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Pandora and the Good Eris in Hesiod

Jonathan P. Zarecki

PANDORA NARRATIVE in the Theogonia and Opera is one of the most discussed elements of the Hesiodic corpus; one need only consult Blmers massive bibliography to see the interest that Pandora has drawn, particularly in the past forty years.1 While many aspects of the Hesiodic corpus are open to dispute, the communis opinio about Pandora is well expressed by West: Hesiod plainly conceives her, with her various feminine characteristics, as being herself the final, unanswerable affliction imposed by Zeus on man.2 Wests assertion about Pandora is clearly grounded in the texts of both the Theogonia (585, !"#$% !"!$% &%' &(")*+*, a beautiful evil in place of something good) and the Opera which give an unHE
1 W. Blmer, Interpretation archaischer Dichtung: die mythologischen Partien der Erga Hesiods II (Mnster 2001) 239395. 2 M. L. West, Hesiod: Works and Days (Oxford 1978) 155. Though a prominent theme in Hesiodic scholarship, the perceived misogyny surrounding the Pandora myths is not the focus of this paper, but its importance in any discussion of Pandora specifically and the Opera in general demands a brief digression. That Pandora is a bane to men and the penalty mortals must pay for Prometheus larceny has been the prevailing opinon: e.g., M. L. West, Hesiod: Theogony (Oxford 1966) and Works and Days; L. Sussman, Workers and Drones: Labor, Idleness and Gender Definition in Hesiods Beehive, Arethusa 11 (1978) 2741; P. A. Marquardt, Hesiods Ambiguous View of Women, CP 77 (1982) 283291; V. Leinieks, !"#$%& in Hesiod, Philologus 128 (1984) 18; and especially P. DuBois, Eros and the Woman, Ramus 21 (1992) 97116, who says not only that the Works and Days is filled with sensible misogynistic advice (108) but also that she is uncomfortable even reading Op. because I am a woman, and Hesiod seems, on the face of it, to despise my kind. Others have seen nothing in the texts to indicate misogyny; the most intriguing arguments and summary of the scholarship are in A. Casanova, La famiglia di Pandora: analisi filologica dei miti di Pandora e Prometeo nella tradizione esiodea (Florence 1979), and G. Arrighetti, Misogenia e machilismo in Grecia e in Roma (Genoa 1981).

Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 47 (2007) 529 2007 GRBS


ambiguous and unflattering depiction of her.3 The repetition of the pattern ,-." !"!$% !"!$% in the Opera is especially damning (5458):4
/",0'1*%234, ,5%'6% ,781 .930" 0:3;<, ="2801< ,>8 !#7?"< !"@ A.B< C87%"< D,08*,0EF"<, F*2 ' "G'H .7(" ,-." !"@ &%385F1% AFF*.7%*1F1%. '*+< 3 A(I &%'@ ,J8$< 3;F6 !"!K%, L !0% M,"%'0< '78,6%'"1 !"'B )J.$% N$% !"!$% &.C"(",O%'0<. Son of Iapetus, surpassing all in cunning, you are glad that you have outwitted me and stolen firea great plague to you yourself and to men that shall be. But I will give men as the price for fire an evil thing in which they may all be glad of heart while they embrace their own destruction.

and (8289):
3O8*% A3;84F"%, ,-. &%385F1% &#C4F'PF1%. "G'B8 A,0@ 3K#*% ":,Q% &.9="%*% AR0'7#0FF0%, 0:< S,1.4)7" ,7.,0 ,"'T8 !#J'$% U8(0VCK%'4% 3O8*% W(*%'", )0O% '"=Q% W((0#*%X *G3 S,1.4)0Q< AC85F"), Y< *Z [01,0 \8*.4)0Q< .9 ,*'0 3O8*% 37R0F)"1 ,B8 ]4%$< ^#J.,2*J, &## &,*,7.,01% AR*,2F6, .9 ,*E '1 !"!$% )%4'*+F1 (7%4'"1X "G'B8 _ 30R5.0%*<, `'0 3T !"!$% 0a=, A%K4F0%. [And he called this woman Pandora, because all they who dwelt on Olympus] gave each a gift, a plague to men who eat bread. But when he had finished the sheer, hopeless snare, the Father sent glorious Argus-Slayer, the swift messenger of the gods, to take it to Epimetheus as a gift. And Epimetheus did not think on what Prometheus had said to him, bidding him never take a gift of Olympian Zeus, but to send it back for fear it might prove to

3 Many scholars have seen problems with the accounts in the Theogonia and the Opera and have suggested deletions for various segments of the text; O. Lendle, Die Pandorasage bei Hesiod (Wrzberg 1957) 2155, provides a summary of opinions, both ancient and modern; cf. W. Berg, Pandora: Pathology of a Creation Myth, Fabula 17 (1976) 125, at 24. 4 Text: G. Arrighetti, Esiodo Opere (Turin 1998). Translations of Hesiod are from H. G. Evelyn-White, Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica (Loeb). Other translations, unless otherwise stated, are my own.


be something harmful to men. But he took the gift, and afterwards, when the evil thing was already his, he understood.

The narrative goes on to say that not only was Pandora herself an evil for man, but that, whether of her own volition or by the will of Zeus, she also unleashed on earth a myriad of wicked creations, which now roam freely bringing the full fury of the Fates down upon mankind (9095). In light of the description provided in the texts themselves, it may seem difficult to argue that Pandora was not entirely destructive. However, I believe that the author of the Opera has intended another meaning to be drawn from the story of Pandora. The placement of this myth near the beginning of the narrative, and in close proximity to the description of the two types of Eris which opens the text, is significant and intentional. I propose that the position of the Pandora story within the text and, most importantly, the language used to introduce her and also the two Erides, fashions for the audience a strong connection between Pandora and the Good Eris. The two disparate roles of Eris, the conundrum concerning mans life of labor (that it is a bane but also a noble and worthy undertaking), and the ambiguity of the contents of Pandoras jar, all reflect the tendency of early Greek thought to systematize the world according to a series of opposites.5 I will argue, through a discussion of three strong parallels, that in the Opera these oppositions are related to each other, with the result that the Good Eris and Pandora become equivalent beings. As the Good Eris does not appear in the Theogonia, my argument will naturally focus on the Opera, though supporting evidence can be drawn from the earlier text. It is not my intent to correct the traditional interpretations of Pandoras creation, or to suggest that Pandora was not in fact viewed by the gods, mankind, or the author himself as a malevolent being; to argue otherwise would be difficult, if not impossible. Rather, I hope to add a new interpretation to this oft-discussed episode. In order to better situate the Pandora myth within its context in the Opera, we can begin with the disparate genealogies of
L. F. Doherty, Gender and the Interpretation of Classical Myth (London 2001) 127.


Eris in the two Hesiodic works. In the Theogonia, generally considered the earlier, Eris is described as !"8'08K)J.*<, hardhearted; this is consistent with her characterization in the Homeric epics.6 This Bad Eris, which leads men and gods unceasingly into conflict (Il. 4.440, 5.518), is the same Eris portrayed in the Theogonia. She is F'J(089, loathsome (Theog. 226), and the daughter of Nux and sister to all manner of destructive forces (211225); this again corresponds to the Homeric epics, which represent Nux and her progeny as being opposed to and beyond the control of the Olympian order (Il. 14.259261). She appears only four other times in the Theogonia (637, 705, 710, 782), and twice she is given hostile epithets, ="#0,9, grievous (637), and F.083"#7*<, terrible to look upon (710). This Eris also appears prominently in the Opera in her Homeric guise as one who fosters wars and gives birth to battles and other contests, as at 14, b .c% (B8 ,K#0.K% '0
6 J.-P. Vernant, Mythe et pense chez les Grecs (Paris 1985) 47, concurs, calling this Eris the spirit of warlike activity who expresses the profound nature of the combatant. Cf. Il. 4.439445, where Eris is a companion in battle of Ares, Athena, Deimos, and Phobos, and 11.34, where she is the goddess sent by Zeus against the Achaian ships. The other mentions of Eris in the Theog. after 225 (637, 705, 710, 782) are clearly references to the Bad Eris. But even in the Homeric epics, while there is a decided inclination towards Eris as a harmful force, there is still no clear distinction between the Good and the Bad Eris. E. A. Havelock, Thoughtful Hesiod, YCS 20 (1966) 5972, at 6669, has argued persuasively that the roots of the Eris passage in the Op. lie in the Iliad, particularly those passages where Eris is portrayed as inciting the instincts of men in war, and that the Op. presents a culmination of thought on Eris, which begins with her character in the Iliad, continues through the rationalization of her genealogy seen in the Theog., to the systematization of the two types of Eris in the Op. J. C. Hogan, Eris in Homer, GrazBeitr 10 (1981) 2158, at 24, has disavowed any attempt to pigeonhole the Homeric Eris as either good or bad: the greatest weakness in all studies [of the Homeric [81<] stems from the desire to find a single equivalent term common to as many contexts as it can be made to cover; at the same time connotative meaning and the type of context in which [81< occurs are treated inadequately. Hogan also notes numerous instances of both positive and neutral meanings of [81< in the Iliad and Odyssey; cf. M. Gagarin, The Ambiguity of Eris in the Works and Days, in M. Griffith and D. Mastronarde (eds.), The Cabinet of the Muses (Atlanta 1990) 173183, at 182 n.11.


!"!$% !"@ 3-81% dC7##01, for this one fosters evil war and

battle, and 29 (see below). The Opera introduces a second Eris, however; this one causes men to compete with each other for the basic necessities for survival (2026):
e '0 !"@ &,5#.K% ,08 `.6< A,@ [8(*% A(02801 0:< f'08*% (58 '2< '0 :3I% [8(*1* ="'2g6% ,#*EF1*%, _< F,0E301 .c% &8;.0%"1 D3c CJ'0E01% *a!K% ' 0h )7F)"1, g4#*+ 37 '0 (02'*%" (02'6% 0:< WC0%*< F,0E3*%'X &(")T 3 i81< e30 j8*'*+F1%X !"@ !08".0Q< !08".0+ !*'701 !"@ '7!'*%1 '7!'6%, !"@ ,'6=$< ,'6=H C)*%701 !"@ &*13$< &*13H. She stirs up even the shiftless to toil; for man grows eager to work when he considers his neighbour, a rich man who hastens to plough and plant and put his house in good order; and neighbour vies with his neighbour as he hurries after wealth. This Strife is wholesome for men. And potter is angry with potter, and craftsman with craftsman, and beggar is jealous of beggar, and minstrel of minstrel.

The contrast between the two is made explicit at 28, where Perses is advised not to let the Strife which is !"!K="8'*<, i.e. the Bad Eris, hold him back from the work of agriculture, which is brought about by the Good Eris (2734):
k \78F4, FQ 3c '">'" '0H A%1!5')0* )J.H, .437 F i81< !"!K="8'*< &, [8(*J )J.$% A8E!*1 %02!0 d,1,0E*%' &(*8-< A,"!*J$% AK%'". l84 (58 ' d#2(4 ,7#0'"1 %01!76% ' &(*876% '0, L'1%1 .T j2*< [%3*% A,40'"%$< !"'5!01'"1 m8"+*<, '$% ("+" C7801, n4.9'08*< &!'9%. '*> !0 !*80FF5.0%*< %02!0" !"@ 3-81% dC7##*1< !'9."F A, &##*'82*1<. Perses, lay up these things in your heart, and do not let that Strife who delights in mischief hold your heart back from work, while you peep and peer and listen to the wrangles of the courthouse. Little concern has he with quarrels and courts who has not a years victuals laid up betimes, even that which the earth bears, Demeters grain. When you have got plenty of that, you can raise disputes and strive to get anothers goods.

This introduction of a second, good Eris, appears to supplant,



and indeed contradicts, the account presented in the Theogonia. Some commentators have found this passage problematic, not least on the grounds that it is ambiguous as to which Eris, or indeed if it is either or both of them, causes the actions described in 2734.7 Heath, however, has offered a convincing argument against the view that the text is in some way unsatisfactory.8 The second Eris, unknown in the Theogonia, must then be a purposeful creation, inherently important to the plot of the Opera.9 The placement of this new account of the Erides helps to explain, and indeed accentuates, its role in the overall narrative.10 The invocation of the Muses that begins the Opera includes the claim that Zeus is powerful because he can easily reverse a mans fortune; he acts as a sort of moderator of the human condition, reducing the excessively successful and bolstering the lowly (38).11 Immediately after the exaltation of Zeus comes
In regard to the birth certificate of the Good Eris, as West calls it (Works and Days 144), the text does present a slight problem. At 17 the Good Eris is actually older (,8*'784). I agree with West that this is merely a rhetorical gesture designed to increase the honor afforded to the Good Eris. While a change in punctuation might serve to alleviate the confusion, change here, as W. J. Verdenius, A Commentary on Hesiod: Works and Days, vv. 1382 (Leiden 1985) 21, has demonstrated, would remove any similarity the author of Op. may have intended with the account in Theog. 8 M. Heath, Hesiods Didactic Poetry, CQ 35 (1985) 245263, at 245 248: the apparent inconsistency is not due to the authors inability to think more than a few lines ahead; Heath sees rather a distinct and conscious division into three sections (1381, 382694, 695828). 9 See especially Havelock, YCS 20 (1966) 6265. 10 S. Nelson, God and the Land (Oxford 1998) 60, has in my view the best explanation of the two accounts: Hesiod has managed to introduce, along with the two kinds of Strife, both the essential opposition of the Works and Days, and the ambiguity of that opposition Good and evil, in the Works and Days, are opposites, but not simply so. They are also twins. 11 As many commentators have pointed out, including U. von Wilamowitz-Mollendorff, Hesiodos Erga (Berlin 1928) 3940, A. Rzach, Hesiodi Carmina (Leipzig 1913) 127, West, Works and Days 136137, and Verdenius, Commentary 13, the proem was absent from many ancient editions. However, none of the reasons given for its exclusion refute its authenticity, or show its irrelevance to the rest of the poem, and so I see no reason not to assume that it has a meaning for the rest of the narrative. Indeed, a marginal note



the account of the two Erides, introduced by W8", a particle whose confirmatory and successive nature helps establish a connection between the character of the Erides and the power of Zeus. The particle, I propose, is key to interpreting the passage in question, as a survey of its use in the Hesiodic corpus suggests.12 The explanatory and consequential force of the particle, meaning something like and so, is felt in each of these passages, and this strengthens the impression that the story of the Erides is related to the mediating power of Zeus described in the proem.13 The use of W8" elsewhere in the ___
in 2771 (A. Pertusi, Scholia vetera in Hesiodi Opera et Dies [Milan 1955] no. 11), implies that the existence of the Good Eris is consciously related to the powers of Zeus described in the proem 31B '$% !"18$% !"@ '$% F!*,$% '*> (85.."'*<, on account of the appropriateness and aim of the work. 12 Far from the profusion of W8" that J. Denniston, The Greek Particles (Oxford 1954) 33, decries in Homeric epic, the particle appears only twelve times in the Opera:: W8" at 11, 77, 79, 186; W8 at 49, 132, 489, 784; o" at 124 (= 254) and 565; o at 258. Denniston says that W8" is one of the commonest of all Homeric particles (p 41317 and ' 43566 are instances of the almost reckless profusion with which it is used) the freshness of W8", in Epic, may be to some extent staled by constant repetition, so that it sinks almost to the level of a mere Epic formula. Indeed, there are over 1800 occurrences of W8" in the Iliad and Odyssey, a ratio of 1:14.9 lines in the Iliad and an almost identical 1:16.2 in the Odyssey. For the two Hesiodic works, however, the ratio is smaller: 1:20.85 in Theog., the more Homeric of the two, and an atypical 1:69 in Op. The implication with regard to the Hesiodic corpus, particularly Op., is that the particle has a much more specific meaning here than in the Homeric texts. 13 This is the generic definition of the article presented by H. W. Smyth, Greek Grammar (Cambridge [Mass.] 1920) 635 2787; see also Nelson, God and the Land 61 n.11. Thus, for instance, in Op. 77 and 79 Hermes endows Pandora with his own attributes because Zeus has so ordered; here there is surely no element of surprise or discovery. This meaning of W8" agrees with most of the instances in Theog. Denniston, Greek Particles 32, makes clear that the primary use of W8", expressing a lively feeling of interest, is extremely common in epic and narrative (especially Herodotus and Xenophon), and this is perhaps the sense that one should understand at Op. 11. Yet he places 11 under his discussion of the W8" that indicates the surprise attendant upon disillusionment. D. B. Munro, A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect (Oxford 1891) 316, however, gave the Homeric W8" a universal meaning of consequence or explanation, making explicit that the



Theogonia similarly avoids the implication of surprise or discovery that is so common in Homer. There is no indication here that we are to view this W8" as indicating a state of affairs that is a surprise to anyone, with the possible exception of Perses.14 It is important to note what precedes the introduction of the Erides: A(I 37 !0 \78Fq A'9.J'" .J)4F"2.4%, and now I would say true things to Perses (10). This appears to be an implicit and important allusion to Theog. 2728. In that passage, it is said that the Muses can make truth appear false and falsehoods appear truthful as their spirit moves them.15 The Muses are still the ___
ordinary place of W8" is at the beginning of a Clause which expresses what is consequent upon something already said. LSJ is silent on this, but does give W8" a broad sense of consequence or mere succession, with all attendant non-Classical meanings as derivations of the initial definition. Except for Denniston, the literature is largely silent on epic W8"; P. Chantraine, Grammaire homrique (Paris 1953) II 340, does not cover the particle by itself, only in conjunction with '0 to mark uncertainty, and A. Rijksbaron (ed.), New Approaches to Greek Particles (Amsterdam 1997), has almost no references to the particle. To the best of my knowledge, the only in-depth treatment of epic W8" post-Denniston is J. Grimm, Die Partikel ara im frhen griechischen Epos, Glotta 40 (1962) 341, which does not mention the Hesiodic corpus at all. 14 The comments of E. Bakker, Storytelling in the Future: Truth, Time, and Tenses in Homeric Epic, in E. Bakker and A. Kahane (eds.), Written Voices, Spoken Signs: Tradition, Performance, and the Epic Text (Cambridge 1997) 1723, concerning Homeric W8" bear repeating (italics original): They [ara and mellein] may be characterized, in their Homeric use, as markers of visual evidence in the here and now of the speaker; more precisely, they mark the interpretation of such visual evidence. This interpretation turns the visual evidence into a sign that points to a previous experience or perception in the past that in its turn transforms the experience/perception in the present into a reexperience, the interpretation and understanding of the past in the present. Perses behavior is the catalyst for the authors revelation. The quarrel and unjust judgment, whether real or metaphorical, have caused the author to revise his belief (expressed in Theog.) that there was only one Eris. While not an indication of surprise, W8" here implies, in Bakkers words, that previous consciousness is characterized by ignorance, just as the present consciousness is a matter of understanding, and the significance of the present speech-act derives precisely from this contrast. 15 See also M. N. Nagler, Discourse and Conflict in Hesiod: Eris and the Erides, Ramus 21 (1992), 7996, at 8284. He rightly points out that the



inspiration in the Opera, and the implication of Op. 10 is that an announcement is being made to the audience/Perses that what the Muses are about to relate is the truth spoken as truth. The opening of 11, *G! W8" .*>%*% [4% S8236% (7%*<, would then mean something like And, contrary to what you might think, Perses, there are in fact two kinds of Strife in the world. In support of the idea of surprise in 11, much has also been made of the use of W8" with the imperfect [4%. West believes that the imperfect is used because, although the speaker is talking of the actual state of affairs as it now appears to him, he is more struck by the fact that it was so before, when it seemed otherwise.16 Several scholars, however, have made convincing arguments to the contrary. Sinclair urged that it is unnecessary to see any allusion to Theog. 225 the imperfect with W8" expresses what was true all along and still is.17 Mezzadri claims that the two Erides are not to be considered two separate deities but merely diverse aspects of the single Eris of the Theogonia, similar in this respect to Roman Fortuna. Peabody rejects the notion that W8" here indicates anything but the introduction of a new chapter in the story: the development sign par excellence is W8", which functions like a cut in a motion picture sequence. It always marks a shift in view or focus, but never an absolute beginning the particle W8", the phonic bias, and the responsions show that the Strife Passage is, not the beginning of the text, but a section of develop___
Muses make no intimation that they can speak falsehoods that sound like falsehoods, and draws the conclusion that for a poet to sing untruths that are unconvincing would indicate that he had failed to invoke the power of the Muses at all. 16 Works and Days 143. Verdenius, Commentary 16, like West holds that whoever the author of the text was, he is now suddenly struck by the recognition that he was wrong to include only one Eris in Theog.; cf. Smyth, Greek Grammar 636 2795. 17 T. J. Sinclair, Hesiod: Works and Days (London 1932) ad loc.; cf. Nagler, Ramus 21 (1992) 8790. Conversely, Nagler posits that there is only one Eris which can break in one direction or the other, and the passage merely shows that the narrative is leaving the world of the immortals and devolving to the world of men; cf. J. S. Clay, Hesiods Cosmos (Cambridge 2003) 89, arguing that a fuller understanding of Eris must embrace both the divine and human perspectives.



ment.18 Reading Op. 11 as I have proposed solidifies the connection of the proem with the exposition of the two types of Eris and the admonition to Perses that immediately follows it. The two Erides have opposite roles in the world: the Bad one leads men into war and unproductive conflict in the law-courts and agora, while the Good Eris causes a man to engage in honest and fruitful labor in the fields. The two sisters balance each other, much as the will of Zeus maintains a balance between pride and humility, fame and infamy (38). As Pucci has observed, there is a theme of opposition and complement throughout the Opera.19 Thus, as the poet informs his audience, there is room for both Erides in life, so long as one attends to the Good one first (3335). Attending to the Good Eris means working intensely to store up enough grain and supplies to provide for oneself and the family. Labor, though bemoaned as a negative condition of the current, fifth race of mankind, is nevertheless the highest good, a praiseworthy and noble endeavor that makes a man more dear to the immortal gods (303309). Labor, a divine gift from Zeus, is the domain of the Good Eris, yet labor did not exist until Pandoras arrival. Both entities are responsible for mankinds labor, and the descriptions of their characters are conjoined thematically and linguistically, as we shall see: accordingly I would argue that Pandora and the Good Eris, while not to be understood as the same creature (Pandora is surely no longer physically present), do possess the same function in the world of man. Thus there are two Erides, each providing a counterpart to the other, just as Zeus himself serves as the bridge between success and failure in the world of man. The judgment of Zeus is dispensed as the god himself sees fit (4, n1$< .0(5#*1* f!4'1), and one of the recurrent motifs of the Hesiodic works is that it is impossible to escape the will of Zeus (Theog. 613, Op. 105). It
18 B. Mezzadri, La double Eris initiale, Mtis 4 (1989) 5160; B. Peabody, The Winged Word (Albany 1975) 473 n.46. 19 P. Pucci, Hesiod and the Language of Poetry (Baltimore 1977), especially 105115.



appears, however, that allowing the Good Eris to guide a man is the way to avoid Zeus passing judgment against him. A man should resist the temptation of the Bad Eris and avoid the agora and the law courts, and instead let the Good Eris lead him to the fields in order to gather plenty of grain (2732). Once he has secured abundant stores of food and other necessities, he is free to become a follower of the Bad Eris (3335), and when this happens he runs the risk of being too proud or successful, a harbinger of possible intervention by Zeus.20 The Good Eris, then, forces a man to focus on his own well-being, and does not allow time for accumulation of exorbitant wealth but conversely will provide a sufficient livelihood. The Good Eris thus leads a man in a more moderate path of life. The theme of temperance continues with the story of Prometheus. The location of the story seems to reinforce the condemnation of Pandora as reflected in the uncomplimentary language applied to her. She appears between the admonition to the j"F1#0+< 368*C5(*1 (2742) and the lament about the current despicable and overworked race of men. Not only are the kings avaricious and susceptible to bribery, but mankind has reached its nadir. Four incarnations have come and gone, and the fifth is such that the poet wishes he had never been born (174175). This race, poisoned by the ,K%*< brought about by the advent of Pandora (and, it seems, the (7%*< (J%"1!O% of Theog. 590591), is forced to spend its entire existence eking out a meager living by constant toil (90201). The world of the poet is filled with iniquity, bleak, and burdened with excruciating labor, and the author clearly connects the advent of Pandora with this labor.
It may well be that the author is being ironic in 3334; Perses could in theory be free to attend the law-courts and engage in quarrels to his hearts content if he should ever put away enough grain to support himself ('*> !0 !*80FF5.0%*<), but in fact he never will. E. F. Beall, The Plow that Broke the Plain Epic Tradition: Hesiod Works and Days, vv. 414503, ClAnt 23 (2004) 132, at 2 n.1, has pointed out a parallel at Il. 22.427, where Priam says that he and Hecuba would have had a glut of mourning had Hector died at home ('O !0 !*80FF5.0)"). This must be counterfactual, as Hector died on the battlefield. The sense appears to be the same at Op. 33, which would fit with my interpretation of this passage.



Zeus has hidden the means of life, the j2*<, from men. This is the penalty man must pay for the trickery of Prometheus at Mecone. Prometheus, however, avenged man by stealing the immortal fire from Olympus, for which transgression Zeus decides to give man a !"!K% that will prove to be their destruction. Thus enters Pandora. Both Hesiodic poems claim that Pandora is the price men pay for fire, and the verbal similarities of Theog. 570 ("G'2!" 3 &%'@ ,J8$< '0>R0% !"!$% &%)8;,*1F1%) and Op. 57 ('*+< 3 A(I &%'@ ,J8$< 3;F6 !"!K%, L !0% M,"%'0< '78,6%'"1) are striking: the two works apparently are drawing upon the same source, if not each other. In each case, Pandora is the final misery given to man for the audacity and insubordination of Prometheus. Yet man is left with the means to recover the j2*<, through the ="#0,$< ,K%*< of Op. 91. This harsh toil, though described as a bane to humanity, is in fact the only remaining means of survival. The j2*<, instead of being abundant and readily available, is now hidden, and the earth must be worked through harsh labor in order to draw out the sustenance. The introduction of Ponos among men presents the first of three strong parallels which link Pandora and the Good Eris. In the Theogonia, Ponos is one of the many descendants of Nux, specifically the child of Eris (225226). As stated above, the Eris of the Theogonia can only be the Bad Eris of the Opera. This should not be surprising, since all manner of destructive afflictions appear in this passage. Eris is said to have born many harmful creatures, most of which have military connotations: thus tearful Pains, Fights, Battles, Murders, Slaughters, Feuds (227229, r#(0" 3"!8JK0%'" sF.2%"< '0 t5="< '0 uK%*J< ' U%38*!'"F2"< '0 v02!0"). The rest of the children, save Lethe and Limos, also reflect conflict, but are more pertinent to the politics of the agora from which the author wants to dissuade Perses. Ponos, then, as it appears in the Theogonia, seems to be related to physical or mental conflict, with no clear connotation of or connection to physical labor.21
21 In Homer ponos is used quite often of the toil of war, or as a synonym for war itself, e.g. Il. 6.77, 16.568, Od. 12.117; LSJ provides many more examples from the Homeric corpus. Herodotus also uses it to refer to par-



In the Opera, however, ponos must imply daily work. It is, after all, a life of ponos that is the result of Pandoras creation. Twice Hesiod uses %KFC1% ,K%*1* of the time before Pandoras arrival (91, 113). It follows that Pandora brought ponos to the world of men. This much would find wide agreement among scholars. While ponos does carry a negative aspect in all occurrences, however, it makes little sense for ponos, in the context of the Opera, to have only its epic connotation of war or something akin to war; Pandora did not bring war to mankind, but unceasing toil. While ergon and ponos cannot be substituted as exact synonyms (as at Op. 20, for example), it does appear that the author intends for ponos to refer to labor/work.22 Man is fated to work constantly for survival now that Pandora has arrived. This point is hammered home at 382, !"@ [8(*% A, [8(w A8(5g0F)"1, work with work upon work. That [8(*% is a product of the Good Eris cannot be in doubt; this is explicit at 2026. Thus in the Opera, ponos and ergon are closely related. The results of both are the same: man works hard in order to have sufficient livelihood to survive. The Good Eris rouses men to work, and men did not have to work before the advent of Pandora. From this evidence, it would not be overreaching to see a conflation of the Good Eris and Pandora. A second parallel between Pandora and the Good Eris occurs in 8589: Epimetheus receives into his house Pandora, described as a 3O8*%, against the advice of Prometheus, who had warned his foresight-lacking brother not to accept any gift from Zeus lest it prove to be something harmful (8587). Pandora is here both a !"!K% and a 3O8*%.23 Only after accepting her, ___

ticular battles or wars, including the Trojan War (9.27.4) and the battles of Marathon (7.113114), Thermopylae (7.224), and Salamis (8.74, 9.15). 22 N. Loraux, Ponos: sur quelques difficults de la peine comme nom du travail, AION (archeol) 4 (1982) 171192, at 171, says that the most obvious approximation of ponos in French is travail, labor. 23 No special importance is implied by the use of 3O8*% as a companion to !"!K% here. As a description of Pandora it need carry no more weight than to designate her as a gift from the gods, as 3O8*% is used of any divine gift (Op. 614, 3O8" n16%EF*J; Theog. 103, 3O8" )056% [the Muses]; 399, of the gifts Zeus gave to honor Styx; 412, of the honors given to Hecate by



however, does Epimetheus understand what she is (89, "G'B8 _ 30R5.0%*<, `'0 3T !"!$% 0a=, A%K4F0%).24 A%K4F0% here serves to echo what was said about the Good Eris in 12: men praise her once they understand her (0:F@ 3E6X 'T% .7% !0% A,"1%7FF010 %*9F"<.)25 A gift that at first appeared to be an evil has turned out to be a blessing for men, as she allows man the means to obtain j2*< from the earth.26 In the Opera %*76 is relatively uncommon, used only eight times and only within the first 296 lines.27 In each instance the verb implies understanding true things, or at least attaining the truth, whether it is followed or not.28 Thus the author will tell ___
Zeus). On the gifts of the gods in Hesiod, see Pucci, Language 16 and 96 101. 24 Verdenius, Commentary 62, argues, against West, that 39 cannot be equivalent to x34, and thus the acts of accepting and understanding should be understood as contemporaneous; E. F. Beall, Hesiods Prometheus and Development in Myth, JHI 52 (1991) 355371, at 363 n.44, agrees with Verdenius as part of a much larger discussion of Epimetheus character. Pucci, Language 94, disagrees, as do I: in Op., 39 seems to imply serial actions, not simultaneous, e.g. at 121, where a similar construction leaves no doubt that the silver race comes after the golden race has been covered by the earth. 25 This association was noted briefly by Wilamowitz, Erga ad loc. Cf. J.-P. Vernant, Le mythe hsiodique des races, RPhil 40 (1966) 247276, at 254, who claims that Zeus purposefully gives to Pandora an ambiguous form that mirrors that of Eris; Pandora is an evil, but a delightful one. 26 J.-P. Vernant, Myth and Society in Ancient Greece (transl. J. Lloyd, New York 1990) 196, even goes so far as to say that Pandora corresponds to j2*<, since the belly of a woman is like the belly of the earth in that man must plow it in order to get the j2*< hidden inside. 27 Op. 12, 89, 202, 261, 267, 286, 293, 296. 28 This is also the meaning reflected in the only two instances in the Theogonia. Theog. 488490 tells how Cronus did not know in his heart that he had just swallowed a stone instead of Zeus (*G3 A%K4F0 .0'B C80F@% Y< *Z d,2FF6 &%'@ #2)*J N$< JZ$< &%2!4'*< !"@ &!43T< #02,0)). Similarly, at 836 838 the verb speaks to Zeuss ability to understand everything, And truly a thing past help would have happened on that day, and he [Typhoeus] would have come to reign over mortals and immortals, had not the father of men and gods been quick to perceive it (!"2 %E !0% [,#0'* [8(*% &.9="%*%
x."'1 !02%w !"2 !0% ` (0 )%4'*+F1 !"@ &)"%5'*1F1% W%"R0%, 0: .T W8 dRQ %K4F0 ,"'T8 &%38O% '0 )0O% '0).



a fable for princes who themselves understand (202, %>% 3 "a%*% j"F1#0>F1% A876 %*7*JF1 !"@ "G'*+<).29 The fable is presented as a universal truth that Perses has apparently failed to understand: fostering violence is bad (213). The eye of Zeus understands everything (267, ,5%'" %*9F"<), and so too does Hesiod, at least compared with his brother (286, F*@ 3 A(I AF)#B %*76% A876). Finally, it is made clear that a man who understands things for himself is best (293, *y'*< .c% ,"%581F'*<, _< "G'H ,5%'" %*9F01), and whoever does not understand things for himself will be unprofitable (296297, _< 37
!0 .9' "G'H %*7q .9' W##*J &!*E6% A% )J.H j5##4'"1, _ 3 "h' &=891*< &%98).

As the author takes pains to point out thoughout the Opera, the only way to prosper is through hard and honest labor. It is the Good Eris that rouses a man to work, though men did not have to do so before Pandoras arrival. The choice of the same verb, %*76, for understanding the two entities that bring about labor, given its meaning throughout the text, strengthens the correspondence between Pandora and the Good Eris. The third parallel involves the notorious pithos of Op. 90105. The traditional view is that Pandora was given a large jar filled with a myriad of evils which she opened, unleashing all manner of ills upon mankind.30 But this may not be the only possible reading. Particularly suggestive is Girards proposal that the jar was conceived as containing not evils, but various apotropaic
29 C8*%7*JF1 traditionally read in 202 has been supplanted by %*7*JF1, attested by a papyrus: H. Maehler, Neue Fragmente eines Hesiodpapyrus in West-Berlin, ZPE 15 (1974) 195206, supported by W. J. Verdenius, Three Notes on the Works and Days, Mnemosyne 28 (1975) 190191. 30 For example, S. Byrne, S#,2< in Works and Days 90105, SyllClass 9 (1998) 3746, at 41 n.10, and Arrighetti, Esiodo 414. Thus West, Works and Days 169172, argues that it is the addition of the pithos that truly explains the fall from Elysian conditions to those that Hesiod knew. Leinieks, Philologus 128 (1984) 4, supports A. Lebgue, Notes de mythologie grecque (Bordeaux 1885) 250: A#,2< means lattente du mal, an expectation of evil, and is kept away from men by being imprisoned in the jar. D. Ogden, What Was in Pandoras Box? in N. Fisher and H. van Wees (eds.), Archaic Greece: New Approaches and New Evidence (London 1998) 213230, makes one of the more extraordinary claims about the contents of the pithos, that it held a terasbaby, which makes it akin to the vessel that held the infant Erichthonius.



demons, and that opening the jar actually allowed these beneficent creatures to flee to Olympus and away from man, thereby freeing the evils which were already in existence from any restrictions.31 He cites a fable of Babrius (58) in which Zeus put all good things into a jar which he then entrusted to man (]0Q<
A% ,2)w 'B =84F'B ,5%'" FJ##7R"< [)4!0% "G'$% ,6.5F"< ,"8 &%)8;,w).

Further support can be found in an epigram of Macedonius: he does not blame Pandora for the problems that beset mankind but rather the wings of the good things that originally resided in the jar (\"%3;84< z8K6% (0#K6 ,2)*%, *G3c (J%"+!" .7.C*."1, &## "G'O% 'B ,'08B 'O% &(")O%).32 Since at least the 1950s, as the Panofskys have demonstrated, scholarly opinP. Girard, Le mythe de Pandore dans la posie hsiodique, REG 22 (1909) 217230, at 229230. This conclusion was reiterated forcefully by E. F. Beall, The Contents of Hesiods Pandora Jar: Erga 9498, Hermes 117 (1989) 227230. D. and E. Panofsky, Pandoras Box: the Changing Aspects of a Mythical Symbol (New York 1956) 8, call attention to the fact that the jar is never depicted as being brought by Pandora to earth, and in a variant of the myth it was brought to Epimetheus by Prometheus (who got it from some satyrs) with the order not to accept Pandora. Indeed, since a pithos was certainly too large to be considered portable (the influence of Erasmus mistranslation of pyxis for ,2)*< notwithstanding), it appears that the jar must have been in Prometheus possession when Pandora arrived. If it was already there, the argument that Zeus sent the evils with her becomes tenuous. 32 Anth.Gr. 10.71; J. A. Madden, Macedonius Consul (Spudasmata 60 [1995]) 223232. But W. J. Verdenius, A Hopeless Line in Hesiod, Works and Days 96, Mnemosyne 24 (1971) 225231, at 226228, reasons that Babrius and other later authors must have contaminated their sources with variants: the pithos was in fact intended as a sort of prison which would keep Elpis, defined here as the expectation of evil, away from the world of men. So too Lebgue, Notes 250, who argues that Zeus felt pity for mankind on seeing the evils leave the jar, and so willed Pandora to shut the lid in order to keep Elpis, the premonition of evil, and the worst of them all, permanently imprisoned. Thus, while men do have hope, they are unaware of the coming of evils, especially diseases (Op. 103104). For A#,2< as expectation of evil cf. Aesch. Ag. 899, Soph. Trach. 951, Aj. 1382, and OT 487, 1432. The use of W%)86,*< in Babr. 58 is initially striking for its possible implication that it was Epimetheus, not Pandora, who opened the jar. However, W%)86,*< meaning woman was in use regularly after the fifth century, cf. LSJ s.v. II.



ion has tended more and more towards acceptance of Babrius version of the myth as reflecting the original story which the author of the Opera modified for his narrative.33 That the contents of the jar flew away from mankind and did not remain among men is paralled in a similar passage at 197 201. The fifth race of men will be destroyed when Aidos and Nemesis, whom West recognizes as forces that inhibit wickedness, depart the earth for Olympus, leaving behind only the evils to fly among men:34
!"@ 'K'0 3T ,8$< {#J.,*% &,$ =)*%$< 0G8J*3024< #0J!*+F1% C580FF1 !"#J?".7%6 =8K" !"#$% &)"%5'6% .0'B C>#*% |'*% ,8*#1,K%' &%)8;,*J< }:3I< !"@ v7.0F1<X 'B 3c #02?0'"1 W#(0" #J(8B )%4'*+< &%)8;,*1F1, !"!*> 3 *G! [FF0'"1 &#!9. And then Aidos and Nemesis, with their sweet forms wrapped in white robes, will go from the wide-pathed earth and forsake mankind to join the company of the deathless gods: and bitter sorrows will be left for mortal men, and there will be no help against evil.

In this passage, men are left with evils once the remaining apotropaic creatures have left. It can be inferred that while the good things were among mankind, the evils were kept away. But in a replay of the opening of the pithos, when Aidos and Nemesis flee their own jar, as it were, they abandon mankind, who are left with a harsher existence. The same sentiment is expressed in 94101:

Panofsky, Pandoras Box 6. West, Works and Days ad loc. Gagarin, in Griffith/Mastronarde, Cabinet 179180, has perceptive comments on the duality of ":3;<, both as a force that leads to poverty (Op. 317319) and an unspecified boon relating to riches (320326). Though it does not appear that two separate and distinct incarnations are intended, the analyses presented for [81< and ":3;< are similar in their emphasis on the duality and ambiguity of concepts whose traditional evaluation was unambiguous Hesiods purpose, in fact, is not to resolve but to affirm [the tension between following the rules of life and the perceived arbitrariness of Zeuss justice] and to reveal its presence in language as well as human affairs.
33 34



&##B (J%T =0280FF1 ,2)*J .7(" ,O. &C0#*>F" AF!73"F, &%)8;,*1F1 3 A.9F"'* !930" #J(85. .*E%4 3 "G'K)1 S#,@< A% &889!'*1F1 3K.*1F1% [%3*% [.01%0 ,2)*J ~,$ =02#0F1% *G3c )E8"g0 AR7,'4 ,8KF)0% (B8 A,7.j"#0 ,O." ,2)*1* ":(1K=*J j*J#PF1 n1$< %0C0#4(087'"*. W##" 3c .J82" #J(8B !"' &%)8;,*J< &#5#4'"1 ,#024 .c% (B8 ("+" !"!O%, ,#024 3c )5#"FF". But the woman took off the great lid of the jar with her hands and scattered all these and her thought caused sorrow and mischief to men. Only Hope remained there in an unbreakable home within under the rim of the great jar, and did not fly out at the door; for ere that, the lid of the jar stopped her, by the plans of aegis-holding Zeus who gathers the clouds. But the rest, countless plagues, wander amongst men; for earth is full of evils and the sea is full.

I find further support for Girards hypothesis in the introductory W##" at 100. Instead of implying that the contents of the jar were negative, this line details the result of Pandoras action with no reference to the contents of the jar. It is because the pithos was opened that a myriad of wicked things are now free to roam among men. West takes W##" to mean that Elpis is not one of the #J(85 mentioned by Hesiod, a position earlier taken by Hays.35 If, however, Pandora was supposed to bring nothing but evil to the world of men, it seems odd that she would slam the cover back on the pithos just in time to keep Elpis trapped. Against Girards reading it can be objected that what were left in the jar were %*>F*1 (92, 102), which must be considered harmful. The problem with this section of the narrative is whether Elpis was good or evil, and why it is kept in the jar.36
35 West, Works and Days ad loc.; H. B. Hays, Notes on the Works and Days of Hesiod (Chicago 1918) 8990. Hays further notes that W##" implies that innumerable other things are in the jar besides Elpis, all of which are evils. 36 The problem has no easy solution, as the discussion of I. Musus, Der Pandoramythos bei Hesiod und seine Rezeption bis Erasmus von Rotterdam (Gttingen 2004) 1330, indicates. For example, F. Solmsen, Hesiod and Aeschylus (Ithaca 1949) 83: I must confess that I am still unable to understand Hesiods idea that Hope remained in Pandoras jar. A. S. F. Gow, Elpis and Pandora in Hesiods Works and Days, in E. C. Quiggin (ed.), Essays and Studies presented to



The lack of emphasis on Elpis in the rest of the Opera (only two further references, 498 and 500) seems to indicate that while Pandora did not cause grief for mankind by keeping Elpis in the jar, she also did it no great favor either. Elpis seems to be fundamentally neutral.37 The question then becomes why the author troubled to mention Elpis by name when the other evils remain both nameless and voiceless. Girards proposal removes the confusion, though it seems to make Elpis the prime averter of evil, a role admittedly unsupported in the text. Knoxs comments are appropriate: we should not, however, be looking for logic here since Aristotle has not yet invented the syllogism or excluded contradictions.38 There are contradictions in the narrative, but they need not overshadow its meaning for the audience.39 ___
William Ridgeway (Cambridge 1913) 99109, at 100, remarks that this passage is in sad confusion, and citing other sources (Babrius, Macedonius, Philodemus, Nonnus), takes the novel step of separating the story of the pithos from the Pandora story. Leinieks, Philologus 128 (1984) 7, following Gows suggestion, and not disputing the negative implications that Pandora caused evils in the world by engendering the race of women (so Theog. 570 602), calls Op. 90104 an "a%*< complete in and by itself to explain why evils come unexpectedly; it was attached to the Pandora story simply because a woman was the protagonist and evils were the result in both cases. R. Lauriola, #,2< e la giara di Pandora (Hes. op. 90104): il bene e il male nella vita delluomo, Maia 52 (2000) 918, at 12, has commented that the very act of opening the jar gives rise not only to evils but also to an instrument with which to combat them, A#,2<, and that the good brought by the trapped A#,2< forms a positive counterbalance to the existence of woman and the resulting increase in labor. 37 J.-P. Vernant, The Myth of Prometheus in Hesiod, in R. I. Gordon (ed.), Myth, Religion, and Society (Cambridge 1981) 4356, at 5556, while believing that the jar contains evils, gives strong evidence for Elpis ambiguity. P. J. de La Combe and A. Lernould, Sur la Pandore des Travaux, in F. Blaise et al. (eds.), Le mtier du mythe (Villeneuve dAscq 1996) 301313, at 313, and Arrighetti, Esiodo 414, have subscribed to this reading, particularly in reference to Op. 498500, where the author implies that A#,2< is ostensibly good but functionally useless. Cf. R. F. Meagher, The Meaning of Helen (Wauconda 1995) 152 n.44: the Hope of the Opera is accorded little if any significance [it] is nothing but a fossil from a forgotten time. 38 B. M. W. Knox, Essays Ancient and Modern (Baltimore 1989) 17. 39 As Doherty, Gender 127151, argues through a poststructural reading of the narrative.



What is at issue is the result of Pandoras arrival, which is the introduction of work and toil among men.40 As the discussion of W##" in 100 has demonstrated, there are a lot of things in the jar. Zeus often mixes the good with the bad, as the famous scene in the Iliad relates (Il. 24.525533):
m< (8 A,0!#;F"%'* )0*@ 301#*+F1 j8*'*+F1 g;01% &=%J.7%*1<. "G'*@ 37 ' &!4370< 0:F2. 3*1*@ (58 '0 ,2)*1 !"'"!02"'"1 A% n1$< *301 3;86% *" 3236F1 !"!O%, f'08*< 3c N56%. L .7% ! &..02R"< 3;q ]0Q< '08,1!78"J%*<, W##*'0 .7% '0 !"!H ` (0 !E80'"1, W##*'0 3 AF)#HX L 37 !0 'O% #J(8O% 3;q, #6j4'$% [)4!0, !"2 N !"!T j*Ej86F'1< A,@ =)K%" 3+"% A#"E%01, C*1' 3 *'0 )0*+F1 '0'1.7%*< *'0 j8*'*+F1%. Such is the way the gods spun life for unfortunate mortals, that we live in unhappiness, but the gods themselves have no sorrows. There are two urns that stand on the door-sill of Zeus. They are unlike for the gifts they bestow: an urn of evils, an urn of blessings. If Zeus who delights in thunder mingles these and bestows them on man, he shifts, and moves now in evil, again in good fortune. But when Zeus bestows from the urn of sorrows, he makes a failure of man, and the evil hunger drives him over the shining earth, and he wanders respected neither of gods nor mortals.41

The interpretation that Pandoras jar contained nothing good seems to be implied from at least the second century, for Plutarch says: Hesiod also confines the evils in a great urn and represents Pandora as opening it (F2*3*<, !"@ *y'*< A% ,2)w

Cf. F. J. Teggart, The Argument of Hesiods Works and Days, JHI 8 (1947) 4577, at 47, who makes this argument central to his assessment of the text. 41 Text D. B. Monro and T. W. Allen, Homeri Opera: Iliadis XIIIXXIV (Oxford 1962), transl. R. Lattimore, The Iliad of Homer (Chicago 1951) 489. There has been a long-standing connection between Pandoras pithos and the pithoi of Zeus. Knowledge of these lines by the author of Op. was posited by a scholiast (Pertusi 94a); Lendle, Pandorasage 109112, suggests that the pithos story was the authors own invention but based on the Il. passage.



!"'028R"< 'B !"!5, 'T% \"%3;84% &%*2R"F"% &,*C"2%01).42

The divine being mentioned in the Opera who also brings good with bad is Eris. In the introduction of the two Erides it was said that the Good Eris raises even the shiftless man to toil (20). It emerges that a woman does the same thing.43 Until Pandora was given to Epimetheus, men were %KFC1% ="#0,*+* ,K%*1*, far from hard toil (91). After the appearance of the first woman, man must now spend his days attempting to draw j2*< from the earth.44 West touches on this point briefly: Hesiod may have embarked on the description of the making of Pandora with the idea of accounting for the need to work simply from the existence of women.45 However, according to West, it is in reality the evils that come from the jar that are the cause of mans toil, not the creation of the first woman. But the text seems to imply otherwise. Line 91 notwithstanding, the passage elaborates on the contents of the jar by stating that whatever these %*>F*1 were, they wander silently among men, surprising them since Zeus took away their power of speech (102104). Yet nowhere is it implied that the necessity of labor is a surprise, that like the diseases sprung from Pandoras pithos ,K%*< appears unannounced. Nor is work necessarily an evil: [8(*% 3 *G3c% %013*<, &08(24 37 ' %013*<, work is no
Mor. 105DE. Cf. Panofsky, Pandoras Box 5052; Musus, Pandoramythos 131, 135136. 43 L. B. Quaglia, Gli Erga di Esiodo (Turin 1973) 8083, also sees a connection with the Prometheus/Pandora myth and the workings of the two Erides, based on (58 in 42 which she believes connects this myth with 11 41. 44 The Pandora of the Opera must be considered the first woman, even though she is not explicitly called this (contrast Theog. 590). If women already existed, then Zeuss creation of Pandora would seem a highly unlikely source of subterfuge. In addition, if it is to be argued that Pandora is not the first woman, then the implication is that women do not have any bearing on a mans life of toil, which is repeatedly contradicted (Op. 373 375, 586, 695705, 753755). 45 West, Works and Days 155. De la Combe and Lernould, in Blaise, Le mtier 308, believe that the evils that result from Pandoras unlocking the pithos do not concern work, nor can they be ameliorated by the productive activity of a virtuous man, a view also expressed by Lauriola, Maia 52 (2000) 11.



disgrace: it is idleness which is a disgrace (311), a sentiment echoed in 314, '$ A8(5g0F)"1 W.01%*%, working is better. Toil is not in and of itself a boon for man; but toil brings wealth, which is a boon because it can provide at least a temporary release from labor. The genesis of woman thus corresponds to the advent of the Good Eris among mortals. The association of Pandora and the Good Eris is reinforced in the long exegetical passage known as the Myth of the Five Ages, which implies that the Good Eris came after the Bad Eris. The relationship between the Myth of the Five Ages and the myth of Pandora has proven problematic for more than one commentator, mainly on the argument that time is subjective, relative only to the person and the circumstance. But we should not dismiss this section of the story as merely a rhetorical device designed to make the authors warnings to Perses more easily understandable.46 The suggestion of Most seems correct, that the author of the Opera was aware of the difficulty in revising the Pandora myth of the Theogonia for inclusion in this later work, and that the Myth of the Five Ages is not an appendage to the myth of Prometheus, but rather a corrective.47 However, the two myths juxtaposed in Op. 47212, while representing alternate expressions of reality, do serve a common purpose, as Fontenrose has urged: the Pandora myth details how and why Zeus ordained work for man, and the Five Ages support this doctrine and illustrate clearly the results of
46 On the problems of reconciling the Pandora myth with the Myth of the Five Ages, see J. Fontenrose, Work, Justice, and Hesiods Five Ages, CP 69 (1974) 116, at 12, and West, Works and Days 172177, who hold that the two myths are incompatible. Others, e.g. K. von Fritz, Pandora, Prometheus, and the Myth of the Ages, Review of Religion 11 (1947) 227260, at 240, deny that the Five Ages even follow a temporal pattern. K. Kumaniecki, The Structure of Hesiods Works and Days, BICS 10 (1963) 7996, at 81, even claims that the Myth of the Five Ages is of much greater importance than the Pandora story, since it better expresses the theme of mankinds guilt in respect to the gods. 47 G. W. Most, Hesiod and the Textualization of Personal Temporality, in G. Arrighetti and F. Montanari (eds.), La componente autobiografica nella poesia greca e latina (Pisa 1993) 7392, at 90. Mosts argument of course rests on the assumption that the author of Theog. and Op. is the same person, a view to which I also subscribe.



disobedience.48 In this genealogical myth of men, the Bad Eris appears to have been present almost from the beginning. Destructive war and conflict is a hallmark of every (7%*< except the golden one; anarchy, not civilized order, carried the day among early man.49 The third race completely destroyed themselves, and even in the generation of heroes a good portion of them were killed in battle. Since several of the races of men knew war, and killed each other in great numbers, we can safely assume that there was Bad Eris in the world independently of Pandora.50

48 Fontenrose, CP 68 (1974) 5. Resolution of the temporal relation of these stories should not be sought in attempting to create a synchronistic amalgamation of two disparate myths, for it should not be assumed that Hesiods audience viewed these two myths as happening in the same continuum. A useful discussion of this point is found in M. I. Finley, Myth, Memory, and History, History and Theory 4 (1965) 284287; see also Nelson, God and the Land 6162, and Beall, J!" 52 (1991) 356357. 49 Such is the power of the Bad Eris among men that it even causes the subordination of Dike. Cf. H. Munding, Die bse und die gute Eris, Gymnasium 67 (1960) 409422, at 414415, who uses both the Iliad and the character of Perses to illustrate that contentiousness is so deeply rooted in mankind that it cannot be overcome. K. Olstein, Pandora and Dike in Hesiods Works and Days, Emerita 48 (1980) 295312, at 295, is mistaken to assume that Dike replaces Pandora and represents evil-giving and the evils of her jar in and after the Five Ages of men. About the current race of men Hesiod in his lament (176201) says nothing to imply that evil-giving is replaced by Justice; in fact, it appears that both the Good Eris and Dike herself are completely absent. Hesiod is explicit that Dike will conquer Hubris (217), but nowhere is either Eris or Pandora associated with Hubris; cf. Vernant, RPhil 40 (1966) 258260. Perses is indeed advised W!*J0 32!4< .43 j81% C0##0, listen to justice and dont foster hubris (213), which draws a parallel to the Bad Eris, who 3-81% dC7##01 (14). But 213 seems to imply that Perses has a choice, not that Dike will defeat or replace Hubris. I agree, however, with M. Gagarin, Dik in the Works and Days, CP 68 (1973) 8194, at 81, who holds that Dike does not apply to any actions outside the peaceful settlement of disputes and concludes that Op. is not a treatise about morality or justice but rather about prosperity and the necessity of an effective legal process to help achieve it. 50 Beall, Hermes 117 (1989) 228, argues that to say that evil was in the world before Pandora makes the Op. sound more like the Theog., which implies that such forces as ,K%*< were primordial. Note Mosts argument



The earlier races of men did not have to work in order to survive. All they needed was provided by the earth (116118):
)%PF!*% 3 YF) ,%w 303.4.7%*1X AF)#B 3c ,5%'" '*+F1% [4%X !"8,$% 3 [C080 g02368*< W8*J8" "G'*.5'4 ,*##K% '0 !"@ WC)*%*%. When they died, it was as though they were overcome with sleep, and they had all good things; for the fruitful earth unforced bore them fruits abundantly and without stint.

This is not so with the current fifth race of men. The poet laments the never-ending labor, and in no uncertain terms makes known his wish that he was not a part of the Iron Age. Even in this spirit of despair, however, we are told that notwithstanding the need to work constantly, there will still be some good mixed with the bad (179, &## [.,4< !"@ '*+F1 .0.02R0'"1 AF)#B !"!*+F1%). Here again is the idea of opposite forces in constant contradiction.51 The relation of Pandora to the Good Eris is now clear. The position of the story within the Hesiodic text, the confirmatory particles used to connect the parts of the narrative, and the end results of the appearance of Pandora lead to the conclusion that there is more to Hesiods Pandora than appears on the surface. There are indeed two types of Eris, one that is bad for mortals and one that is good for them. The Bad Eris is the one that inhabitated the world of men before Pandora. But the Good Eris only appears in conjunction with the creation of Pandora. The presence of the Good Eris causes men to labor constantly for survival, yet this Eris is the one who is far kinder to men, who is &(")9, not A,1.6.4'9 (13). Pandora, and the race of women descended from her, produce the same result. The advent of woman brings wholesome rivalry, honest labor, and a decent way of life, the hallmarks of the Good Eris. The ___
(above, 26) about the relation between the Pandora myth and the Myth of the Five Ages. 51 Cf. Gagarin, CP 68 (1973) 92, where the moral of the Op. is that life is hard; prosperity comes only through peaceful cooperation and hard work. Peabody, Winged Word 250, relates Op. 106108, the prelude to the sermon concerning the ages of men, to 11, and thus takes the whole passage from 106201 as a parallel of the Eris passage at 1126.



existence of both the good and the bad aspects of women is part of Zeuss order and is thus to be embraced. Pandora, like the Good Eris, allows man to continue his own existence, and the authors intent is to conflate the two.52
September, 2006 Dept. of Classical Studies Univ. of North Carolina, Greensboro Box 26170 Greensboro, NC 27402-6170

52 An earlier version of this paper was read at the 2005 meeting of CAMWS in Madison, Wisconsin. I would like to thank Jim Marks, Susan Shelmerdine, Chris Brandon, Francesca Biundo, and especially the anonymous readers at GRBS for their valuable comments and assistance.