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Rootlets growing through clothing recovered from a burial after approximately one year.

Botany and Related Areas Botanical or plant evidence is often overlooked at crime scenes. Unless plant remains such as seeds, or burrs are found adhering to the victims hair or remains, incidental to the collection of the body, independent control and questioned samples of plant parts from leaf to root are typically not recognized as evidence. Perhaps the standards of scientists such as Hall (1988, 1997), Willey and Heilman (1987), Warren (1975, 1980, 1984), or Bock and Norris (1997), will continue to alert investigators and prosecutors to the value of plant and plant component evidence. Compilations such as Miller Coyle's Forensic Botany (2004) serve to reinforce and update developments in this critical component of crime scene analysis and reconstruction. Forensic botany is a relatively young application of an old science. The majority of the references below address botanical and palynological collections and analyses as they relate to archaeological site deposits. For this reason, the researcher should also be aware of archaeological site reports under Excavation and Recovery Strategies which might contain information on site specific collections and analyses of plant remains. It has long been a standard in archaeology protocol to collect soil samples or constant volume samples for separation and identification of small plant remains. The use of this information by archaeologists to help interpret the climate and environment of sites during particular time periods, or to determine the diet of a sites population have direct application to forensic settings. The same answers are often sought by crime scene investigators seeking to validate subject or witness accounts, as well as time and location of death. A reflection of forensic botany's progression along with other forensic sciences is the increased number of resources addressing research and observations in plant DNA, (Bever, et al., [2002]; Linacre, et al., [2002]; Weising, et al., [2005]; and Craft, et al., [2007] to name a few.) This bibliographys references in Taphonomy may also contain information/observations on the effect(s) of plant activity on disposed remains. Like entomological evidence, plant remains offer the opportunity to place remains or associated evidence in temporal and spatial contexts. Over time, plant growth may first serve to demarcate areas in which remains were disposed, and then impact the remains by utilizing them as a component of the lithosphere or biosphere. Botanical evidence also represents trace evidence which could link subject and victim and crime scene, as well as establish the movement of the subject and/or victim through a crime scene. From pollen to a rash from poison ivy, botanical clues follow Locard's principles of exchange. The use and interpretation of botanical evidence requires holistic knowledge of crime scene environments, the accurate recording of same, and site specific conditions which might affect plant growth (see Photography, Reconnaissance, Survey, and Mapping Techniques, Excavation and Recovery Strategies, as well as Geoarchaeology and Soil Science).

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This section is divided into the following categories: Algology, Diatomology, and Limnology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mycology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Palynology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Botany, Phytology, and General Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 729 733 739 755

The remains of an abducted and murdered child in an aquatic setting beneath a layer of duckweed (Lemnaoideae)

Algology, Diatomology, and Limnology (80 citations)


Aloi, J.E. 1990 A Critical Review of Recent Freshwater Periphyton Field Methods. Canadian Journal of Fishery and Aquatic Science, 47:656-670. Antonenko, N.E., and J.E. Ferris 1987 Diatom Analysis in the Determination of Death by Drowning. Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Sciences, 20:1-11. Auer, A. 1991 Quantitative Diatom Analysis as a Tool to Diagnose Drowining. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 12(3):213-218.

Auer, A., and M. Mttnen 1988 Diatoms and Drowning. Z. Rechtmed, 101:87-98. Bajanowski, T., B. Brinkmann, A.M. Sefanec, and R. Barckhaus, and G. Fechner 1998 Detection and Analysis of Tracers in Experimental Drowning. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 111:57-61. Barsanti, Laura, and Paolo Gualtieri 2005 Algae: Anatomy, Biochemistry, and Biotechnology, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. (ISBN: 0-8493-1467-4) Brodie, Juliet, and Jane Lewis

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2007

Unravelling the Algae: The Past, Present, and Future of Algae Systematics, CRC Press/Taylor Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL. (ISBN: 978-0-8493-7989-5)

Cameron, N.G. 2004 The Use of Diatom Analysis in Forensic Geoscience. In K. Pye and D.J. Croft, editors, Forensic Geoscience: Principles, Techniques and Applications, Geological Society, London, UK., pp.232-280. Casamatta, Dale A., and Robert G. Verb 2000 Algal Colonization of Submerged Carcasses in a Mid-Order Woodland Stream. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 45(6):1280-1285. Diaz-Palma, P.A., A. Alucema, G. Hayashida, and N.I. Maidana 2009 Development and Standardization of a Microalgae Test for Determining Deaths by Drowning. Forensic Science International, 184(1):37-41. Di Giancamillo, Alessia, Elena Giudici, Salvatore Andreola, Davide Porta, Daniele Gibelli, Cinzia Domeneghini, Marco Grandi, Cristina Cattaneo 2010 Immersion of Piglet Carcasses in Water The Applicability of Microscopic Analysis and Limits of Diatom Testing on an Animal Model. Legal Medicine, 12(1):13-18. Fairchild, G.W., R.I. Lowe, and W.B. Richardson 1985 Algal Perphyton Growth on Nutrient-Diffusing Substrates: An In Situ Assay. Ecology, 66(2):465-472. Foged, N. 1982 Diatoms in Human Tissues. Nova Hedwigia, 36:345-360. 1983 Diatoms and Drowning - Once More. Forensic Science International, 21:315-317.

Funayama, Masato, Sohtaro Mimasaka, Masayuki Nata, Masaki Hashiyada, and Yukihito Yajima 2001 Diatom Numbers Around the Continental Shelf Break. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 22(3):236-238. Geissler, U., and J. Gerloff 1966 Des Vorkommen von Diatomeen in Menschlichen Organen und in der Luft. Nova Hedwigia, 10:565-577. Graham, L.E., and L.W. Wilcox 2000 Algae, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. Gruspier, K.L. and M.S. Pollanen 2000 Limbs Found in Water: Investigation Using Anthropological Analysis and the Diatom Test. Forensic Science Internatinoal, 112:1-9. Haefner, James N. 2005 Pig Decomposition in Lotic Aquatic Systems: The Potential Use of Algal Growth and Aquatic Macroingertebrate Succession in Establishing a Postmortem Submersion Interval (PMSI). Masters Thesis, Millersville University, Millersville, PA. Haefner, James, John B. Wallace, and Richard W. Merritt 2002 A New Technique to Estimate a Postmortem Submersion Interval (PMSI) Using Algal Growth Rates. A paper presented at the 54th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Atlanta, Georgia, February 11-16, 2002. Haefner, James N., John R. Wallace, and Richard W. Merritt 2004 Pig Decomposition in Lotic Aquatic Systems: The Potential Use of Algal Growth in Establishing a Postmortem Submersion Interval (PMSI). Journal of Forensic Sciences, 49(2):330-336. Hendey, 1. 1971 The Diagnostic Values of Diatoms in Cases of Drowning. Proceedings of the British Association of Forensic Sciences, 13(1):23-34. Hobbie, J.E., and M.M. Fletcher 1988 The Aquatic Environment. In J.M. Lyndh, and J.E. Hobbie, editors, Micro-organisms in Action: Concepts and Applications in Microbial Ecology, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK., pp. 132-162. Horton, Benjamin P., Steve Boreham, and Caroline Hillier 2006 The Development and Application of a Diatom-Based Quantitative Reconstruction Technique in Forensic Science. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 51(3):643-650. Hrlimann, J., P. Feer, F. ELber, K. Niederberger, R. Dirnhofer, and D. Wyler 2000 Diatom Detection in the Daignosis of Death by Drowning. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 114(1/2):6-14. Juggins, S., and N. Cameron 1999 Diatoms and Archaeology. In E.F. Stoermer, editor, The Diatoms: Applications for the Environmental and Earth Sciences. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK., pp.389-401. Kakizaki, Eiji, Shuji Kozawa, Hirokazu Matsuda, Eri Muraoka, Taketo Uchiyama, Masahiro Sakai, and Nobuhiro Yukawa 2010 Freshwater Bacterioplankton Cultured from Liver, Kidney and Lungs of a Decomposed Cadaver Retrieved from a Sandy Seashore: Possibility of Drowning in a River and Then Floating Out to Sea. Legal Medicine, 12(4):195-199. Kakizaki, Eiji, Keiichi Takahama, Yasuhisa Seo, Shuji Kozawa, Masahiro Sakai, and Nobuhiro Yukawa 2008 Marine Bacteria Comprise a Possible Indicator of Drowning in Seawater. Forensic Science International, 176(2):236-247.

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Keiper, J.B., and D.A. Casamatta 2001 Benthic Organisms as Forensic Indicators. J North Am Benthol Soc, 20(2):311-324. Knudsen, J.W. 1972 Collecting and Preserving Plants and Animals, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, NY. Kobayashi, M., Y. Yamada, W-D. A Zhang, Y. Itakura, M. Nagao, and T. Takatori 1993 Novel Detection of Plankton from Lung Tissue by Enzymatic Digestion Method. Forensic Science International, 60:81-90. Koseki, T. 1968 Fundamental Examinations of Experimental Materials and Control Animals on the Diagnosis of Death from Drowning by the Diatom Method. Acta Med. Biol., 15:207-219. 1969 Investigations on the Bone Marrow as a Material in the Diatom Method Diagnosing Death by Drowning. Acta Med. Biol., 16:85-90.

Krstic, Svetislav 1995 Saprobiological Characteristics of Diatom Microflora in River Vardar as a Parameter for Determination of the Intensity of Anthropogenic Influence. PhD Thesis, Skopje,\ Krstic, Svetislav, Aleksej Duma, Biljana Janevska, Zlatko Levkov, Ksenija Nikolova, and Marina Noveska 2002 Diatoms in Forensic Expertise of Drowning: A Macedonian Experience. Forensic Science International, 127(3):198-203. Li Yange, Chuanying Hu, Chegxing Wang, Xu Wang 1999 Development of Can for Destraction of Organic Material in Use for Forensic Diatom Examination. Forensic Science International, 101:163-166. Ludes, B., M. Coste, N. North, S. Doray, A. Tracqui, and P. Kintz 1999 Diatom Analysis in Victim's Tissues as an Indicator of the Site of Drowning. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 112(3):163-166. Ludes, B., M. Coste, A Tracqui, and P. Mangin 1996 Continuous River Monitoring of the Diatoms in the Diagnosis of Drowning. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 41(3):425-428. Ludes, B., S. Quantin, M. Coste, and P. Mangin 1994 Application of a Simple Enzymatic Digestion Method for Diatom Detection in the Diagnosis of Drowing in Putrefied Corpses by Diatom Analysis. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 107:37-41. Lunetta, P., A. Penttil, and G. Hllfors 1998 Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopial Evidence of the Capacity of Diatoms to Penetrate the Alveolo-capillary Barrier in Drowning. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 111:229-237. Mant, A.K., and Churchill Livingstone 1984 Diatoms in Taylor's Principles and Practicve of Medical Jurisprudence. Edinburgh, Scotland. Matsumoto, H., and Y. Fukui 1993 A Simple Method for Diatom Detection in Drowning. Forensic Science International, 60:91-95. McLaughlin, R.B. 1995 Diatoms: Diatom Microscopy. Microscope, 43(4):199-208. Morin, J.O. 1986 Initial Colonization of Periphyton on Natural and Artificial Apices of Myriophyllum heterophyllum. Michx. Freshwater Biology, 16:685-694. Neidhart, D.A., R.M. Greeddyke 1967 The Significance of Diatom Demonstration in the Diagnosis of Death by Drowning. American Journal of Clincial Pathology, 48(4):377382. Neil, Ben 1999 Forensic Diatomology: An Assessment of the Passive Diffusion of Diatoms into Buried Pig Bone in a River Flood Plain and Riverine Environment. A Dissertation submitted as part of the Requirement for MSc/PGDip Forensic Archaeology, Bournemouth University, School of Conservation Sciences. Nikolova, Ksenija, Aleksandar Stankov, Natasa Davceva, Zdravko Cakar, and Svetislav 2003 Presence of Diatoms in an Event of Natural Death. Proceedings of the 3rd European Academy of Forensic Science Meeting, September 22-27, 2003, Istanbul, Turkey. Forensic Science International, 136(Suppl. 1):218-219. Pachar, J., and J. Cameron 1992 Scanning Electron Microscopy: Application in the Identification of Diatoms in Cases of Drowning. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 37(3):860-866. 1993 The Diagnosis of drowning by quantitative and Qualitative Diatom Analysis. Medicine, Science and the Law, 33(4):291-299.

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Peabody, A.J. 1977 Diatoms in Forensic Science. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 17:81-87. 1980 1999 Diatoms and Drowning: A Review. Medicine Science and the Law, 20(4):254-261. Forensic Science and Diatoms. In E.F. Stoermer and J.P. Smol, editors, The Diatoms: Applications for the Environmental and Earth Sciences, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK., pp.413-418.

Peabody, A.J., and R.M. Burgess 1984 Diatoms in the Diagnosis of Death by Drowning. In D.G. Mann, editor, Proceedings of the Seventh International Diatom Symposium, August 22-27, 1982, Koeltz, Koenigstein, pp.537-541. Petersohn, F. 1963 Diatomeen Befunde bei Wasserlichen. Dtsch. Z. Ges. Med.,54:370. Pollanen, M.S. 1996 The Diatom Test for Drowning in Ontario. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal, 29(4): 1997 1998a 1998b The Diagnostic Value of the Diatom Test for Drowning, II Validity: Analysis of Diatoms in Bone Marrow and Drowning Medium. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 42:286-290. Forensic Diatomology and Drowning. Elsevier Science, New York. (ISBN: 0-444-8284-3) Diatoms and Homicide. Forensic Science International, 91:29-34.

Pollanen, M., C. Cheung, and D. Chiasson 1997a The Diagnostic Value of the Diatom Test for Drowning, I. Utility: A Retrospective Analysis of 771 Cases of Drowning in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 42:281-285. 1997b The Diagnostic Value of the Diatom Test for Drowning, II. Validity: Analysis of Diatoms in Bone Marrow and Drowning Medium. Journal of Forensic Science, 42:286-290.

Round, F.E., R.M. Crawford, and D.G. Mann 1990 The Diatom: Biology and Morphology of the Genera, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. Schneider, V. 1980 Detection of Diatoms in the Bone Marrow of Non-Drowning Victims. Z. Rechst., 85(4):315-317. Sebetan, Ismail M., and Irelise C. Clendenin 2007 Diatoms and Their Forensic Significance. A Presentation before the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 19-24, 2007, San Antonio, Texas. Sidari, L., N. di Nunno, F. Costantinides, and M. Melato 1999 Diatom Tests with Soluene-350 to Diagnose Drowing in Sea Water. Forensic Science International, 103:61-65. Siver, P.A., W.D. Lord, and D.J. McCarthy 1994 Forensic Limnology: The Use of Freshwater Algal Community Ecology to Link Suspects to an Aquatic Crime Scene in Southern New England. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 39(3):847-853. Spitz, W. 1963 Daignose des Ertrinkungstodes Durch Den Diatomeen-Nachweis in Organen. Dtsch. Z. Ges. Ger. Med., 5:42-45. Stoermer, E.A. 1992 The Diatoms: Applications for the Environmental and Earth Sciences, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Takeichi, Toshiaki, and Osamu Kitamura 2009 Detection of Diatom in Formalin-Fixed Tissue by Proteinase K Digestion. Forensic Science International, 190(1):19-23. Tamaska, L. 1949 Diatom Content of Bone Marrow in Corpses in Water. Orv. Hetil., 16:509-511. 1961 Uber den Diatomeen-Nachweis in Knochenmark der Wasserleichen. Dtzcs. Z. Gesamte Gerichtl. Med., 51:398-403.

Taylor, J. 1994 Diatoms and Drowning - A Cautionary Case Note. Medicine, Science and the Law, 34:78-79. Thakar, Mukesh Kumar, and Rajvinder Singh 2010 Diatomological Mapping of Water Bodies for the Diagnosis of Drowning Cases. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 17(1):18-25. Uitdehaag, Stefan, Aleksandar Dragutinovic, and Irene Kuiper 2010 Extraction of Diatoms from (Cotton) Clothing for Forensic Comparisons. Forensic Science International, 200(1-3):112-116.

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Van Den Hoek, C., D.G. Mann, and H.M. Jahns 1995 Algae: An Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Wallace, John R., and Kathryn Zimmerman 2005 Determining a Postmortem Submersion Interval (PMSI) Based on Algal/Diatom Diversity on Decomposing Mammalian Carcasses in Brackish Ponds in Delaware. A Presentation before the 57th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 21-26, 2005, New Orleans, Louisiana. Waters, R. 2010 Bacteria Could Reveal Time of Drowning. Forensic Magazine, http://www.forensicmag.com/print/4859 Weising, Kurt, Hilde Nybom, Kirsten Wolff, and Gnter Kahl 2005 DNA Fingerprinting in Plants: Principles, methods and Applications, Second Edition, CRC Press/Taylor Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL. (ISBN: 978-0-8493-1488-9) Yoshimura, S., M. Yoshida, Y. Okii, T. Tokiyasu, T. Watabiki, and Akane 1995 A Detection of Green Algae (Chlorophyceae) for the Diagnosis of Drowning. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 108(1):39-42. Yoshioka, N., and K. Takahashi 1986 Demonstration of Diatoms in Heart Blood. Res. Pract. Forensic Med., 29:57-61. Zimmerman, Kathryn A., and John R. Wallace 2008 The Potential to Determine a Postmortem Submersion Interval Based on Algal/Diatom Diversity on Decomposing Mammalian Carcasses in Brackish Ponds in Delaware. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 53(4):935-941

Fungal growth approximately one week after surface deposited human remains were recovered from this site.

Mycology (127 citations)


Al-Musallam, A.A. 1988 Distribution of Keratinophilic Fungi in Desert Soil of Kuwait. Mycoses, 32:296-302. Andrassy, K., I. Horvath, T. Lakos, and Z. Toke 1979 Mass Incidence of Mucotoxicoses in Hajd Bihar County. Mykosen, 23:130-133. Arora, Dilip K.

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Fungal Biotechnology in Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Applications. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida (ISBN: 0-8247-4770-4)

Barnett, H.L., and B.B. Hunter 1987 Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi. MacMillan, New York, NY. Barron, G.L. 1977 The Nematode-Destroying Fungi. Canadian Biological Publications, Guelph, Ontario, Canada Bennett, J.W., and M. Klich 2003 Mycotoxins. Clinical Microbiology Review Bhat, R.V., S.R. Beedu, Y. Ramakrishna, and K.L. Munshi 1989 Outbreak of Trichothecene Mycotoxicosis Associated with Consumption of Mould Damaged Wheat Products in the Kashmir Valley, India. Lancet, 1:35-37. Brown, Gary R. 2004 Mold Investigations What is the Science Behind the Work. Presentation before the 56th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (Advance Program), February 19, 2004, Dallas, Texas. Bulmer, G.S. 1991 Medical Mycology, Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI. Butler, E.E., and M.P. Mann 1959 Use of Cellophane Tape for Mounting and Photographing Phytopathogenic Fungi. Phytopathology, 49:231-232. Campbell, C.K., E.M. Johnson, C.M. Philpot, and D.W. Warnock 1996 Identification of Pathogenic Fungi, Public Health Laboratory Service, London, UK. Carlile, M.J., S.C. Watkinson, and G.W. Gooday 2001 The Fungi, Academic Press, London, U.K. 2003 Taphonomic Mycota: Fungi with Forensic Potential. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 48(1):168-171.

Carter, David O., and Mark Tibbett 2003 Taphonomic Mycota: Fungi with Forensic Potential. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 48:168-171. Chang, Shu-Ting, and Philip G. Miles 2004 Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Envirnomental Impact, Second Edition. CRC Press/ Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida. (ISBN: 0-8493-1043-1) Chun, J., J. Lee, M. Cole, and A. Linacre 2000 Identification of Members of the Genera Panaeolus and Psilocybe by a DNA Test: A Preliminary Test for Hallucinogenic Fungi. Forensic Science International, 112:123-133. Clarke, Clara M. 1994 Fungal Spores as Palaeoenvironmental Indicators of Anthropogenic Activity. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland. Cooke, R.C., and A.D.M. Rayner 1984 Ecology of Saprotrophic Fungi, Longman, London, UK. Dighton, John, James F. White Jr., and Peter Oudemans 2005 The Fungal Community: Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem, Third Edition. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida (ISBN: 0-8247-2355-4) Dijksterhuis, Jan, and Robert A. Samson 2007 Food Mycology: A Multifaceted Approach to Fungi and Food, CRC Press/Taylor Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL. (ISBN: 978-0-8493-9818-6) Elidemir, O., et al. 1999 Isolation of Stachybotrys from the lung of a child with pulmonary hemosiderosis. Pediatrics, 104:964-966. Ellis, M.B., and J.P. Ellis 1997 Microfungi on Landplants. Richmond Publishers, Slough, UK. English, M.P. 1963 The Saprophytic Growth of Keratinophilic Fungi on Keratin. Sabouraudia, 2:115-130. 1965 The Saprophytic Growth of Non-Keratinophilic Fungi on Keratinised Substrata and a Comparison with Keratinophilic Fungi. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc., 48:219-235.

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Etzel, R.A., E. Montana, W.G. Sorenson, G.J. Kullman, M. Allan, and D.G. Dearborn 1998 Acute Pulmonary Hemorrhage in Infants Associated with Exposure to Stachybotrys atra and Other Fungi. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 152:757-762. Filho, Renato Evando M., Jose Julio C. Sidrim, Rossana de A. Cordeiro, Erica P. Caetano, Marcos Fabio G. Rocha, and Raimunda Samia N. Brilhante 2010 Trichophyton Mentagrophytes Perforates Hair of Adult Corpses in the Gaseous Period. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55(5):1359-1361. Finley, R.D., . Frostegrd, and A.-M. Sonnerfeldt 1992 Utilization of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Sources by Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Pure Culture and in Symbiosis with Pinus Contorta Dougl. Ex Loud. New Phytology, 120:105-115. Fukiharu, T., and T. Hongo 1995 Ammonia Fungi of Iriomote Island in the Southern Ryukuyus, Japan and New Ammonia Fungus, Hebeloma luchuense. Mycoscience, 36:425-430. Fukiharu, T., K. Osaku, K. Iguchi, and M. Asada 2000 Occurrence of Ammonia Fungi on the Forest Ground After Decomposition of a Dog Carcass. Natural History Research 6(1):9-14. Fukiharu, T., G. Yokoyama, and T. Oba 2000 Occurrence of Hebeloma vinosophyllum on the Forest Ground after Decomposition of Craw Carcasses. Mycoscience, 41:401-402. Furuya, K. 1990 Coprophilous Fungi as Microbial Resources. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 42:1-31. Griffin, D.M. 1972 Ecology of Soil Fungi. Chapman and Hall, London, UK. Hacskaylo, J., V.G. Lilly, and H.L. Barnett 1954 Growth of Fungi on Three Sources of Nitrogen. Mycologia, 46:691-701. He, X., and A. Suzuki 2003 Effect of Nitrogen Sources and pH on Growth and Fruit Body Formation of Coprinopsis phlytidospora. Fungal Diversity, 12:35-44. 2004 Effect if Urea Treatment on Litter Decomposition in Pasania edulis Forest Soil. Journal of Wood Science, 50:266-270.

Hilton, R.N. 1978 The Ghoul Fungus. Hebeloma sp. ined. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan, 19:418. Hitosugi, M., K. Ishii, T. Yaguchi, Y. Chigusa, A. Kurosu, M. Kido, et al. 2006 Fungi can be a Useful Forensic Tool. Legal Medicine, 8:240-242. Hudson, H.J. 1972 Fungal Saprophytism. Edward Arnold, London, UK. Imamura, A. 2001 Report on Laccaria amethystine, Newly Confirmed as an Ammonia Fungus. Mycoscience, 42:623-625. Imamura, A., T. Yumoto, and J. Yanai 2006 Urease Activity in Soil as a Factor Affecting the Succession of Ammonia Fungi. Journal of Forest Research, 11:131-135. Ishii, Kiyoshi, Masahito Hitosugi, Masahito Kido, Takashi Yaguchi, Kazuko Nishimura, Tsuyoshi Hosoya, and Shogo Tokudome 2006 Analysis of Fungi Detected in Human Cadavers. Legal Medicine, 8(3):188-190. Hitosugi, Masahito, Kiyoshi Ishii, Takashi Yaguchi, Yuichi Chigusa, Akira Kurosu, Masahito Kido, Toshiaki Nagai, and Shogo Tokudome 2006 Fungi Can be a Useful Tool. Legal Medicine, 8(4):240-242. Hudson, H. 1980 Fungal Saprophytism, The Institute of Biology's Studies in Biology Number 32, Edward Arnold, London, UK. 1986 Fungal Biology, Edward Arnold, London, UK.

Ishii, Kiyoshi, Masahito Hitosugi, Takashi Yaguchi, and Shogo Tokudome 2007 The Importance of Forensic Mycology, (Letter to the Editor). Legal Medicine, 9(5):287. Jain, M., P.K. Shukla, and O.P. Srivastava 1985 Keratinophilic Fungi and Dermatophytes in Lucknow Soils with their Global Distribution. Mykosen, 28:148-153. Jarvis, B.B. 1988 Mycotoxins: An Overview, in C.A. Ownby and G.V. Odell, editors, Natural Toxins, Pergamon Press, New York, NY. Jesenska, Z., E. Pieckova, and D. Bernat

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Heat Resistant Fungi in the Soil. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 1:214.

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Law enforcement agents prepare to destroy illegal marijuana seizures in Northern California

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