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Pediatric Vital Sign Normal Ranges

Age Group Newborn Infant (1-12 months) Toddler (1-3 yrs.) Preschooler (3-5 yrs.) School Age (6-12 yrs.) Adolescent (13+ yrs.) Respiratory Heart Rate Rate 30 - 50 20 - 30 20 - 30 20 - 30 20 - 30 12 - 20 Systolic Weight Weight Blood in in kilos Pressure pounds 2-3 4.5 - 7 9 - 22

120 - 160 50 - 70

80 - 140 70 - 100 4 - 10

80 - 130 80 - 110 10 - 14 10 - 14 80 - 120 80 - 110 14 - 18 31 - 40 70 - 110 80 - 120 20 - 42 41 - 92 55 - 105 110 120 >50 >110

Normal temperature. It is normal for a baby (or child or adult) to have a body temperature of about 36 to 37o Celsius (or about 96.8 to 98.6o Fahrenheit). Lower than 36o Celsius (or 96.8o Fahrenheit) means that your baby needs to be 'warmed up'. Low-grade temperature. A baby is said to have a 'low grade' temperature if it is between 37 to 37.5o Celsius (or 98.6 to 99.5o Fahrenheit). This is not regarded as a fever, but may be caused by your baby

being overheated, overdressed, having too many (or heavy) bedclothes on, being over-wrapped, or being in a hot car, particularly in warm weather. If your baby has a low-grade temperature (and there are no other physical signs of a cold or an infection), then it is likely that they will respond to having some clothes or bedding taken off. Unwrap them, and/or take off any heavy or thick clothing, only place a sheet or light cover over them when sleeping. If their temperature comes down, then nothing else required.

TABLE 1: Normal temperature ranges

Measurement method Rectal Ear Oral Axillary

Normal temperature range 36.6C to 38C (97.9F to 100.4F) 35.8C to 38C (96.4F to 100.4F) 35.5C to 37.5C (95.9F to 99.5F) 34.7C to 37.3C (94.5F to 99.1F)

The findings of Sund-Levander, et al. are summarized in the table below. men oral rectal typanic (ear canal) axillary (armpit)

women 33.238.1 C 36.837.1 C 35.737.5 C

overall 33.238.2 C 34.437.8 C 35.437.8 C 35.537.0 C

35.737.7 C 36.737.5 C 35.537.5 C

Variations by age
Children and infants have respiratory and heart rates that are faster than those of adults as shown in the following table:
Normal heart rate Normal respiratory rate [15] (beats per minute) (breaths per minute)[16] 100-160 [17] 30-50



05 months 612 months 13 years 35 years 610 years 1114 years 14+ years

90-150 80-140 80-130 80-120 70-110 60-105 60-100

25-40 20-30 20-30 20-30 15-30 12-20 12-20


Tonicity is a measure of the osmotic pressure (as defined by the water potential of the two
solutions) of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane. It is commonly used when describing the response of cells immersed in an external solution. Like osmotic pressure, tonicity is influenced only by solutes that cannot cross the membrane, as only these exert an osmotic pressure. Solutes able to freely cross the membrane do not affect tonicity because they will always be in equal concentrations on both sides of the membrane.

Osmotic pressure is the pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane. Hypotonic solution: A solution with a lower salt concentration than in normal cells of the body and the blood

isotonic sodium chloride solution

an aqueous solution of 0.9 percent sodium chloride, isotonic with the blood and tissue fluid, used in medicine chiefly for bathing tissue and, in sterile form, as a solvent for drugs that are to be administered parenterally to replace body fluids.

Risks of intravenous therapy

[edit] Infection
Any break in the skin carries a risk of infection. Although IV insertion is a aseptic procedure, skin-dwelling organisms such as Coagulase-negative staphylococcus or Candida albicans may enter through the insertion site around the catheter, or bacteria may be accidentally introduced inside the catheter from contaminated equipment. Moisture introduced to unprotected IV sites through washing or bathing substantially increases the infection risks. Infection of IV sites is usually local, causing easily visible swelling, redness, and fever. If bacteria do not remain in one area but spread through the bloodstream, the infection is called septicemia and can be rapid and life-threatening. An infected central IV poses a higher risk of septicemia, as it can deliver bacteria directly into the central circulation.

[edit] Phlebitis
Phlebitis is irritation of a vein that may be caused by infection, the mere presence of a foreign body (the IV catheter) or the fluids or medication being given. Symptoms are warmth, swelling, pain, and redness around the vein. The IV device must be removed and if necessary re-inserted into another extremity. Due to frequent injections and recurring phlebitis, scar tissue can build up along the vein. The peripheral veins of intravenous drug addicts, and of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, become sclerotic and difficult to access over time, sometimes forming a hard venous cord.

[edit] Infiltration
Infiltration occurs when an IV fluid accidentally enters the surrounding tissue rather than the vein. It is characterized by coolness and pallor to the skin as well as localized swelling or edema. It is usually not painful. It is treated by removing the intravenous access device and elevating the affected limb so that the collected fluids can drain away. Infiltration is one of the most common adverse effects of IV therapy and is usually not serious unless the infiltrated fluid is a medication damaging to the surrounding tissue, in which case the incident is known as extravasation.

[edit] Fluid overload

This occurs when fluids are given at a higher rate or in a larger volume than the system can absorb or excrete. Possible consequences include hypertension, heart failure, and pulmonary edema.

[edit] Electrolyte imbalance

Administering a too-dilute or too-concentrated solution can disrupt the patient's balance of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and other electrolytes. Hospital patients usually receive blood tests to monitor these levels.