe" suici"e at age eighteen 9elville@s critical fortunes have fluctuate" stri1ingly over the past century $orgotten by the en" of his life, he 'as re"iscovere" in the 1;(>s but only as the author of a single masterpiece, 9obyEBic1 Not until he early 1;=>s "i" 9elville@s short fiction begin to be 'i"ely rea", anthologise", taught, an" interprete" The critics 'ho first canonise" 9elville nevertheless abstracte" him from his historical conte:t an" overloo1e" his engagement 'ith the political controversies of his era O an engagement that became apparent to a later generation of critics shape" by the political controversies of their o'n era To"ay, critics familiar 'ith the full range of American 'riting ma"e available by this anthology are once again reEe:amining 9elville@s relationship 'ith his culture &egar"less of critical fashion, some rea"ers 'ill al'ays value 9elville primarily for his artistry, others for his oppression an" violence that governe" his 'orl" an" persist in ours

Bartleby the 3crivener 71H*.8

These are some approaches an" interpretations to this te:t: 1E Biographical 3top 'riting U "eath "o not 'rite as the canonFFF (E Thoreau 7transcen"entalism8 aban"on society Passive &esistance 7prison+Bartleby means "eath

*E &eligion 5the a"vent of Bartleby6 A Christ figure 'ho sacrifices his life ,E Capitalism it means oppression, "eath an" lac1 of free"om .E 3emiotics 7signs that "o not communicate8 Beconstruction 'hen you cannot communicate, you "ie 7 this is closely relate" to 9elville@s life, an" his impossibility of communication, 'hen he 'ante" to spea1 about something but he 'as he 'as criticise"8 #n this story nothing happens, though, it is very 'ell narrate" %e feel very intrigue", 'e 'ant to rea" the story even though 'e 1no' that the strangest man 'ill not have any type of solution The i"ea of hermitage is present, this gives the character the sacre" an" martyr caracteristics 5Chirst is the first anore:ic6 This story is compare" to The Hunger Artist 7a starving man is e:pose" in public, at the beginning people felt attracte" to him, but after some "ays he is replace" by a tiger, he "ies in the en" an" nobo"y cares8 by 2af1a The employer of the story is a 5goo" man6 in terms of economics, here 'e have the Capitalist approach to the te:t

%alt %hitman 71H1;E1H=.8

/e 'ill start 9o"ernism in the Unite" 3tates, he is the hinch bet'een Transcen"entalism an" 9o"ernism /e says the soul is important 7Transcen"entalism "ivi"e" soul an" bo"y8 As for him, soul O se: O bo"y are at the same level B / La'rence sustaine" this i"ea as 'ell &omanticism + 9o"ernism Long #slan", Ne' Lor1 $ran1lin -vans Printing office 1H.. O Leaves of )rass R 1H;( 1E 3oul at home in the Bo"y (E Poetry must be organic *E )oo" W -vil ,E 3implicity .E 4b<ects conver upon the 3ub<ect =E 9yth of the eternal return JE Bemocracy HE Catalogues ;E -:pansion W Contraction 1>E Present

The 9o"ernist movement began at the beginning of the (> th century in the 3tates %alt %hitman@s family 'as very 5pure6, he 'ent to 'or1 to a printing office because he "i"

not have money /is first novel 'as $ran(lin ,/ans, it 'as about a man that ha" an alcoholic father, an" he 'as afrai" of becoming his father 'hen he ha" a chil" But, his masterpiece 'as Lea/es of )rass, he also 'rote some short stories an" poems an" he 'as consi"ere" rather me"iocre /e began 'riting Leaves of )rass in 1H.. an" finishe" it in 1H;(I he spent all those years composing his master piece %alt %hitman 'as rather narcissistI he "i" not 'rite using his real name -merson li1e" his boo1 an" he %hitman publishe" it himself /e sustaine" that poetry 'as organic because it 'as li1e a plant, something you can touch, smell, see, etcV This i"ea 'oul" be highly influential /e "econstructe" the "ichotomy evil+ goo" /e "i" not have moral values %hitman a"vocate" for simplicity of life, this i"ea is "erive" from the &omantics 7Thoreau@s life8 As for the ob<ect an" the sub<ect, %hitman believe" in the fusion of both Lou an" the ob<ect you are loo1ing at become oneI you "isappear an" become an element 'ith the ob<ect %hitman believe" in the myth of the eternal return, 'hich 'as a sort of reincarnation philosophy, he sustaine" that nobo"y "ies /e spo1e of "emocracy using the metaphor of the grass, 'e are li1e spears of grass, an" 'e are all eAual /o'ever, he 'as rather elitist because he consi"ere" himself a gui"e to the people of this 'orl" #n his poetry, he catalogue" things, 'e can see his <ournalist bac1groun" on this /e also 'or1e" 'ith the e:pansion an" re"uction techniAues /e "escribe" something an" gave plenty of "etails, an" then he summarise" everything in the en" ma1ing use of re"uction /e 'as obsesse" 'ith the i"ea of Present, everything is process for him %e can establish some parallelisms 'ith $reu"@s i"eas, both of them see the s1in as our limits, so the touch sense is very important, an" can be rather sensual %e fin" a very e:perimental poetry, 'hich is his 9o"ernist venue /e gives his truth &eality R 3ub<ect /o' # perceiveFFF 7&omanticism8 79o"ernism8 # "o not 'ant to "epict reality, but # 'ant to sho' the 'ay in 'hich # perceive &omanticism 9e 9o"ernism 9e, me an" finally meFFF ++ MVN #n the si:th e"itions of Leaves of )rass that 'ere publishe" bet'een 1H.. an" 1HH1, %hitman opene" the fiel" of American an" ultimately of mo"ern poetry /e 'as the poet not only of Bar'inian evolution, but of the city an" the cro'", science an" the machine Presenting himself as a mo"el "emocrat 'ho spo1e as an" for rather than apart from the people, %hitman@s poet 'as brea1er of boun"s: he 'as female an" male, farmer an" factory 'or1er, prostitute an" slave, citi!en of America an" citi!en of the 'orl"I shuttling bet'een past, present, an" future MVN /is songs 'ere songs not only of occupations but of se: an" the bo"y /e sang of masturbation, of se:ual organs, an" the se:ual actI he 'as one of the first poets to 'rite on the 5bo"y electric,6 of female eroticism, homose:ual love, an" the anguish of represse" "esire Pu!!le" by %hitman@s su""en emergence at age *= in 1H.. as the American bar", critics have propose" several e:planations: a rea"ing of -merson, a love affair, a mystic e:perience, an 4e"ipal crisis Consi"ere" 'ithin the conte:t of his time, ho'ever, %hitman@s emergence seems neither mystifying nor particularly "isconnecte" from his family bac1groun" an" his early life as ra"ical Bemocrat, political <ournalist, an" sometimes "an"y MVN /is parents 'ere highly committe" to the Bemocrat cause, an" 'ere Auite involve" in the politics of their time &aise" among eight brothers an"

sisters 'hose very names bore the inscription of the "emocratic i"eals of his family, %hitman early began to "evelop a sense of self that 'as ine:tricably boun" up 'ith the political i"entity of America Although %hitman atten"e" school bet'een 1H(. an" 1H*>, he 'as largely selfE e"ucate" Buring the thirties he serve" as a printer@s apprentice, engage" in local politics, an" taught for a fe' years in Long #slan" schools /e rea" voraciously but erratically, atten"e" the theatre an" the opera MVN As a political <ournalist he place" himself at the very centre of the political battles over slavery, territorial e:pansion, the 9e:ican %ar, sectionalism, free tra"e, states@ rights, 'or1er strife, an" the ne' mar1et economy MVN Perhaps "isillusione" by party politics, he began to e:periment 'ith the i"ea of using poetry as a form of political action MVN Although %hitman continue" to support the cause of $ree 3oil, in the early $ifties he 'ith"re' form party politics %or1ing partEtime as a house buil"er in Broo1lyn, he complete" his 1H.. e"ition of Leaves of )rass The poems are propelle" by the "esire to enlighten an" regenerate the people in the i"eals of the "emocratic republic The "rama of i"entity in the initially untitle" 53ong of 9yself,6 the first an" longest poem in the 1H.. Leaves, is roote" in the political "rama of nation in crisis The poet@s conflict bet'een separate person an" en masse, bet'een pri"e an" sympathy, in"ivi"ualism an" eAuality, nature an" the city, the bo"y an" the soul, symbolically enacts the larger political conflicts in the nation, 'hich gre' out of the controversies over in"ustrialisation, 'age labour, 'omen@s rights, finance, immigration, slavery, territorial e:pansion, technological progress, an" the 'hole Auestion of the relation of in"ivi"ual an" state, state an" nation MVN %hitman@s homose:ual love crisis along 'ith the impen"ing "issolution of the Union cause" him to become increasingly "oubtful about the future of America an" his o'n future as the bar" of "emocracy MVN %hitman infuse" the abstractions of "emocracy 'ith the intensity of erotic passion, giving literature some of its first an" most potent images of "emocratic comra"eshipI an" by lin1ing homoeroticism 'ith a "emocratic brea1ing of boun"s, he presents one of the most ten"er an" moving accounts of homose:ual love in %estern literature $or %hitman, as for the nation, the Civil %ar 'as a perio" of ma<or crisis Uncertain of the role of a national poet "uring a time of fratrici"al 'ar, %hitman publishe" little "uring the 'ar years #n 1H=(, 'hen he 'ent to the front in search of his brother )eorge, he foun" the role he 'oul" play: he 'oul" become a 1in" of spiritual 5'oun"E"resser6 by visiting the sic1 an" "ying sol"iers in the hospital 'ar"s of %ashington MVN Li1e Leaves of )rass, Bemocratic 0istas 71HJ18 'or1s "ialectically, as %hitman see1s to reconcile self an" other, state an" nation, North an" 3outh, country an" city, labour an" capital, money an" soul /e arrives at no final synthesis of the values he see1s to <uggle Ami" the mo"ernising, stan"ar"ising, an" capitalising 'hirl of America, 'here 5'ith steamEengine spee"6 generations of humanity turne" out 5li1e uniform iron casting,6 %hitman recognises that the roa" to the future might be the roa" of the 5fable" "amne" 6 MVN /e announce" his intention of turning a'ay from his former emphasis on 5a great composite democratic indi/idual, male an" female6 to'ar" an increase" emphasis on 5an aggregate", inseparable, unprece"ente", vast, composite, electric democratic nationality 6 /is plan 'as cut short by a paralytic stro1e 'hich he suffere" at the beginning of 1HJ* The sei!ure left him be"ri""en for several 'ee1s an" paralyse" him for the rest of his life

%hitman ma"e a trip to Cam"en, Ne' ?ersey, a fe' "ays before his mother@s "eath in 9ay 1HJ*, an" never returne" to %ashington /e spent the remain"er of his life in Cam"en, first at his brother )eorge@s house an" finally, beginning in 1HH,, in his o'n home 3truggling 'ith occasional spells of "i!!iness an" a prematurely aging bo"y, %hitman mustere" enough strength to publish "ual volume of poetry an" prose on the occasion of the American centennial in 1HJ= ++ 7(H,=E(H,;8

3ong of 9yself
Lou@" better pay a loo1 at the photocopiesFFF 9yth of the eternal return, Life R Beath R Life R BeathV J no goo"+ no evil U goo" is eAual to evil fusion of self an" action Poet as a prophet an" gui"e of the people /e is afrai" of 9erge 7fusion8 /e is Auite parado<ical in his 'ritings for instance: # celebrate myself vs $usion of self an" action

$re"eric1 Bouglass 71H1;E1H;.8

Blac1 3lave Normative: Photograph Title page 7'ritten by himself8 Preface 7#ntro"uction8 The narrative itself E 5# 'as born6 not 1no' 'hen but they 7the slaves8 1ne' 'here E Parentage 7%hite father8 E Cruel 9aster a religious person E 3lave O har"'or1ing refuse Africa E &ea" an" 'rite "ifficulties for them E Christian 3lavehol"er most cruel E $oo"+ Clothing+ %or1 E 3lave auction separates the family, loses trac1 of his parents E Attempts to escape E Cua1er 'hen he escapes he enters a Cua1er home E Last name he 'ill change his name, not to go bac1 to his previous life E &eflections .E Appen"i: the person tries to ta1e moral an" economic support for the abolitionist cause 3lave narrative 'as ran by slaves 1E (E *E ,E

1 ( * ,

# am alive, # e:ist The title 7# am the author8 %hat 'e 'ill rea", normally an abolitionist The same features in this narrative

7BiscusiXn "e clase8 #mYgenes reales vs construi"as E niZos E mu<eres La reali"a" siempre se construye Un simulacro "el hambre y "e la reali"a" 18 No contribuimos E e:cusas morales E not close enough E acostumbramiento 7repetition8 7/acer paralelismos con el te:to "e Bouglass8 (8 Contribuimos con este tipo "e causes por los siguientes motivos: E Aliviar la conciencia 7alleviate consciousness8 E 3elfishness+ -nvy Preface: ChristEli1e figure Chil"ren un"eserve" 'hat they are suffering is not their fault Compassion important empathy: follo' my e:ample put yourself in their s1in 3laves ha" a very 5happy6 lifeFFF This is a 5'hite6 construction 7Notas Aue tengo puesta en el te:to8: /e "eman"s eAualityFFF The preface is 'ritten by a 'hite abolitionist, % 9 Lloy" )arrison A 'hite narrator 'ill ma1e the rea"er 7a 'hite man or 'oman8 feel closer to the te:t This te:t 'as 'ritten before the Civil %ar The narrator is first personI he spea1s from his o'n position /e "efen"e" natural rights #f you believe in )o", please "o not "enounce these people The la' sai" that if someone "iscovere" that a slave ha" run a'ayI that person ha" to ta1e the slave bac1 to his 5o'ner6 % 9 Lloy" )arrison 'as a 'hite abolitionist %e have to "ifferent e:planations to suffering 4n the one han", suffering robs you your humanity, on the other han", suffering provi"es you 1no'le"ge 3uffering 'as also un"erstoo" as Bivine punishment, in moral terms $ollo'ing the American i"ea that )o" is 'ith them if you "eci"e to contribute is because )o" is on the si"e of the oppresse" %ith this te:t they loo1e" for soli"arity, an" economic support, it 'as a "irect "eman" for the rea"er Anuncios "el hambre

++ Abolitionist, 'omen@s rights a"vocate, <ournalist an" ne'spaper e"itor, social reformer an" race lea"er, $re"eric1 Bouglass 'as unAuestionably one of the most prominent blac1 lea"ers of the nineteenth century an" one of the most eloAuent orators in American public life /e 'as born a slave in 1H1H /is mother, /arriet Bailey, 'as a slaveI his father, Bouglass suspecte", 'as probably Aaron Anthony, the general plantation superinten"ent for the Lloy" plantation, 'here Bouglass spent his early chil"hoo" A sensitive an" intelligent chil", Bouglass 'as Auic1 to observe the horrors an" routine in<ustices of slavery an" his passion for blac1 liberation an" 'omen@s rights 'as un"oubte"ly fuelle" by his early observations an" e:periences on the Lloy" plantation %hen Bouglass 'as eight years ol", he 'as sent to Baltimore to live 'ith an" 'or1 for the Aul" family There he learne" an important lesson about the relationship of rea"ing an" 'riting to a liberate" consciousness #n the face of the a"amant opposition of the Aul"s to his receiving even the most elementary instructions Bouglass, through a series of ruses, slo'ly an" painsta1ingly taught himself the ru"iments of rea"ing an" 'riting #n 1H*H, Bouglass escape" from slavery in Baltimore to pursue his vision of free"om in the North 7after suffering, an" confronting his o'ner8 #n Ne' Lor1 City he marrie" Anna 9urray, a free blac1 'oman from Baltimore 'ho ha" been instrumental in his escapeI Bouglass an" his bri"e then ma"e their 'ay to Ne' Be"for", 9assachusetts, in search of a ne' life Typical of many former slaves 'ho ha" "ecisively bro1en a'ay from the shac1les of slavery, Bouglass rename" himself shortly after he marrie" in the North, choosing as his o'n the name of the hero of 3ir %alter 3cott@s novel The Lady of the La(e #n early 1H*;, Bouglass purchase" his first copy of %illiam Lloy" )arrison@s ra"ical abolitionist ne'spaper, the Li+eratorE the initial step to'ar"s his transformation into an abolitionist lea"er /e rea" the Liberator religiously, began to atten" antiEslavery meetings in the local blac1 community an", by 1H,1, ha" merge" as an eloAuent lea"er of the blac1 people in Ne' Be"for" Later that year, Bouglass 'as electrifie" 'hen he hear" )arrison spea1 for the first time an" "eci"e" to atten" an" antiEslavery convention at Nantuc1et, 'here )arrison 'as sche"ule" to spea1 again #t 'as at that meeting on August 1(, 1H,1, that Bouglass 'as encourage" to a""ress the au"ience #n spite of his embarrassment, Bouglass stoo" up an" offere" a very moving account of his e:periences as a slave Bouglass a""resse" the convention again that evening an", 'hen the meeting 'as over, ?ohn A Collins, general agent of the 9assachusetts AntiE3lavery 3ociety, as1e" Bouglass to <oin them as an agent After some soulEsearching, Bouglass agree" $rom that point on, Bouglass committe" his life to, in his 'or"s, the 5great 'or16 of abolition an" blac1 liberation Although his "espair over the blea1 con"ition of blac1s "uring the 1H.>s le" him to briefly consi"er emigration to another country as a solution, Bouglass 'elcome" the outbrea1 of the Civil %ar as the moment in 'hich the longEa'aite" opportunity for blac1 emancipation an" elevation ha" arrive" Buring the 'ar, he functione" as a public spo1esman for the position that this conflict shoul" be seen as a 'ar of emancipation an", along 'ith 3o<ourner Truth, urge" Abraham Lincoln to enlist blac1s in the Union army %hen Lincoln yiel"e" to these "eman"s in 1H=(, Bouglass 'as at the forefront in urging blac1s to <oin the army to fight for their free"om Bet'een 1H=. an" his "eath in 1H;., Bouglass continue" to function as one of the most prominent blac1 spo1esmen in the country an" as a political lea"er in the &epublican Party ++ 7(>>(: 1H1,E1H1=8

-mily Bic1inson 71H*>E1HH=8

Transcen"entalism W 9o"ernism Poet as a hero -:perimentation Consciousness an" nature 9iracle in the familiar Amherst $ather+ 9other &everen" Charles Thomas %ent'orth %orth'orth -:perimentation 79o"ernism8K E concrete R abstract - 9etaphors - Nouns R a"<ectives - 3ynta:+ Punctuation "islocation - /igginson 5# 'ish # 'ere 7a8 /ay6

/er poetry is in the mi""le, highly e:perimental The poet is a man hero The miracle in the every "ay life 7"aily "etails8 9o"ernist the cause of e:perimentationK 3he 'as born in a Calvinist Puritan community /er father intro"uce" her to literature, she hate" her mother 3he har"ly ever 'ent outsi"e her house 3he ha" seen her biographer <ust once 3he is suppose" to have an affair 'ith the &everen" Charles, then he 'ent a'ay an" his absence she 'rote some poems "e"icate" to him /e 'as of much more inspiration 'hen he 'as a'ay /er biographer, /igginson, consi"ere" her poems 'ere not rea"y to be publish, so he correcte" many of her poems But, 'hen "oing this, he spoilt most of the poems This 'as "one after her "eath ++Bic1inson live" in Amherst, 9assachusetts, 'here she 'as born in 1H*> an" "ie" in 1HH= 3he share" her family@s househol" 'ith her younger sister Lavinia, her mother, -mily Norcross Bic1inson, an" her father, -"'ar" Bic1inson, a la'yer, congressman, an" treasurer of Amherst College /er brother Austin, one year ol"er, a la'yer li1e his father, live" for most of his life in the house ne:tE"oor, after marrying Bic1inson@s frien" 3usan /untington )ilbert %e 1no' fe' "etails about Bic1inson@s mother: she ha" a year of higher e"ucation, rather unusual for a 'oman in the early nineteenth centuryI li1e -mily she 'as a s1ille" an" avi" gar"enerI she share" "omestic responsibilities 'ith her "aughters, an" Lavinia too1 much of the househol" management 3Auire -"'ar" Bic1inson emerges as a "ominant an" "omineering figure in the family, 'hom -mily Bic1inson seems to have both honoure" an" humoure" By the age of t'elve, Bic1inson 'as a fluent an" prolific 'riter of letters Austin "escribe" the "ramatic effect of her talent at Amherst Aca"emy an" 9ount /olyo1e $emale 3eminary, 'here she spent one year Bic1inson@s early letters reveal a 'itty, startling, irreverent imagination, an" a passion for situations 'hich combine" frien"ship, honesty, secrecy, private <o1es, an" tal1 abut boo1s an" i"eas 4f her family@s habits of tra"itional prayer an" churchgoing she 'rote that they 'ere all religious e:cept her /er letters in"icate that she foun" life

e:hilarating an" sufficient, if only it 'oul" last, an" that for her, heaven 'as embo"ie" in familiar surroun"ings, in nature, in love, an" in the po'er of thought /er poems an" letters in"icate that throughout her life she felt she ha" a "irect route to the #nfinite, especially through the 'orl" of the min", an" the churches, sermons, preachers, revival meetings, an" theological vocabulary "i" not e:press her sense of eternity, tremen"ousness, a'e, or spiritual centre, 'hich she also name" Circumference Attention to her o'n e:perience 'as her great route to the #nfinite $or 'omen of Bic1inson@s class, the appropriate social institutions 'ere the family an" the churchI 'ith those came many societal obligations %omen of her "ay 'ere not e:pecte" to be intellectuals, lea"ers, thin1ers, philosophers, or creators But Bic1inson rebelle" 3he 'as a 'oman 'ho create" her o'n avenues of thought, provi"ing a stri1ing e:ample of an alternative sensibility, a "issenting imagination, a reE creating min" Bic1inson rarely, if ever, left her family@s house an" groun"s "uring the last t'enty years of her life, but 'e shoul" not imagine her "isconnecte" from life %e also 1no' that Bic1inson 'as a cosmopolitan an" eclectic rea"er /er ten"ers in"icate that she rea" ne'spapers an" perio"icals, follo'ing closely local an" national events, an" rea"ing contemporary poetry an" fiction as soon as it came to print #t is important to un"erstan" the role in Bic1inson stu"ies playe" by homophobia, 'hich is the fear an" hatre" of love bet'een people of the same se: %e "o not 1no' to 'hat e:tent Bic1inson e:presse" her se:ual "esires physically, but 'e "o have clear evi"ence that her affinities 'ere both lesbian an" heterose:ual 4ne of the most en"uring legen"s in Bic1inson stu"ies is the story that the love poems 'ere 'ritten to the man Bic1inson a""resse" in several passionate letters as 59aster 6 7#t is unclear 'hether these letters 'ere ever actually sent 8 3ome argue that 59aster6 can be i"entifie" as the &everen" Charles %a"s'orth of Phila"elphia an" claim that it 'as %a"s'orth 'ho 5bro1e the poet@s heart 6 Thomas %ent'orth /igginson 'as a 'riter an" a reformer, an" -mily Bic1inson calle" him her 59entor 6 -ven though /igginson stoo" in a'e of the poet, he apparently commente" that the poetry 'as 5spasmo"ic6 an" 5uncontrolle",6 an" "espite Bic1inson@s a"miration for her 5teacher6, she seems never to have ta1en any of his a"vice #n rea"ing Bic1inson@s poetry, it is best not to loo1 for cree"s or statements of belief Though she reflects her community@s Protestant an" Calvinistic frames of reference, religious terminology in her poetry "oes not in"icate that she hel" ortho"o: religious beliefs 3he is by turn satirical, sceptical, a'e", reverent, speculative, outrage", tantalise", ironic or )o"Eli1e herself 3he scorns theological portraits of 5)o"6 but aligns herself personally 'ith "ivinity, sometimes as ?esus an" sometimes as coEcreator Bic1inson 'rote a remar1able number of poems on pain, a taboo sub<ect in her time an" place 3he refuse" to accept the Calvinistic teaching that she ha" earne" pain, through original sin, or the Transcen"entalist habit of transcen"enting it, through "enial or euphemism Trac1ing her e:perience le" her to fearful an" "ire states of insight, often bor"ering on ma"ness an" "espair 3he felt appalling losses, 'hich in some cases also brought compensations of 1no'le"ge or spiritual insight, but she insiste" on recor"ing her perception of pain in language 'hich 'as unflinching Bic1inson e:perimente" ra"ically 'ith poetic style: she 'as taut, terse, suggestive, obliAue The 'or"s she chose live vivi"ly on the page an" invite the rea"ers to fill the poems 'ith their o'n sense of connection ++7(>>(: (;=;E(;J,8 Poems 3U$$-&#N)

Anne Bra"street 1Jth century -mily Bic1inson 1;th century 3ylvia Plath (>th century

3imilarities 3orro', suffering, pain Personal suffering 1st person narrator 3elfishness

Bifferences Bifferent support 'hen suffering - )o" 7Anne Bra"street8 - 4thers 7-mily Bic1inson8 not so religious, but no antiEreligious - Atheist 73ylvia Plath8 /erself Anne 'as more conventional Bic1inson 'as more e:perimental Plath 'as the most e:perimental of them all 3trategies: - Topographical forms Bic1inson is more e:perimental in this sense than the others - Content 9etaphorical 7Plath8 The <u:taposition of images en<ambment 7Plath8 Bic1inson uses tra"itional images

7Tengo me<or las notas "e estos tres poemas en los apuntes, cualAuier cosa se los fotocopio8

3amuel Clemens a 1 a 9ar1 T'ain 71H*.E1;1>8

D /enry ?ames D Not to generalise D Tall tales $rontier /umour -

E Bret /arte, The Hathen hinese E )eorge %ashington /arris 3ut Loving'oo"

Platform performers 1H=; O The Innocents A+road 1HJ( O .oughing it ++ 1HJ* O The )ilded )irl 1HH* O Life on the 9ississippi O &iver E %ar 1HJ= O Ad/entures of Tom Sa&yer 1HH, O Ad/entures of Huc(le+erry $inn 1HH; O A onnecticut 'an(ee

7Apuntes "e Nieves8

The real name of -ark 10ain 'as 3amuel Clemens /e also sustaine" the i"ea that there 'as not enough material to 'rite in America 3o, he also move" to -urope As a matter of fact, he 'rote on the contrasts of both continents /e sai" that in literature 'e have to particularise not to generalise 3ome of his main influences 'ere /enry ?amesI the Tall Tales 7in 'hich 'e 'ill fin" a learny narrator, something strange an" incre"ible happens in a place, an" someone tells us 'hat has happene"8I the $rontier /umour "evelope" in the %est Colonies %riters such as Bret /arte influence" him 'ith his poem The Hathen hinese #t 'as a very ba" poem, a 'hite man is "eceive" by t'o Chinese people 'hile playing car"s /e 'as also influence" by )eorge %ashington an" his Loving'oo", 'ho 'as a "epreciable character Platform performer Before the civil 'ar, they 'ere very concerne" 'ith metaphysical matters, after the Civil %ar they "ealt 'ith more superficial topics /e built a )othic house in 0irginia, he 'as rather materialistic, al'ays preoccupie" about money .oughing it 'as about people moving to "ifferent colonies The )ilded )irls he criticises materialism Life on the -ississippi images river is history 7nostalgia8I 'ar no in"ustrialisation Tom Sa&yer an" Huc(le+erry $inn are not boo1s for chil"ren, though they are Auite popular among them Tom Sa&yer 'as a success character, an" he believe" in imagination %hereas, /uc1leberry $inn is able to face reality an" 'as not very successful A onnecticut 'an(ee 'as about a Lan1ee in 2ing Arthur@s court #t "epicte" feu"al -urope an" in"ustrialise" America /e aban"one" his satirical position for more realistic ones as 'e can see in his boo1 The -an that orrupted Hadley+org 71H;H8 7Aue Nieves nos ha recomen"a"o para el verano8 ++Born in 9issouri, he 'as brought up in the 9ississippi &iver to'n of /annibal, 'hich, as 3t Petersburg, 'as to provi"e the setting for Tom S&ayer an" the early chapters of Huc(le+erry $inn %hen his father "ie" in young 3am@s eleventh year, he left school an" 'ent to 'or1 for a printing shop 3oon he 'as attracte" to the possibility of 'riting, an" as early as his si:teenth year he publishe" a piece in a Boston maga!ine After four years of travel as a <ourneyman printerI he "etermine" to become a riverboat pilot M N %hen the Civil %ar put an en" to piloting, Clemens serve" briefly in an unorganise" Confe"erate unit, then hea"e" 'est 'ith his brother, 'ho ha" been appointe" secretary for the Neva"a Territory There Clemens trie" to stri1e it rich as a miner #n time, his lac1 of success "rove him bac1 to 'riting, an" he became a reporter for the 0irginia City Territorial -nterprise There he began to use the river lea"sman@s cry 59ar1 T'ain6 7t'o fathoms of 'ater, <ust "eep enough for a steamboat to pass8 as a pen name for his humorous 'ritings #n 1H=, he move" to California, 'here he continue" 'riting both as a <ournalist an" as the creator of humorous s1etches /e became a satirist 'ho sa' as his target pretentious gentility #n 1H=. his first famous piece, 5?im 3miley an" /is ?umping $rog,6 appeare" in a Ne' Lor1 perio"ical /e also began a secon"ary career as a lecturer #n time he 'as to become a truly public personality After an assignment in /a'aii he 'ent to Ne' Lor1, 'riting regularly for a 3an $rancisco ne'spaper A turning point in his life came 'hen he travelle" in 1H=J on an e:cursion to the 9e"iterranean an" the /oly Lan" After'ar"s he ma"e a boo1 by

putting together in revise" form the letters he sent bac1 for ne'spaper publication: the result 'as The Innocents A+road, 'hich 'as a popular success #n it 9ar1 T'ain presents himself as an iconoclastic critic of all forms of conventionality, from American reverence for things -uropean to its opposite, our national sense of superiority to the "ecaye" civilisation of -urope M N /is ne:t boo1 'as &oughing #t, 'hich recounte" his some'hat fictionalise" form his 'estern a"ventures M N #n 1HJ> Clemens marrie" 4livia Lang"on, the "aughter of a 'ealthy coal merchant from -lmira, Ne' Lor1 Clemens ha" become socially ambitious, an" he an" his 'ife settle" in /artfor", Connecticut, 'here their 5)il"e" Age6 lifestyle le" to their buil"ing the mansion that is to"ay a ma<or tourist attraction The Clemenses ha" three "aughters, an" the family became notably genteel Nonetheless, 59ar1 T'ain6 i"entifie" himself as an irreverent sceptic, the enemy of both genteel hypocrisy an" the public an" private corruption that he attac1e" in The )ilded Age 71HJ*8 The situation that 9ar1 T'ain 'as in often ma"e him feel uncomfortable Bi" his marriage an" his /artfor" lifestyle mean that he ha" 5sol" out6G 3omething insi"e him felt a strong sense of rebellion, most fully illustrate" by A"ventures of /uc1leberry $inn, in 'hich he spea1s through an outsi"er, the son of the to'n "run1 M N 9ar1 T'ain focuses on the po'er of conscience M N #n 1HJ, 9ar1 T'ain recor"e" the story of a former slave@s a"ventures in his moving report of Auntie Cor"@s 5True 3tory6 /e 'as "eeply attracte" to African American culture, fol1 beliefs, an" music This interest le" to his recalling his memories of his o'n chil"hoo" in the preECivil %ar 3outh At first he use" a genteel narrator, as in Tom 3a'yer A charming account of village life on the ban1s of the 9ississippi &iver, the novel shoul" also be seen as a highly critical vie' of the violence an" selfE "eception un"erlying the i"yllic 3t Petersburg, 'here both Tom 3a'yer an" /uc1leberry $inn live #n a""ition, it prepares the rea"er for 9ar1 T'ain@s later return to /uc1 in his masterpiece, Huc(le+erry $inn M N /uc1elberry $inn is an attac1 on racism an" on the e:altation of property values over human values #t is also a celebration of free"om Bespite the 'ea1ness of the last chapters, the boo1 en"s po'erfully M N /uc1@s voice helpe" "efine 'hat truly American literature 'as to be The appealing vernacular speech prepare" the 'ay for the acceptance of African American voices #n"ee", both blac1 an" 'hite 'riters have come to recognise that the use of vernacular liberates American literature from genteel strictures M N #n the late 1HH>s Clemens turne" a'ay to a large e:tent from 'riting an" gave much of his energy to business $or a time he 'as successful enough that he thought he coul" become very rich, but the typesetting machine in 'hich he investe" heavily an" the publishing company that he create" both eventually faile" /e 'as able to pro"uce "uring these years the po'erful A Connecticut Lan1ee in 2ing Arthur@s Court, 'hich mi:es romance an" social an" political satire The ob<ects of the satire are, in the author@s 'or"s, 5un<ust la's, the po'er of the rich an" "epen"ence an" oppression of the poor 6 #n the 1H;>s the Clemens family live" abroa" Ochiefly in -nglan" an" Austria M N Buring the last years of his life, 9ar1 T'ain 'as much celebrate"I his honours inclu"e" an honorary "octorate form 4:for" University /e sa' himself more an" more as a philosopher, an" his later 'or1s, many left incomplete at the time of his "eath, sho' him to be pessimist an" "eterminist * ++ 7(>>(: .=E.H8

Lauter Paul W ?ac1son Brier, Anne )oo"'yn ?ones et ali (>>( The Heath Anthology of American Literature Volume t&o Boston: /oughton 9ifflin Company

The Celebrate" ?umping $rog of Calaveras County 71H=.8

%e have not ta1en much notes on this te:t This is 'hat # have in my te:t: This is a Tall Tale %e 'ill fin" a reliable narrator Though he "oes not believe the story, so he is ironical This is Auite a boring story, 'ritten in a monotonous style /e also uses colloAuial style

Paul Laurence Bunbar 71H(JE1;>=8

3lavery by hearsay Boo1er T %ahington@s policy - 3eparate E -"ucation Terms E 3ocial E Unite" -conomic ?ames %hitcomb &iley - $re"eric1 Bouglass Bialect Urban life 7he al'ays 'rote about the countrysi"e8 Protest pieces Pessimism 7he 'as very pessimistic to the blac1 con"ition8

1 ( * ,

These are the features of his poetry, the use of language is base" on literature 7&iley8 /e 'as born in 4hio of a former slave /e 'as brought up listening to his parents slave@s stories Policy of accommo"ation, blac1s an" 'hites are separate" in terms of e"ucation Also in social terms, but 'e have to cooperage in economic terms %hen /enry ?ames move" to Ne' Lor1 he 'or1e" as an elevator operator, he 'as a very laureate poet 3o, one "ay Paul met him an" gave him his poems ?ames rea" his poems an" then they publishe" 'ith the help of $re"eric1 Bouglass %hen can say that Paul Laurence Bunbar 'as a 'hite poet 'ith a blac1 face ++Paul Laurence Bunbar achieve" nation'i"e fame for his "ialectic poetry "epicting a romanticise" plantation life of southern blac1s Born in Bayton, 4hio, to former 2entuc1y slaves, the sic1ly chil" 'as fascinate" by his mother@s stories an" by tales of his father@s e:perience as a Union sol"ier "uring the Civil %ar /e early e:hibite" an interest in 'riting, an" before he complete" high school a fe' of his pieces ha" been publishe" in local ne'spapers They alrea"y manifeste" the lateEnineteenth century romantic strains an" sentimental elements that 'ere to become characteristic of his mature 'or1 Upon gra"uation, Bunbar coul" fin" 'or1 only as an elevator operator at four "ollars per 'ee1 /o'ever, he continue" to rea" 'i"ely an" began to 'rite fiction M N

%ith the promise" opening of the %orl"@s Columbian -:position in 1H;*, Bunbar 'ent to Chicago to see1 'or1 an" met several outstan"ing blac1s, inclu"ing $re"eric1 Bouglass, 'ho, as Consul )eneral of the &epublic of /aiti, hire" Bunbar in the /aitian Pavilion Bunbar@s e:perience in Chicago le" to lasting frien"ship an" resulte" in his 5Columbian 4"e,6 by far the best Oalbeit the least 1no'nE of the many poems 'ritten for that occasion %hen the -:position en"e", Bunbar returne" to Bayton an" his <ob as elevator operator 3hortly thereafter, the note" actor ?ames A /erne publicly recite" a Bunbar poem an" 'as instrumental in intro"ucing the poet@s 'or1 to %illiam Bean /o'ells %ho revie'e" -a5ors and -inors in Harper1s %ee(ly 7?une (J, 1H;=8 an" persua"e" Bo"", 9ea" to publish Bubar@s thir" volume of verse M N Bespite Bunbar@s success, he 'as criticise" as a supporter of negative racial stereotypes #f ?ames %el"on ?ohnson@s recor" of a late conversation is accurate, Bunbar 'as sa""ene" that many critics an" much of his public 'ante" nothing more than "ialect pieces from him M N 9any, inclu"ing /o'ells an" later critics, overloo1e" the fact that 'hile Bunbar use" the plantation tra"ition, he 'as not particularly a"ept at pro"ucing an authentic blac1 speech pattern Orelying instea" upon /oosier "ialect li1e that popularise" by ?ames %hitcomb &iley Bunbar recognise" that racial problems 'ere not regionalI an" li1e other nineteenthEcentury romantics, he believe" that life coul" not flourish in an urban setting M N Li1e such "iverse personalities as $re"eric1 Bouglass, % - B BuBois, an" Boo1er T %ashington, 'ho "ealt in their respective 'ay 'ith America@s racial problems, Bunbar use" his talents to 'rite 5protest6 pieces in essay form M N The gro'ing unhappiness of Bunbar resulte" in an uncharacteristic pessimism that 'as un"oubte"ly cause" in part by his shortElive" marriage to Alice 9oore an" in part by his painful illness Ono' recognise" as tuberculosis To'ar"s the en" of his life, as he longe" for the "ay 'hen people 'oul" be <u"ge" by their 'or1 rather than by the colour of s1in, he began to un"erstan" the mirageEli1e Auality of the American "ream ++ 7(>>(: 1=(E1=,8

(>th Century
After the (n" %orl" %ar

No', 'e are moving on the (>th century An important feature is that there 'as an intellectual civilisation in U 3 A as an intellectual imperium Plenty of 'riters migrate" to -urope loo1ing for topics to 'rite There is nothing to narrate about U 3 A 3inclair Le'is, the son of a "octor, 'as born in 9innesota in 1HH. /e entere" Lale University in 1;>* but left three years later to <oin -ngle'oo", the socialist colony foun"e" by the 'riter Upton 3inclair #n 1;>H Le'is move" to Ne' Lor1 'here he became a freelance 'riter Le'is[s greatest 'or1 'as "a++itt, a "ocumentary novel, 'hich 'as publishe" in 1;(( 4ne critic 'rote \The creation of )eorge $ Babbit E 'hose name has become synonymous 'ith bourgeois me"iocrity E an intellectually empty, emotionally immature man of "ubious morals 'ho nevertheless remains a lovable comicstrip figure, is Le'is[s greatest accomplishment \ #n 1;*>, Le'is became the first American novelist to be a'ar"e" the Nobel Pri!e for Literature Although no longer an active socialist, Le'is continue" to 'rite boo1s that reveale" his commitment to political an" social change /e 'rote about the 'omen[s movement an" prison reform an" also a 'arning about the "angers of fascism 3inclair Le'is "ie" in 1;.1 6onald art#elme )60s, #n Donald "arthelme4 The )enesis of a ool Sound 7Te:as AW9 University Press8, /elen 9oore Barthelme, the 'riter[s secon" 'ife, recalls her life 'ith the man she consi"ere" a \literary genius \ Perhaps he 'as /e certainly thought so, an" in the si:ties he ha" a huge impact on the American literary scene ?ohn Barth calls him the \thin1ing man[s minimalist \ Another a"mirer, Thomas Pynchon, refers to Barthelme[s 'orl" as \Barthelmismo \ Barthelme possesse" an imperial assurance about his 'riting %hen an e"itor at The Ne& 'or(er sai" ten lines nee"e" to be cut from a story that use" the 'or" \butter\ 1*( times, Barthelme replie" that \the 'or" butter must appear 1*( times, you can cut out any other butter after that \ The story, ,ug6nie )randet, 'as collecte" in Si7ty Stories* Barthelme[s o'n selection of his best Loo1ing at it to"ay, it[s har" to see ho' the paragraph consisting entirely of the 'or" \butter\ repeate" H= times ma1es much "ifference at all The <ury is still out on the magnitu"e of Barthelme[s accomplishment The "o'nsi"e of his bran" of surrealism or metafiction or postmo"ernism is that it is often tie" to ephemeral pop culture references, an" 'hat can seem hip an" cool in one "eca"e can later seem precious an" irrelevant The more e:perimental stories, for e:ample, 'ere print eAuivalents of collage]fragmente" combinations of photographs, cartoons, bol" hea"lines, Auotations, an" often the merest hint of a narrative line, or none at all

&ea"ing Barthelme[s stories, one 'oul" "e"uce an e"ucation at a goo" -ast Coast school an" an upbringing in a suitably fashionable 9anhattan apartment The facts coul" not be more "ifferent Although born in Phila"elphia in 1;*1, he gre' up in the provinces, in barbaric Te:as, in the thirties an" forties But here is another surprise for the stereotypically incline" 4ne of the si"e benefits of /elen Barthelme[s boo1 is its portrait of ho' sophisticate" /ouston 'as in the fiftiesI the city boaste" lively scenes in painting, music, an" "rama Culture starte" at home, an" it starte" early in the Barthelme family $or Barthelme[s fourteenth birth"ay, his father gave him a copy of 9arcel &aymon"[s $rom "audelaire to Surrealism Barthelme 'ent to the University of /ouston, not Princeton or /arvar" or even &ice, an" he rea" %aiting for )odot in /ouston too, a 'or1 that gave him a perfect absur"ist mo"el for the 1in" of ne' fiction he 'ante" to 'rite As 'e can see, he 'as al'ays in relation 'ith Literary 'o1s, movements an" culture #n /elen Barthelme[s reEcreation of his life, her husban" 'as al'ays see1ing] but never getting]his father[s approval #n one of his 'or1s he postmo"ernly focusse" on everything from the father[s penis to the si!e of the son[s responsibility as inheritor of fatherhoo": \Lou must become your father, but a paler, 'ea1er version of him \ The mother, /elen Bechtol" Barthelme, 'as eAually brilliant in her o'n fashion -verybo"y in the Barthelme family 'as brilliant: \-ach Barthelme ha" a "ifferent 1in" of humor, but all 'ere uniAue, an" # have never 1no'n anyone else li1e them \ #n his o'n life he trie" to achieve perfection That 'as all he e:pecte" of his marriage to /elen /e 'ante" to live as an elite 'ithout paying the freight /elen calls him \autocratic\ rather than \arrogant \ Perfectionists are rarely satisfie" 'ith the 'ay things turn out in real life, an" Barthelme certainly foun" imperfection every'here he loo1e" /is life 'as cut short in 1;H; by cancer #n class, 'e rea" an" analyse" the follo'ing story ,ugenie )randet. 73ee the summary in the photocopies8 #t is the story of a miser an" his formative influence on his "aughter This story is base" on one of Bal!ac@s novels, as a 'ay of satirising it The main i"ea is to sho' the possibility of 'riting literature 'ithout many 'or"s as Bal!ac@s style #t is a sort of "econstruction, a postmo"ernist "evice Bonal" use" Bal!ac@s literature to minimalise it 9ain issues seen in class: The topic is closely relate" to money an" business as 'e can observe from the first paragraph -ugenie@s father is intereste" in money in"ee" As far as the style is concerne", it shares some features of T 3 -liot^s one: <u:taposition of images, collage techniAue, 'or"s an" images at the same time, interte:tuality Bislocations are very freAuent, "islocations of place, time an" synta: But the purpose is to present a literature as easy as possible The real matter is society /e spea1s about 5a repressive society6, so it is Auite satirical Another important issue is that -ugenie 'rites a letter to Charles But she cuts it <ust in the mi""le an" she sen"s one part to him an" the other part is for her 3o, Charles "oes not receive the secon" part an" he obviously cannot un"erstan" it This matter gives us the i"ea of nonEsense The communication is continuously interrupte" There is no logic The novel is a collage in 'hich the rea"er only has the characters %e "o not nee" to rea" Bal!ac@s novels to un"erstan" it

There are some parts in the novel 'hich are relate" to 5Pop Art6, the e:ponent of it is An"y %arhol" /e too1 elements of the 'orl" an" ma"e a mi:ture of them #t is the same as the e:pressions: 5artista como mYAuina6 or 5Bemocratic Art6 #n one part, they are communicating by means of their eyes, because they are not able to communicate something 'ith 'or"s Another practical lesson 'as the analysis of The %aste Land by T 3 -liot The %aste Land, 1;(( 9etaphoric 79o"ernism8 vs 9etonimic 7&ealism8 ?u:taposition Bislocation -soteric allusions 3hift of register 4r"er in myths

3ources 18 3ir ?ames $ra!ar, The )olden "ough. - 9other -arth - 0egetarian Cult - Attis hange" - A"onis 'ater 7ahoga"o8 - 4siris gore" 7heri"o en un o<o como _eus8 (8 ?essie 'eston Priest !ings $rom .itual to .omance $isher !ing#####################Arthur + fertility+ )rial


*8 Tarot Car"s 7Chinese8 Lesser Arcana+ greaterEEEhange" man, 'heel of fortune 7&-0-&3AL8 ,8 3ophocles+ 3eneca + 4riol 4e"ipusEEEEETiresias 9a"ame 3osostris .8 Ban"elaire The even Old Men,,,,,-nreal )ity( 4 3%A&9#N) city, city full of "reams, %here in a full "ay the spectre 'al1s an" spea1sI 9ighty colossus, in your narro' veins 9y story flo's as flo's the rising sap 4ne morn, "isputing 'ith my tire" soul, An" li1e a hero stiffening all my nerves, # tro" a suburb sha1en by the <ar

4f rolling 'heels,'here the fog magnifie" The houses either si"e of that sa" street, 3o they seeme" li1e t'o 'harves the ebbing floo" Leaves "esolate by the riverEsi"e A mist, Unclean an" yello', inun"ate" space] A scene that 'oul" have please" an actor[s soul Then su""enly an age" man, 'hose rags %ere yello' as the rainy s1y, 'hose loo1s 3houl" have brought alms in floo"s upon his hea", %ithout the misery gleaming in his eye, Appeare" before meI an" his pupils seeme" To have been 'ashe" 'ith gallI the bitter frost 3harpene" his glanceI an" from his chin a bear" 3'or"Estiff an" ragge", ?u"asEli1e stuc1 forth /e 'as not bent but bro1en: his bac1bone 9a"e a so true right angle 'ith his legs, That, as he 'al1e", the tapping stic1 'hich gave The finish to the picture, ma"e him seem Li1e some infirm an" stumbling Aua"rupe" 4r a threeElegge" ?e' Through sno' an" mu" /e 'al1e" 'ith trouble" an" uncertain gait, As though his sabots tro" upon the "ea", #n"ifferent an" hostile to the 'orl" /is "ouble follo'e" him: tatters an" stic1 An" bac1 an" eye an" bear", all 'ere the sameI 4ut of the same /ell, in"istinguishable, These centenarian t'ins, these spectres o"", Tro" the same pace to'ar" some en" un1no'n To 'hat fell complot 'as # then e:pose"G /umiliate" by 'hat evil chanceG $or as the minutes one by one 'ent by 3even times # sa' this sinister ol" man &epeat his image there before my eyesF Let him 'ho smiles at my inAuietu"e, %ho never tremble" at a fear li1e mine, 2no' that in their "ecrepitu"e[s "espite These seven ol" hi"eous monsters ha" the mien 4f beings immortal Then, # thought, must #, Un"ying, contemplate the a'ful eighthI #ne:orable, fatal, an" ironic "oubleI Bisgusting Phoeni:, father of himself An" his o'n sonG #n terror then # turne" 9y bac1 upon the infernal ban", an" fle" To my o'n place, an" close" my "oorI "istraught An" li1e a "run1ar" 'ho sees all things t'ice, %ith feverish trouble" spirit, chilly an" sic1, %oun"e" by mystery an" absur"ityF #n vain my reason trie" to cross the bar, The 'hirling storm but "rove her bac1 againI An" my soul tosse", an" tosse", an out'orn 'rec1,

9astless, upon a monstrous, shoreless sea To the +eader #gnorance, error, cupi"ity, an" sin Possess our souls an" e:ercise our fleshI /abitually 'e cultivate remorse As beggars entertain an" nurse their lice 3te[ph 4ur sins are stubborn 4n'ar"s 'hen contrite %e overstuff confession 'ith our pains, An" 'hen 'e[re bac1 again in human mire 0ile tears, 'e thin1, 'ill 'ash a'ay our stains ThriceEpotent 3atan in our curse" be" Lulls us to sleep, our spirit over1isse", Until the precious metal of our 'ill #s vapori!e" Ethat cunning alchemistF %ho but the Bevil pulls our 'a1ingEstringsG Abominations lure us to their si"eI -ach "ay 'e ta1e another step to hell, Bescen"ing through the stench, unhorrifie" Li1e an e:hauste" ra1e 'ho mouths an" che's The martyri!e" breast of an ol" 'ithere" 'hore %e steal, in passing, 'hatever <oys 'e can, 3Auee!ing the "riest orange all the more Pac1e" in our brains incestuous as 'orms 4ur "emons celebrate in "run1en gangs, An" 'hen 'e breathe, that hollo' rasp is Beath 3li"ing invisibly "o'n into our lungs #f the "ull canvas of our 'retche" life is unembellishe" 'ith such pretty 'are As 1nives or poison, pyromania, rape #t is because our soul[s too 'ea1 to "areF But in this "en of <ac1als, mon1eys, curs, 3corpions, bu!!ar"s, sna1esEthis para"ise 4f filthy beasts that screech, ho'l, grovel, grunt O #n this menagerie of man1in"[s vice There[s one supremely hi"eous an" impureF 3oftEspo1en, not the type to cause a scene, /e[" 'illingly ma1e rubble of the earth An" s'allo' up creation in a ya'n # mean ,nnui8 'ho in his hoo1ahE"reams Pro"uces hangmen an" real tears together /o' 'ell you 1no' this fasti"ious monster, rea"er, E/ypocrite rea"er, youE my "oubleF my brotherF Tr. Stanley !unit2 =8 Bu""hismEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEthey nee" forget themselves

J8 Bante, Di/ine omedy* # /ellEEEEPurgatoryEEEEPara"ise E $ire 2ills This is a poem about spiritual "ryness, about the 1in" of e:istence in 'hich no regenerating beliefs gives significance an" values to people@s "aily activities, se: brings no fruitfulness, an" "eath heral"s no resurrection -liot himself gives one of the main clues to the theme an" structure of the poem They are the sources mentione" above in the outline

4% 73ee the notes of the poem as 'ell8

1#e urial o! t#e dead

3tan!a # 7Lines 1E1H8 This poem starts 'ith the "escription of the month of April The spea1er is telling us that \April is the cruellest month, bree"ingE Lilacs out of the "ea" lan", mi:ing\ April symbolises a stage of limbo #t is neither living nor "ea" The spea1er tells the first meeting she ha" 'ith her lover 7A8 3he sai" #[m not &ussian, #[m )erman 7B8 This stan!a then en"s 'ith her telling him her chil"hoo" stories 7C8 #t is here 'hen 'e "iscover that her name is 9arie an" she is an aristocrat #n this stan!a, -liot uses \Lilacs\ colour to symbolise "eath an" the image \tuber\ 7flo'er bulbs8 to in"icate the 'orl" climate Ea stage of inferno, 'hich is also "epicte" by the season April The first stan!a of the poem contains a fe' romantic an" beautiful imagery from the past Past 'ill not reappear again in the rest of the poem %e have almost pastoral imagery 'hich serves as a great contrast to the horrifying images "epicte" throughout the rest of the poem"egenerating, "estructive, "ecomposing an" "ebilitating, 'hich in result creates a "isturbing picture of the 'astelan" the 'orl" 'e live in 3tan!a ## 7Lines 1;EE,(8

The secon" stan!a is tol" from a sol"ier[s point of vie' This sol"ier maybe is 9arie[s lover %e have to note that spea1ers change from stan!a to stan!aI from one part to the other #t[s very "ifficult to "etermine 'ho the spea1er really is because it soun"s li1e all men use one voice an" the man can be someone from the ancient time 7Phoenician sailor8 or a mo"ern man 79r -ugeni"es8 All 'omen[s voices soun" similar tooE9arie[s voice coul" also be the typist voice in part ### or Cueen -li!abeth[s voice Bac1 to stan!a ( The sol"ier is passing through the "estroye" city buil"ings an" churches that symbolise the "estroye" 'estern civili!ation as suggeste" 7B8 Then 7-8 he in"icates the terrific situation of the mo"ern 'orl" assimilating the primitive stage of our civilisationthe 3tone Age Later on 7$8, he sho's his state of loneliness in his hori!on, he can vie', from morning to night, his sha"o' follo'ing him unbloc1e" by any manEma"e ob<ects The lan" is a lan" of "eath after the 'ar Any han"ful "ust may contain human remains, he is fearful to touch it 7)8 /e is telling us ho' "estructive, frightening an" catastrophic the 'ar is No' 'hile 'al1ing he remembers the love balla" /e is very homesic1 an" 'ants to return to his love an" home /e is <ust simply tire" of the 'ar an" being so lonely 7/8 /e continues to reminisce his romantic past 'ith his girl an" the gar"en scene 'here he ha" a conversation 'ith her These lines sho' ho' confuse" he 'as an" also ho' incapable he 'as to feel or "emonstrate his feeling 3tan!a ### 7Lines ,*E.;8 The spea1er of this stan!a is a sol"ier[s 'ife 3he has come to 9a"ame 3osostris, a famous clairvoyant, to fin" out 'hat might have happene" to her love" one in the 'ar 9a"ame 3osostris sho'e" her car"s that implie" "eath 7#8 #t is obvious that many 'omen came to as1 9a"am 3osostris about their lovers[ fate

3tan!a #0 7Lines =>EJ=8 Lon"on as an universal city, not Paris This stan!a begins "escribing Lon"on\Unreal City\7relate" to Bau"elaire8 populate" by "ea" people, nobo"y loo1 for anybo"y else 7Bante purgatory8 People reborn, not life but corps All cities are the same city The voice coul" be 9arie or any 'ife of a sol"ier The image is that of the #nfernal 7?8I the image of the sol"iers from the battlefiel" is horrifying 3he <ust passe" a church an" hear" the "eath toll Then she sees a man, 3tetson 728 he 'as use" to the term an" image of "eath plus his confuse" state of min" These fe' lines sho' his insanity or suffer mentallyI they also symbolise "eath repro"uces "eath 7L8 his reference to the Bog 7myth, guar"ian of the /ell, he prevents rebirth8 is that all sol"iers 'ho "ie" in the battlefiel" 'ere mur"ere" an" their bo"ies 'ill be "ug up The last line reveals his hate for himself an" sympathy for his enemiesI in one 'or", his resentment to'ar"s the 'ar 7triviality8

44% ( 3ame o! &#ess tan.a / 0Lines 11,$$%2 7&ea" Bau"elaire@s poems an" relate it 'ith this8 The author ma1es reference to Cleopatra an" her first encounter 'ith Anthony 798 it is a 1in" of se"uction The beautiful 'oman lives in a rich environment but she is as lonely an" frustrate" as Cleopatra in her relationship 'ith Anthony 7N8 This sho's a contrast to her emotional 'orl" of "ar1ness, bore"om an" isolation /er material 'orl" glitters an" ornate 'hile her inner 'orl" is so paraly!e" 7claustrophobic roomWatmosphere, se:ual "esire, neurotic 'oman8 Night The can"le is lit an" the fire is frame" by the fireplace 748 The carve" "olphin symboli!es the incapability to escape li1e the 'oman herself The scene over the fireplace, the \sylvan scene\ 'here Philomel ,a girl, 'ho 'as rape" by her sister[s husban", the barbaric 1ing, in the form of a nightingale, is being pursue" by him an" the soun" she can utter is only \?ug ?ug\, the singing voice of a nightingale not the voice of a girl 'ho has been violate" an" suffere" 3he can not use her voice to convey her true feelings, 'hich ma1e it such an ironic situation an" also mirrors the rich 'oman[s lac1 of ability to e:press her emotions 7 myth about the violation of $ilomea8 3tan!a ##E#0 7Lines 111E1*H8 Loneliness is presente" #t is a conversation about the absence of conversation bet'een the t'o parties involve" as the result of inability to e:press ho' she really feels 7P8 3he is angry an" not un"erstan"ing, rea"y to argue opposite to 'hat she ha" planne" to "oE a romantic night, a reunion 3he cannot "eal 'ith the silence from her partner Again, 'e see that the sol"iers an" the 'ar are mentione" %hat arose from all the "eaths in the 'ar 'as still haunting the 'ar participant 7C8 The loneliness an" "ryness of their relationship is "escribe" 3he is tire" of being in the house, of "oing nothing, an" of not even having a "ecent conversation,7&8 suggesting she is rea"y to be "isloyal to her lover "ue to his lac1 of presence in their relationship or his loss of manhoo" in the 'ar /e is so "istant an" absentEmin"e" /e even suggests his consent to her cheating by using the allusion \ play a game of chess\ /e "isplays his 'ar syn"rome by saying he can no longer sleep 7li"less eyes8 an" is <ust 'aiting for "eath to 1noc1 on the "oor 3tan!a 0 7Lines 1*;E1J(8 T'o 'omen are chatting about Lil at a bar "uring the closing hour Lil@s husban", Albert, is coming bac1 9arie@s a"vice is to be pretty for her husban" 3he insinuates a possibility of a"ultery Lil is resentful of the comment 3he has ha" five chil"ren for Albert an" starte" to ta1e contraceptives in or"er to prevent any more chil"ren Because of these pills, she 'as appearing 5antiAue6 although she 'as only thirtyEone 3oon, Albert arrive" an" invite" 9arie to have "inner The ironic message is that Lil is the only 'oman 'ho believes \%hat you get marrie" for if you "on[t 'ant chil"ren\ 3he is fertile but her bo"y is getting so antiAue at such a young age 'hich remin"s of 3ybil in the preface 'ho can maintain his life but not her youth no possibility of rebirth, the 'astelan"


The $ire Sermon

7Lines 1J*E*118
-lliot is "epicting the transition the 'orl" is e:periencing /e uses images of the "ea" -arth, 'ith the bare trees an" the empty spaces to convey the feeling of "eath being "ominant an" the vacancy 738 The city has been "eserte" an" no human activities can be observe" 7T8 -verything personifies "eath an" its recent triumph The vast an" empty lan" is home to scavenging rats, the only sign of movement on this place is the scuttling rats on the river ban1 The "eserte" lan" "eals 'ith "ismembere" corps an" the memories of 'ar he hears the people "ie", they are ghosts The \ "ull canal\ in"icates the loss of vitality represente" by rivers an" the "ullness may be cause" by pollution "uring the 'ar The allusion 7U8 suggests that 'ar is a trap 'here \ brothers \ may 1ill each other 'hile they coul" have been frien"s or even relations 9rs Porter is compare" to go""ess Biana 'ho has the po'er to turn Actaeon into a stag "ue to his stealthily observing nymphs bathe 3'eeny may be lin1e" to Actaeon 'ho is 1ille" by his o'n hunting "ogs This reference suggests that 'hen sol"iers return home from the 'ar to pursue their romance it 'ill en" up in selfE "estruction #n lines (>JE(1,, through the use of se:ual references such as hotels an" soun"s \?ug\ \Tereu\, -liot conveys the i"ea of an inevitable en" to man1in" &elationships bet'een t'o people 'hether it is heterose:ual or homose:ual, lovers have no intentions of resulting in marriage or repro"ucing This "escription accents the i"ea of an infertile lan"E a theme that remains throughout the poem #n lines (1.E(.=, the spea1er is Tiresias The agony is he can see every miseries happening an" /e not only becomes the typist, the poor girl 'ho has to prostitute to live, but he has to participate in the miserable behaviour The music playe" by the gramophone brings us to a more serene an" happy "ays as "escribe" in lines (.JE(== The music travels an" brings us to a public bar in Lo'er Thames 3treet 9usic is use" to symboli!e the past, the beautiful flo'ing 'aters, the echo of voices amongst conversations an" the bright colours that once "rape" every buil"ing have all become "istant memories, all burnt a'ay as the bo"ies an" the buil"ing 'ent up into flames The song that imme"iately follo's brings us bac1 to the present situation 708 The reference to the \#sle of Bogs\ may infer the tragic en"ing of the barge There are t'o places in the poem 'here the reference of "og is use" 4ne is the "og 'ill "ig out the "ea" bo"y if the person is mur"ere"I the other is that the "ogs 1ill their o'n master Actaeon after he 'as transforme" into a stag The ne:t stan!a of the song ta1es us to a scene 'here Cueen -li!abeth an" her lover Leicester are having a great time together The boat sen"s ripples to the shore 'hile you can also hear the church bells pealing celebrating their romance %e can also feel the "ramatic effect create" by the chorus 7%8 -ven such a promising romance "i" not en" up in marriage 7Q8 The "irty han"s may in"icate man[s betrayal after Cueen -li!abeth "iscovere" Leicester[s "isloyalty But she really ha" o'n reasons 'hy she coul" not marry Leicester 3he feels she belongs to her people

The line \To Carthage then # came\ comes from the voice of 3t Augustine, the author of Confession /e seems to <oin the chorus an" say, \Come to <oin me to purify your soul, to ri" of your troubles \ The lines 7L8 come from Bu""ists[ voices that praises the belief: one must "eny oneself an" sacrifice one[s o'n nee"s to receive salvation All the voices mingle together in the en" creating an unbelievable soun" effect that truly touch the rea"er[s heart I. Death +y %ater 7Lines *1(E*(18 The narrator uses the Phoenician[s story to convince us there 'ill be no revival or resurrection after one[s "eath Li1e Phlebas 'ho once 'as successful an" han"some no' 7_8 -liot uses 'ater to represent the illusion of tranAuillity an" the troubles one goes through in life The Auote \ Pic1e" his bones in 'hispers\ e:presses ho' ironic 'ater can be, 'e believe it to be peaceful but 'e reluctantly accept its "ea"ly si"e This also sho's the effect misconceptions have on one[s <u"gement, our misconceptions of gree" an" values have burie" us "eeper as a 'hole into the 'hirlpool The 'hirlpool 'ith its constant currents is li1e a tomb 'e cannot escape no matter 'ho you are #t is a picture of the future &esurrection by 'ater or "eath+oblivion+ forgetness II. %hat the Thunder Said 7Lines *((E,**8 lan"scape"esert 'here there is no possibility of resurrection "ue to lac1 of 'ater 7Lines *(*E*,.8 there is a "epiction of a vivi" image of the 'astelan" 7AA8 The personifie" mountain symbolises nature, 'hich usually has the po'er to regenerate itselfI bur no' it is "ea" &ain symbolises hope Coul" this imply that humans have lost their ability to verbally communicate 'ith each otherG #n lines *.;E*=., 7BB8 the ans'er is \"eath\ -liot gives the impression that after all the troubles in life, 'e have to loo1 for'ar" to "eath, because it is the en" of the human path There is also references to Christ, he is a prophet an" rebirths again but he cannot be recognise" The images of the "eserte" lan"s an" the roaring clou"s 'ith the soun" of possible rain is use" to symbolise the "im hope people have to go through this "ar1ness Beath has attache" itself to you 'aiting for you at the most vulnerable moment 'aiting for the opportunity to stri1e Beath is a constant remin"er to these people so they have lost their 'ill to go on an" try to change their lives The constant "eath causes mothers to cry an" their crying echoes high in the air -very person is a chil" to a mother an" every loss is mother[s loss Cities 'ere built, "estroye", rebuilt an" reE"estroye" as state", 7CC8 Ethe ma<or cities in the 'estern civilisation are being "estroye" \A 'oman "re' her long blac1 hair out tight\ in"icates the infertility of motherhoo" 'hile the mother earth is "rying up 'ith no mountains \spitting\ 'ater an" \empty cisterns an" e:haustive 'ells\

Lines *JJE*H, "epict an unforgettable picture of a 'oman 'ith her long blac1 hair an" the violin playing the sa""est song represents the changing role of the 'oman 3he is no longer seen as a maternal figure, she is alone playing her sa" tune 'ith the voices of the "ea", a 'oman, probably Cleopatra combs her hair neurotically Then, the lan" is no' covere" 'ith trouble" graves The churches have become empty an" the only visitors are the ghost an" the 'in" #n the last fe' stan!as, -liot turns to'ar"s the eastern cultures an" their i"eals to see1 a solution to all these issues in the 'estern 'orl" /e allu"es to 'hat the -astern Thun"er )o" sai" to hint at solutions: impulsive "esiresI actions are 'ithout pru"ence %e spen" so much time an" energy on selfEserving nee"s but none of these nee"s are substantial in our life Li1e that of man[s nee" to fulfil his se:ual "esire of being 'ith a 'oman They nee" not fee" into this i"ea because 'hen they are gone, it 'ill only be a matter of time 7BB8 3elfE"estructionbe selfish 3olutions: 1st put yourself in contact 'ith the cosmos of the universe, (n" sympathise 'ith the other, *r" control yourself Baya"hvam 7sympathise8: man1in" has become so busy an" occupie" 'ith "ealing 'ith our o'n problems an" see1ing solutions that 'e sho' no compassion 'hen others nee" it 7--8 Bamyata 7control8: Life is li1e an open sea, at times it can be out of or"er an" at other times it can be calm Lou ta1e responsibility an" ma1e the correct choices %hen one is in control of their life, he+she then can e:perience true happiness 7$$8 #n lines ,(*E,(=, the voice is that of the $isher 2ing[s The legen"ary $isher 2ing, 'ho symbolises fertility an" vitality, seems to have come to terms 'ith realityE accept it -liot may also use this reference to sho' 'e nee" to give up our "esires to fulfil our superficial nee"s Be realistic an" selfEcontent This conveys the i"ea of compromise Through the chanting of chil"ren[s rhymes an" fragments from other poems an" plays in Latin an" $rench, -liot in"icates the 'orl" is e:isting in fragments -liot also suggests that people can use these fragments to rebuil" or protect themselves from the obstacles thro'n at them, 7))8 The allusion to /ieronymo, 'ho 'aite" patiently before see1ing opportunities to revenge, may imply that 'e all shoul" 'ait patiently for ne' opportunities to come, an" be prepare" 'hen they arrive The closing \3hantih, shantih, shantih\ are eastern 'or"s that suggest 'e gain peace by giving up our nee"s, by reconciliation 'ith the 'orl", an" by creating a state of min" 4nly in this 'ay the 'orl" can be in peace #f people can maintain this, the en" result 'oul" be fertility of our lan" again Possibility of resurrection The peace is beyon" our un"erstan"ing an" 'e continue living in this 'aste lan"

-argaret (t0ood )1*3*-,

3he 'as born in 1;*; in 4tta'a an" gre' up in northern 4ntario an" Cuebec, an" Toronto 3he receive" her un"ergra"uate "egree from 0ictoria College at the University of Toronto an" her master[s "egree from &a"cliffe College Throughout her thirty years of 'riting, 9argaret At'oo" has receive" numerous a'ar"s an" several honorary "egrees 3he is the author of more than t'entyEfive volumes of poetry, fiction, an" nonEfiction an" is perhaps best 1no'n for her novels, 'hich inclu"e The ,di+le %oman 71;J>8, The Handmaid9s Tale 71;H*8, The .o++er "ride 71;;,8, Alias )race 71;;=8 /er ne'est novel, The "lind Assassin, 'hich 'on the prestigious Boo1er Pri!e, 'as publishe" in the fall of (>>> Negotiating %ith the Dead4 A %riter on %riting 7(>>(8, publishe" by Cambri"ge University Press in 9arch (>>(, is her latest boo1 an" her ne:t novel, 0ry7 and ra(e, 'ill be publishe" in April (>>*

Acclaime" for her talent for portraying both personal an" 'orl"ly problems of universal concern, 9s At'oo"[s 'or1 has been publishe" in more than thirty languages, inclu"ing $arsi, ?apanese, Tur1ish, $innish, 2orean, #celan"ic an" -stonian 9argaret At'oo" currently lives in Toronto 'ith novelist )raeme )ibson About her literary style, the most relevant fact is that 'hat remin"s in the rea"er@s min"s after rea"ing her 'or1s is not the plot but the characters They 'ill be present forever in rea"er@s min" (n 4ntervie0 0it# -argaret (t0ood :. -ost of your pre/ious no/els ha/e female protagonists. %as it a conscious decision to ha/e a male protagonist for Ory3 and )rake* or did Sno&man simply present himself to you; 3no'man "i" present himself to me, yes, "irty be"sheet an" all $or this novel, a 'oman 'oul" have been less possible 4r let[s say that the story 'oul" have been Auite "ifferent #f 'e are 'riters, 'e all have multiple selves Also, #[ve 1no'n a lot of male people in my life, so # ha" a lot to "ra' on <. %hen The Handmaid4s Tale &as pu+lished* ontemporary Authors listed your religion as =Pessimistic Pantheist*= &hich you defined as the +elief that =)od is e/ery&here* +ut losing.= Is this still an accurate description of your spiritual philosophy; # e:pect you "on[t have the foggiest 'hat # meant in the first place 4n ba" "ays, neither "o # But let[s argue it through Biblical version, see )enesis: )o" create" the heaven an" the earth EE out of nothing, 'e presume 4r else: out of )o", since there 'as nothing else aroun" that )o" coul" use as substance Big Bang theory: says much the same, 'ithout using the 'or" \)o" \ That is: once there 'as nothing, or else \a singularity \ Then Poof Big Bang &esult: the universe 3o since the universe can[t be ma"e of anything else, it must be ma"e of singularityE stuff, or )o"Estuff E 'hatever term you 'ish to employ %hether this )o"Estuff 'as a thought form such as a series of mathematical formulae, an energy form, or some sort of e:tremely con"ense" cosmic plasma, is open to "iscussion Therefore everything has \)o"\ in it The forms of \)o"\, both inorganic an" organic, have since multiplie" e:cee"ingly Lou might say that each ne' combination of atoms, molecules, amino aci"s, an" BNA is a "ifferent e:pression of \)o" \ Therefore each time 'e terminate a species, \)o"\ becomes more limite" The human race is terminating species at an alarming rate #t is thereby "iminishing )o", or the e:pressions of )o"

#f # 'ere the Biblical )o" # 'oul" be very annoye" /e ma"e the thing an" sa' that it 'as goo" An" no' people are scribbling all over the art'or1 #t is note'orthy that the covenant ma"e by )o" after the floo" 'as not <ust 'ith Noah, but 'ith every living thing # assume that the \)o"[s )ar"eners\ organi!ation in =r.< and &rake use" this 1in" of insight as a cornerstone of their theology #s that any clearerG >. 'ou gre& up among +iologists? the =+oys at the la+= mentioned in the no/el9s ac(no&ledgements are the grad students and post#docs &ho &or(ed &ith your father at his forest#insect research station on northern @ue+ec. Does +eing a no/elist ma(e you an anomaly in your family; Is &riting fiction much different from doing science; 9y brother an" # 'ere both goo" at science, an" 'e 'ere both goo" at -nglish literature -ither one of us coul" have gone either 'ay 9y father 'as a great rea"er, of fiction, poetry, history EE a lot of biologists are #t is of course a \life science \ 3o # 'oul"n[t say # 'as an anomaly in the family %e all "i" both %e 'ere omnivores 7# rea" then E an" still rea"EE everything, inclu"ing cereal pac1ages No factoi" too trivialF8 The family itself 'as an anomaly, but that[s another story # "o have an aunt 'ho 'rites chil"ren[s stories # 'as not e:actly isolate" an" misun"erstoo" # 'as probably egge" on, at least by some # "on[t thin1 they 'ere e:pecting the results, but then, neither 'as # 3cience an" fiction both begin 'ith similar Auestions: %hat ifG %hyG /o' "oes it all 'or1G But they focus on "ifferent areas of life on earth The e:periments of science shoul" be replicable, an" those of literature shoul" not be 7'hy 'rite the same boo1 t'ice8G Please "on[t ma1e the mista1e of thin1ing that =r.< and &rake is antiEscience 3cience is a 'ay of 1no'ing, an" a tool Li1e all 'ays of 1no'ing an" tools, it can be turne" to ba" uses An" it can be bought an" sol", an" it often is But it is not in itself ba" Li1e electricity, it[s neutral The "riving force in the 'orl" to"ay is the human heart E that is, human emotions 7Leats, Bla1e E every poet, come to thin1 of it E has al'ays tol" us that 8 4ur tools have become very po'erful /ate, not bombs, "estroys cities Besire, not bric1s, rebuil"s them Bo 'e as a species have the emotional maturity an" the 'is"om to use our po'erful tools 'ellG /an"s up, all 'ho thin1 the ans'er is Les Than1 you, sir %oul" you li1e to buy a gol" bric1G A. 'ou9/e mentioned the fact that &hile you &ere &riting a+out fictional catastrophes in Ory3 and )rake* a real one occurred on Septem+er ::. Did that e7perience cause you to change the storyline in any &ay; No, # "i"n[t change the plot # 'as too far along for that But # almost aban"one" the boo1 &eal life 'as getting creepily too close to my inventions E not so much the T'in

To'ers as the anthra: scare That turne" out to be limite" in e:tent, but only because of the limitations of the agent use" #t[s an ol" plot, of course E poisoning the 'ells As for blo'ing things up, the Anarchists 'ere at it for fifty years in the later 1;th an" earlier (>th centuries ?oseph Conra" has a novel about it 71#e 8ecret (gent8 3o "oes 9ichael 4n"aat<e 74n t#e 8kin o! a 5ion8 An" the &esistance in %orl" %ar T'o "evote" itself to such things The main ob<ect of these 1in"s of actions is to so' panic an" "ismay B. Though the +oo(9s premise is serious* you included many &ordplays and moments of deadpan humour. %as this difficult to achie/e* or did it arri/e naturally during the storytelling process; 9y relatives are all from Nova 3cotia That[s sort of li1e being from 9aine The "ea"pan humour, the scepticism about human motives, an" the ten"ency to tell straightE face" lies for fun, to see if you can get the listener to believe them The $rench have an e:pression: \AngloE3a:on humour \ #t isn[t the same as 'it #t[s "ar1I it[s 'hen something is funny an" a'ful at the same time \)allo's humour\ is calle" that partly because high'aymen about to be hange" 'ere much a"mire" if they coul" crac1 a <o1e in the face of "eath %hen things are really "ismal, you can laugh or you can cave in completely ?immy tries to laugh, though some of the time he[s pretty out of control, as most of us 'oul" be in his position But if you can laugh, you[re still alive Lou haven[t given up yet

"lue+eard9s ,gg By turns humorous an" 'arm, star1 an" frightening, Bluebear"[s -gg glo's 'ith chil"hoo" memories, the reality of parents gro'ing ol", an" the casual cruelty men an" 'omen inflict on each other "odily Harm A po'erfully an" brilliantly crafte" novel, Bo"ily /arm is the story of &ennie %ilfor", a young <ournalist 'hose life has begun to shatter aroun" the e"ges &ennie flies to the Caribbean to recuperate, an" on the tiny islan" of 3t Antoine she is confronte" by a 'orl" 'here her rules for survival no longer apply KKKKKKKK at9s ,ye Cat[s -ye is the story of -laine &isley, a controversial painter 'ho returns to Toronto, the city of her youth, for a retrospective of her art -ngulfe" by vivi" images of the past, -laine must come to terms 'ith her o'n i"entity as a "aughter, a lover, an artist, an" a 'omanEEbut above all she must see1 release from her haunting memories 73ee also the summary at the photocopies8 Class notes: An important issue of this novel is the psychological "ebate bet'een t'o people: are they enemies of frien"sG Coul" 'e put any 1in" of limits bet'een the enemy an" frien"shipG An:iety is <ust present

The "iscussions have a great an" special role along the 'hole novel, because by means of the "ialogues bet'een the characters 'e see the philosophical topics about life There is a neurotic an" nervous girl, Cornelia The spatial setting is set in Cana"a %aterCana"ian 'inter Ball crystal: a special ob<ect Psychological movements an" "evelopment, the actions have a secon"ary role Dancing )irls This splen"i" volume of short fiction testifies to 9argaret At'oo"[s startlingly original voice, full of a rare intensity an" e:ceptional intelligence ,di+le %oman -ver since her engagement, the strangest thing has been happening to 9arian 9cAlpin: she can[t eat $irst meat Then eggs, vegetables, ca1e, pump1insee"sEEeverythingF %orse yet, she has the cra!y feeling that she[s being eaten 9arian ought to feel consume" 'ith passion, but she really <ust feels consume" The Handmaid9s Tale $unny, une:pecte", horrifying, an" altogether convincing, The /an"mai"[s Tale is at once scathing satire, "ire 'arning, an" tour "e force Lady 0racle ?oan $oster is the bore" 'ife of a myopic banEtheEbomber 3he ta1es off overnight as Cana"a[s ne' superpoet, pens luri" gothics on the sly, attracts a blac1mailing reporter, s1i"s cheerfully in an" out of menacing plots, hairEraising traps, an" passionate trysts, an" lan"s "ea" an" 'ell in Terremoto, #taly Life "efore -an #mprisone" by 'alls of their o'n construction, here are three people, each in mi"life, in mi"crisis, force" to ma1e choicesEEafter the rules have change" KKKKKKKKKD0ry7 and ra(e 9argaret At'oo" has earne" an international reputation for creating fiction that is at once arresting, convincing, an" tremen"ously imaginative %ith =r.< and &rake, she has surpasse" even her o'n pro"igious stan"ar"s Crafting a 'orl" that is provocative an" allEtooEplausible E li1e the chilling an" o""ly prophetic "ystopia of the 1#e Handmaid>s 1ale E At'oo" spins a fascinating 'hatEif story that 'ill change the 'ay 'e loo1 at everything from genetic mo"ification to climate change, to the role of se: in human history .o++er "ride 9argaret At'oo"[s The &obber Bri"e is inspire" by \The &obber Bri"egroom,\ a 'on"erfully grisly tale from the Brothers )rimm in 'hich an evil groom lures three mai"ens into his lair an" "evours them, one by one But in her version, At'oo" brilliantly recasts the monster as _enia, a villainess of "emonic proportions, an" sets her loose in the lives of three frien"s, Tony, Charis, an" &o! Surfacing

Part "etective novel, part psychological thriller, 3urfacing is the story of a talente" 'oman artist 'ho goes in search of her missing father on a remote islan" in northern Cuebec %ilderness Tips #n each of these tales 9argaret At'oo" "eftly illuminates the single instant that shapes a 'hole life: in a fe' brief pages 'e 'atch as characters progress from the vulnerabilities of a"olescence through the passions of youth into the precarious comple:ities of mi""le age CCCCCCCCCCCAlias )race #t is the story of )race 9ar1s, a real nineteenthEcentury Cana"ian 'oman 'ho 'as accuse" of, an" spent thirty years in <ail for, the mur"er of t'o people These mur"ers 'ere the most sensationalise" story of the mi"E1H>>s, an" accounts of the trial an" aspects of 9ar1s@s life 'ere 'ell publicise" At'oo" 'as first attracte" to this story through the 'or1s of soEcalle" Cana"ian <ournalist 3usanna 9oo"ie, 'ho 'rote about a 'il"ly cra!y )race 9ar1s At'oo" a"mits that at first she believe" 9oo"ie@s recounting of the circumstances that surroun"e" this famous mur"eress #n fact, At'oo" 'rote a collection of poems calle" The 3ournals of Susanna -oodie an" also a television script base" on 9oo"ie@s version of )race 9ar1s@s life At'oo"@s interest in 9ar1s 'ane" for several years, but 'hen it resurface", she "ug "eeper into the story That 'as 'hen she "iscovere" numerous "iscrepancies in 9oo"ie@s 'or1 an" "eci"e" to 'rite her o'n version of 9ar1s@s story #n real life, )race 9ar1s, a si:teenEyearEol" #rish immigrant, 'as sentence" to life imprisonment for her role 7'hich 'as never fully "efine"8 in the mur"er of her employer Thomas 2innear an" his house1eeper Nancy 9ontgomery 2innear an" 9ontgomery 'ere having an affair, an" many people have speculate" that 9ar1s, 'ho 'as recently brought into the 2innear househol" as a servant, 'as <ealous 9ontgomery, after all, 'as a mai", not the mistress of the house, an" 9ar1s resente" 9ontgomery@s airs of superiority At least, that is one version of the story 9ar1s claime" various interpretations of her involvement in the mur"ers, inclu"ing one in 'hich she states that she coul" not remember 'hat happene" on the "ay of the mur"ers an" another in 'hich she claims to have been temporarily possesse" by a "ea" girlfrien" of hers Alias )race "oes not solve all the pu!!les of this mystery, but it "oes present a patch'or1 story, "etails of 'hich come from a variety of real sources as 'ell as from At'oo"@s imagination, thus leaving rea"ers to come to their o'n conclusions Alias )race, At'oo"@s ninth novel, became a bestseller in North America, -urope, an" in other countries aroun" the 'orl" The boo1 helpe" 'in At'oo" several literary pri!es inclu"ing the Premio 9on"ello, Salon -aga2ine@s best fiction of 1;;J, the Nor'egian 4r"er of Literary 9erit, the )iller Pri!e, an" the Cana"ian Boo1sellers Association@s Author of the Lear a'ar" Alias )race 'as also shortEliste" for the Boo1er Pri!e in the year of its publication, 1;;= Buring that same year, it 'on the )iller Pri!e, a prestigious Cana"ian a'ar" for fiction -arly in her career an" over her constant ob<ections, At'oo" 'as classifie" as a feminist because of certain recurring motifs an" because her career too1 flight "uring the late 1;=>s an" into the 1;J>s, the hey"ay of feminism 3he has sho'n that she is far more than this single perspective

'oul" in"icate, that her approaches to politics an" literature are global an" multifacete" an" that she is enthusiastically involve" in bringing about positive change %hile it is true that At'oo"[s foremost social concern is the treatment of 'omen an" that her female characters ten" to be po'erful heroines or maleE"ominate" victims,I her fiction an" poetry also present female perspectives %ithin a "eceptively simple plot, At'oo" manages to present an ama!ing array of themes Accor"ing to the Ne' Lor1 University 9e"ical 3chool, Alias )race at least touches on the follo'ing topics: Aban"onment, Abortion, Acculturation, A"olescence, Catastrophe, Chil" Abuse, Communication, Beath an" Bying, BoctorEPatient &elationship, Bomestic 0iolence, -mpathy, $amily &elationships, $ree"om, )rief, /istory of 9e"icine, /omici"e, /uman %orth, /ysteria, #n"ivi"uality, #nstitutionali!ation, Loneliness, Love, 9emory, Patient -:perience, Physician -:perience, Poverty, Po'er &elations, Pregnancy, Professionalism, Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, &eligion, 3e:uality, 3ociety, 3uffering, Time, Trauma, an" %omen[s /ealth Another notes: Psychology is part of the philosophy, not part of the me"icine A very poor family comes to Cana"a from #relan" 7EAngela1s Ashes8 3et in Toronto 3can"alous issue: 'omen 'ithout clothes, it is a problem accor"ing to 0ictorian people The topic about )o" is also treate" There are some flashbac1s, they move to the past to spea1 about a 'oman 'ho "ie" in an abortion 9oral message: 5Lou nee" a goo" la'yer6 Controversial issue: a man 'ith money has a relation 'ith his servant They sleep together but he is al'ays in competition 'ith her The 'or1 coul" have relations 'ith the Bible $uture comes in silent in the present the repercussion of the present in the future 9oral message: ta1e the right step as soon as possible Bon@t postpone for tomorro' 'hat you can "o to"ay A character that can see the future appears as 'ell A 'oman appears in the "reams an" hol"s he at night, then her "ress appears 'et every night The boo1 has an open i"ea, 'hich can have several interpretations Probably she is a sonambule or not #t is a real story

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