Anda di halaman 1dari 20

Input Data

Design Discharge for Diversion Hume Pipe, Q = 6.00 cumec


Rugosity coefficient = 0.014
Length of Diversion Hume Pipe = 32.50 m
Invert level of Diversion Hume Pipe at entry = El.1314.00 m
Invert level of Diversion Hume Pipe at forebay = El.1308.00 m
Design Calculation:
Applying Manning's formula
where,
V = flow velocity
Manning's coefficient,N= 0.014
R= hydraulic mean depth
Bed slope of the Diversion Hume Pipe,S = 0.18
= 1 in 5.42
Check for discharging capacity of the pipe
Assumed D= 1.50 m
Assumed Radius = 0.75 m
Assuming depth of flow, d = 0.90 D
= angle projected by unwetted perimeter at the center of the pipe
B
A C
h= unwetted height above FSL = D (1- 0.9) = 0.15 m
wetted height above c/l of pipe, h
1
= D/2 - h = 0.600 m
Hydraulic Design of Diversion Hume Pipe
Let D be the diameter of the Diversion Hume Pipe.

Thus, /2= cos


-1
(h
1
/R)
/2= 0.64 Rad
= 1.29 Rad
Arc length of the unwetted perimeter, L = R= 0.97 m
Chord length at the maximum flow level = 2(d x (D-d)) = 1.2 m
Cross-sectional area of unwetted section
A
u
=
0.09 Sq.m
1.68 Sq.m
Wetted Perimeter,P = D-L= 3.75 m
Hydraulic mean depth, R = A
w
/P =
0.45 m
Actual velocity in Hume Pipe = 3.87 m/s
Thus, discharging capacity of the Hume Pipe
Q = 6.49 cumec
Thus, cross-section area of wetted section, A
w
= /4 x D
2
-A
u
=
Since, the discharging capacity of the Diversion Hume Pipe is more than the design discharge, the diameter
of the Diversion Hume Pipe is sufficient enough to pass the design discharge.
Input Data
Design Discharge for Power Generation = 2.36 cumec
Flow Required for Silt Flushing in Desilting tank= 20%
Flow required for leakage and overloading = 15%
Total Design Discharge for Trench weir intake = 3.19 cumec
Normal Water Level at intake location, NWL = El.1311.0 m
Provided Height of Intake Opening, H = 1.20 m
Provided Width of Intake Opening, W = 2.00 m
Geometry of Intake Structure
Height of Intake bellmouth = 0.33 H = 0.33 x 1.2 = 0.40 m
Velocity at Opening = 3.186/(1.2 x 2) = 1.3 m/s
Height of Intake Opening including bellmouth =1.2 + 0.4 = 1.60 m
Invert level of Intake Opening = 1311 - 2.1 = El.1308.90 m
Design discharge =20% of 2.36 cumecs = 0.47 cumec
Permitted velocity in the bed flushing pipe = 3.0 m/s
Length of bed flushing Pipe = 10.00 m
Provided diameter of bed flushing pipe, D = 0.45 m
Sill level of bed flushing pipe = 1308.9 - 0.5 = El.1308.40 m
Area of the bed flushing pipe = 0.7854 D
2
= 0.16 sq.m
Wetted perimeter = 0.25 D = 0.11 m
Wetted radius = A/P = 1.41 m
Velocity attained = Q/A = 3.0 m/s
Hydraulic Design of Trench Weir Intake
Since, the flow is free flow after the intake, water cushion is not provided above the top of
intake opening.
Hydraulic Design of Bed Flushing Pipe
The invert level of the bed flushing pipe is kept at 0.5 m below the invert level of the
trench weir intake.
Input Data
Design Discharge for Power Generation: 2.36 cumec
Flow required for Bed Load Flushing: 20%
Flow Required for Silt Flushing (HRT): 20%
Overload Requirement: 15%
Total Design Discharge: 3.66 cumec
Normal Water Level: El.1311.0 m
High Flood Level: El.1312.0 m
Average Bed Level at Weir: El.1311.0 m
Length of Weir: 15.0 m
Trench Weir Geometry
where,
Q = Design Discharge = 3.658 Cumecs
L = Width of Stream = 15 m
E
1
= Ratio of flow area to the Total area of Trash Rack = 0.5
E
2
= Ratio of opening in the Trash rack likely to be clogged = 0.5
C
d
= Coefficient of Discharge through trashrack opening = 0.46
L = Length of the Weir across the stream = 15 m
E = Specific Energy at any section of the stream in the Trench weir
B = Width of Trashrack (width of trench weir at top)
C = Coefficient of Discharge for broad crested weir = 1.53
E = 0.3 m
B = 0.9 m
Provide a width of 1.25 m from practical considerations. Provide the same width for the entire 15m Length.
Velocity Requrement:
Providing 0.4 m/s per meter width of the trench as allowable velocity through trashrack opening
Hence required width =
= 0.61 m
Width required (50% Clogging Criteria) = 2 x 0.61 = 1.21 m
Which is less than 1.25 m.
Hence, provided width of Trash rack is safe.
The hydraulic design of trench weir is carried out by first assuming some dimensions (Length and Width)of the trench weir and
then checking the same for discharging capacity. The discharge capacity of the weir should be more than the required diverted
discharge.
Hydraulic Design of Trench Weir
3
2
C.L.
Q
(E) Energy Spec. |
.
|

\
|
=
2gE .L. .C .E E
Q
B Weir, Trench of Width
d 2 1
=
2gE .L. .C .E E
Q
B Weir, Trench of Width
d 2 1
=
Check for Discharging Capacity of Trench Weir
Length of Water Way: 15.0 m
Design Discharge: 3.66 cumec
Top Width of Trench (T): 1.25 m
Let the water depth along the section of channel be "d"
Area A = T x d = 1.25 x d
Velocity head at the end of the Trench (H
v
)
Where "n" is a constant depending on bottom profile of Trench = 0.5
Velocity head (H
v
): 0.27 d
3.658 = 4.6d^(3/2)
d = 0.86 m
Say 0.9 m.
Depth of Trench provided at Intake Location: 2.10 m
The Provided Depth of Trench at start: 1.10 m
Hence, provide waterway of 1.1 m at the start of the trench increasing to 2.1 m towards the intake end.
The bed slope of Tranch weir shall be proposed as 1V:15H
Check for Adequacy of Waterway
Average Depth of Trench = (1.1 + 2.1 )/2 m = 1.60 m
Average Flow Area = 1.25 x 1.6 sq.m = 2.00 Sq.m
Wetted Perimeter = (2 x 1.6 )+ 1.25 m = 4.45 m
Bed Slope of Trench = (2.1 - 1.1)/15 = 0.0667
Discharging Capacity of Trench, Q = 16.83 cumec > 3.658 cumec, Hence, adequate.
Check for Adequacy of Capacity with 50% Area Clogged
Average Depth of Trench = 1.6 /2 m = 0.80 m
Average Flow Area = 0.8 x 1.25 sq.m = 1.00 Sq.m
Wetted Perimeter = (2 x 0.8 )+ 1.25 m = 2.85 m
Bed Slope of Trench = (2.1 - 1.1)/15 = 0.0667
Discharging Capacity of Trench for 50 % clogging, Q
50
=
7.14 cumec > 3.658 cumec, Hence, adequate.
Using Manning's formula with value of n = 0.018,
Q = A2gHv = 2d(2g0.27 d)
1.25 x 2
2d
.
1 0.5
0.5
Hv
+
=
2T
A
.
1 n
n
Hv
+
=
Input Data
Design Discharge for Power = 2.36 cumec
Flow Required for Silt Flushing in Desilting tank= 20%
Flow required for leakage and overloading = 15%
Total Design Discharge = 3.19 cumec
Restricted Velocity = 2.0 m/s
Rugosity Coeffieicent = 0.018
Average Bed Level at Weir = El.1311.0 m
Length of intake channel = 137.00 m
Intake Channel Design
Area required = Q/V = 3.19/2= 1.59 Sq.m
Providing Base Width, B = 2.00 m
Providing depth, D = 1.00 m
Cross sectional area provided = B x D = 2.00 Sq.m
Velocity = 1.59 m/s
Wetted perimeter = 2D + B = 4.00 m
Wetted radius = 0.50 m
S
1/2
= 0.046
S= 0.002
= 1 in 500
Invert level of intake Channel at trench weir = El.1308.90 m
Invert level of intake Channel at Starting of desilting tank = 1308.9 - 137 x 0.002
= El.1308.60 m
Hydraulic Design of Intake Channel
Input Data
Design Discharge for Power = 2.36 cumecs
Flow Required for Silt Flushing = 20%
Flow required for leakage and overloading = 15%
Average Design Discharge, Q = 2.95 cumecs
Particle size to be removed= 0.20 mm and above
Flow velocity, v
f
= 0.22 m/s
Settling velocity,v
s
= 2.75 cm/s
Length of bypass Channel including transition= 51.00 m
Design Calculation:
Width proposed, W= 4.50 m
Depth required, D = Q/(W x vf)= 2.90 m
Adopted depth , D = 3.00 m
Hence, horizontal velocity = Q/(W x D) = 0.22 m/s
Moderated settling velocity, v
m
= v
s(
(1 - 0.132)/(D^(0.5)))
= 2.54 cm/s
= 0.025 m/s
Settling length = (flow through velocity/moderate settling velocity) x depth
= 25.80 m
Say = 26.00 m
Invert Level of HRP at intake = 1308.6 - 51 x 0.002
= El.1308.50 m
Provide 26 m long settling basin with trapezoidal bottom and silt gutter of 600 mm x 600 mm.
Hydraulic Design of Desilting Tank
The connection between the rectangular channel and desilting basin at inlet has been provided by way of 3.5m long expansion transition and outlet by way of 3.5 m
long contraction transition.
Input Data
Design Discharge for Power = 2.36 cumec
Flow required for leakage and overloading = 15%
Total Design Discharge for HRP, Q = 2.71 cumec
Rugosity coefficient = 0.012
Allowable velocity = 2.0 m/s
Length of HRP = 2291.00 m
Invert level of HRP at entry = El.1308.50 m
Design Calculation:
Invert level of HRP at forebay = El.1304.30 m
Applying Manning's formula
where,
V =allowable velocity = 2.00 m/s
N= Manning's coefficient = 0.012
R=hydraulic mean depth
S=bed slope of the HRP = 0.0018 545.4761905
= 1 in 540
Thus,
R=(V x N/S
1/2
)
3/2
= 0.42 m
Check for discharging capacity of the pipe
Assumed D= 1.50 m
Assumed Radius = 0.75 m
Assuming depth of flow, d = 0.80 D
= angle projected by unwetted perimeter at the center of the pipe
B
A C
h= unwetted height above FSL = D (1- 0.8) = 0.30 m
wetted height above c/l of pipe, h
1
= D/2 - h = 0.450 m
Let D be the diameter of the Head Race Pipe.
Hydraulic Design of Head Race Pipe

Thus, /2= cos


-1
(h
1
/R)
/2= 0.93 Rad
= 1.85 Rad
Arc length of the unwetted perimeter, L = R= 1.39 m
Chord length at the maximum flow level = 2(d x (D-d)) = 1.2 m
Cross-sectional area of unwetted section
A
u
=
0.25 Sq.m
1.52 Sq.m
Wetted Perimeter,P = D-L= 3.32 m
Hydraulic mean depth, D
w
= A
w
/P =
0.46 m
Actual velocity in Headrace Pipe= Q/A
w
=
1.79 m/s
Thus, discharging capacity of the HRP
Q = 3.37 cumec
Design of thickness of HRP
Thickness = (PD)/(2)
where P=
Mass Density = 1000.00 kg/Cum.
Steady head = FSL at DT -FSL at Forebay = 4.2 m
Adding 50 % for water hammer = 6.3 m
Thus, P= 6300 kg/Sqm.
D= diameter of the HRP = 1.50 m
= Permissible stress of Pipe Material = 130 MPa
= 13000000 kg/Sqm.
Hence,
Thickness of HRP = (PD)/(2) = 0.00036 m
= 0.036 cm
Adding 2mm for corrosion = 0.236 cm
Thickness Required for handling = (D+50)/400
Thus,
Handling thickness = (D + 50)/400 = 0.50 cm
= 0.50 cm
Hence, provide 7 mm as the thickness of pipe.
water pressure with 50% additional for water
hammering
Providing 2 mm for corrosion, thickness of the HRP =7 mm
Thus, cross-section area of wetted section, A
w
= /4 x D
2
-A
u
=
Since, the discharging capacity of the HRP is more than the design discharge, the diameter of the
HRP is sufficient enough to pass the design discharge within the limited velocity.
Input Data
Design Discharge for Power Generation = 2.36 cumec
Flow required for leakage and overloading = 15%
Total Design Discharge, Q = 2.71 cumec
Drawdown depth, D = 3.00 m
Storage capacity = 3 min
Design Calculation:
Capacity of tank = Q x T= 2.71 x 3 x 60 cum
= 488.52 cum
Considering water depth of 3 m, area required = 162.84 sq.m
Providing width of forebay tank = 8.00 m
Length of forebay tank = 20.36 m
Provide freeboard of 1.0 m.
Design for Penstock intake
Full supply level(F.S.L.) at forebay = 1305.50 m
Min. draw down level at forebay = FSL - D = 1302.50 m
Penstock diameter = 1.00 m
Design of Bell Mouth Opening and Transition
0.79
1.31
H
1
= 0.79
H
2
= 0.79
H
e
= (H
1
+H
2
) = 1.58
Height of Transition = 1.00 m
= Angle of inclination of tunnel central line to the horizontal
m
m
Sqm
Required Opening area = Sqm
m
Where,
D = Diameter of the Tunnel
H
2
= Height of the Opening below center line of the Tunnel
Where,
D = Diameter of the Tunnel
= Angle of inclination of tunnel central line to the horizontal
Hence, provide 21 m as the length of forbay tank with width of 8 m.
Where,
= Angle of inclination of tunnel central line to the horizontal = 0.00
Cc = Coefficient of Contraction = 0.60
Bell Mouth opening is designed to produce an accelaration similar to that found in a jet issuing from a sharp edged orifice.The surface is
formed to a normal contraction curve and the tunnel is assumed to be the size of the orifice of the jet at its maximum contraction. According
to IS 9761-1995
Required Opening area at the Entrance of Intake is given by the following expression,
Geometry of the Opening
The Height and width of the Power Intake Opening can be calculated from the following Expression given in IS 9761-1995 Clause 5.1.4,
Hydraulic Design of Forebay Tank and Spillway
Where,
H
1
= Height of the Opening above center line of the Tunnel
Tunnel Cross section is Circular
Area of section =
| Cos C
Area Tunnel
Area Opening quired
C
= Re
2 1
) ( H H H Opening of Height
e
+ =
( )
(

+ + = |
|
| tan 1 . 1
cos 2
1
0847 . 0 tan 21 . 1
2
1
D H
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= |
|
tan 077 . 0
cos
791 . 0
2
D H
Width of Transition (b
e
) = 1.00
D = Diameter of Pressure Shaft = 1.00
(1.1 D)
2
= 1.21 (1.1 D) = 1.10 m
(0.291D)
2
= 0.08 (0.291D) = 0.29 m
Therefore the equation of Entrance Profile for the Roof and floor will be,
X
2
Y
2
1.21 0.08
Section
b
e
= Width of Transition = 1.00
(0.55 b
e
)
2
= 0.30
(0.2143 b
e
)
2
= 0.05
Therefore the equation of Entrance Profile for the Side flare will be,
X
2
Y
2
0.30 0.05
(0.55 b
e
) = 0.55 m
(0.2143 b
e
) = 0.21 m
1.42 m
2.24 Sq.m Hence Ok
Where,
2.71 m/s
0.866 > 0.33
2.30 m
1300.20
MDDL = 1302.50
1300.20
1299.41
0.50
Design for spillway forebay
Q = CLH
3/2
Where,
Design discharge,Q = 2.71 cumec
Coefficient of discharge,C = 1.7
H= 0.50 m
Thus,
L= Q/(CH
3/2
)
L= 4.52 m
Approach Apron at Bellmouth Entrance = m
m
Elevation of CL of Intake = m
Bottom Level of the Bellmouth Entrance = m
In order to prevent vortices formation, sufficient submergence depth (h) has to be maintained above the central line of intake. The Criteria
V = Velocity at Entrance of the Intake =
Froude Number (F) =
Submergence Required (h) =
Submergence Required above c/l of Intake = m
Width of the Intake at Entrance
Plan
Width of the Intake = [b
e
+2(0.2143b
e
)] =
Provided Area at Entrance of Intake =
Minimum Submergence:
Details of side flaring entry in plan
Where,
m
'1
The inlet should be streamlined to minimise the losses. The profile of roof and floor should approximate to that of a jet from the horizontal
Where,
m
'1
m
Geometry of Bellmouth Entrance in Roof, Floor and Side Flares
( ) ( )
1
291 . 0 1 . 1
2
2
2
2
= +
D
Y
D
X
( ) ( )
1
2143 . 0 55 . 0
2
2
2
2
= +
e e
b
Y
b
X
gD
V
F Number Froude = ) (
Economical diameter of Penstock by Sarkaria's formula
where,
Q = 2.71 cumec
H=net head = 1305.50 m
hence,D = 0.46 m
Providing length of spillway of 4.6 m.
Chhuba SHEP (7 MW), Sikkim - Head Loss
Head Loss in Intake Channel
Length of Intake Channel = 137.00 m
Friction Loss in Intake Channel
H
IC
=
V= 1.6 m/s
N= 0.016
R=
Head Loss in Bypass Channel
Length of Bypass Channel = 51.00 m
Friction Loss in Bypass Channel
H
BPC
=
V= 1.6 m/s
N= 0.016
R=
Head Loss in HRP
Length of HRP = 2291.00 m
Friction Loss in HRP
H
HRP
=
V= 1.79 m/s
N= 0.012
R=
Total major head loss upto forebay =
Minor head losses upto forebay =
=
Total head loss from HRP to forebay Structure = 4.11 m
Invert Level of HRP at forebay = 1304.30 m
1305.50 m
25%
3.29 m
0.82 m
0.46 m
Thus, friction loss in Head Race Pipe= 2.98 m
0.50 m
Thus, friction loss in intake channel, H
BPC
= 0.08 m
L= 2291.00 m
0.50 m
L= 51.00 m
HFL at forebay =
Thus, friction loss in intake channel, H
IC
= 0.22 m
L= 137.00 m
Head Loss in Penstock
1. Friction Loss in Penstock
Length of Penstock= 981.00 m
Friction Loss in Penstock
V= 3.5 m/s
N= 0.012
R=
Thus, friction loss in Penstock, H
P
=
2. Entrance Loss
where,
K
en
= 0.5
2.7 m/s
Thus, entrance loss in the penstock =
3. Trash rack Loss
where,
K
tr
= 0
2.7 m/s
Thus, trash rack loss in the penstock =
4. Bend loss
where,
K
b
= 0.16
No. of bend = 17
3.5 m/s
Thus, bend loss in the penstock =
5. Valve Loss
a. Gate valve loss
where,
K
gv
= 0.5
3.5 m/s
Thus, gate valve loss in the penstock =
b.Butterfly valve loss
where,
K
bv
= 0.5
3.5 m/s
Thus, butterfly valve loss in the penstock =
6. Transition and Bifurcation loss =
Total head loss in penstock = 13.66 m
Turbine Centre Line Level = 960.00 m
Gross Head = 345.50 m
Net Head = 331.84 m
V=
0.30 m
0.50 m
V=
0.30 m
V=
1.66 m
0.00 m
V=
V=
0.19 m
H
P
=
L= 981.00 m
0.25 m
10.71 m
Chhuba SHEP (7 MW), Sikkim
ECONOMICAL DIAMETER OF PENSTOCK. (As per IS 11625-1986)
Input Data:
1558.000 Rs/m
3
5509.000 Rs/m
3
3.50 Rs
150.000 Rs/Kg
0.910
0.950
1305.500 m
960.000 m
345.880 m
0.011
0.540
2.71 m
3
/sec
2 Nos
1.36 m
3
/sec
130 N/mm
2
D
22/3
= 1.42110324
D = 1.00 m
1.00 m
Economical diameter of Penstock is Given by,
Result:
The Economical Diameter of the Penstock is :
Annual Load factor (p
f) :
Design Discharge :
No. of Units :
Discharge through penstock (Q) :
Permissible stress for IS 2002-Grade 3 Material (a) :
From IS 11625-1986, Clause No.6
Ratio of annual fixed Operatiion and maintenance charges
to construction cost of penstock (p) :
0.015
Joint efficiency of Penstock (e
j
) :
Percentage by which the Head is increased due to Water
Hammer :
11%
Full Reservoir Level (FRL) :
Level Of the Center line of Penstock :
Head on penstock including Water Hammer (H) :
Percentage by which the steel in penstock is overweight
due to provision of stiffeners,Corrosion allowance,etc (i) :
0.025
Rugosity coefficient in Manning's formula (n) :
Overall efficiency of Plant (e) :
Unit cost of Excavation (Ce) :
Unit cost of Concrete lining (Cc) :
Cost of 1Kwh Energy (Cp) :
Cost of Steel (Cs) :
p
e
i HCs
Cc Ce
Cp ep n Q
D
j a
f
(
(

+
+ +
=
.
) 1 ( 121
6 . 0 39 . 1
* * * * 10 * 36 . 2
2 3 6
3
22
o
Chhuba SHEP (7 MW), Sikkim - Hydraulic Design of Penstock
Input Data
Design Discharge for Power generation = 2.36 cumec
Flow required for overloading and leakage = 15%
Total Design Discharge for Penstock, Q = 2.71 cumec
Rugosity coefficient = 0.012
Limiting velocity in Penstock = 4.0 m/s
FSL at forebay = 1305.50 m
Thickness of steel liner, t = 18 mm (assumed)
Time Constant (Closure time) = 12 s
Length of penstock = 981.00 m
C/L of turbine = 960.00 m
Diameter of Penstock Before Banifold:
Area of Penstock required = Q/V = 0.68 Sq.m
D = 0.93 m
Hence, adopted D = 1.00 m
Thus, area provided = 0.79 Sq.m
Diameter of Penstock After Bifurcation:
Area of Penstock required = (Q/2)/V = 0.34 Sq.m
D = 0.66 m
Thus, dia = 0.70 m
Let D be the diameter of the Penstock before bifurcation.
Hence, provide 1 m as the diameter of the penstock.
Let D be the diameter of the Penstock after bifurcation.
Hence, provide 0.7 m as the diameter of the penstock.
Thickness of Penstock
FSL at forebay = 1305.50 m
C/L of turbine = 960.00 m
Internal steady head, h
1
= FSL - c/l of turbine =
345.50 m
v = Q/A = 3.5 m/s
Ratio of dia. of penstock to thickness of steel liner = 55.56
Refering to Allevi's Chart
a = 3800
Pipe line constant (in ft units) = (av)/(2gh
1
)
= 0.60
Time constant (in ft units)= (aT)/(2L)
= 7.08
Ratio fo pressure rise to initial steady state = 2 x K x P
P (as being measured from the graph) = 0.09
Hence,
2 x K x P = 2 x 0.6 x 0.09
= 11%
Initial Steady head = 345.50 m
Add for water hammer = 11% of steady head = 38.01 m
Total head = 383.51 m
Design of thickness of Penstock
Thickness = (PD)/(2)
where P=
= H
= 1000.00 kg/m3
H = 383.51 m
Thus, P= 383505 kg/m2
D= diameter of the Penstock = 1.00 m
= Permissible stress in Penstock = 130 MPa
= 13000000 kg/m2
Hence,
Thickness of Penstock = (PD)/(2) = 0.01475 m
= 1.475 cm
Adding 2mm for corrosion = 1.7 cm
Adopted thickness of the penstock = 18 mm
water pressure with 11 %
pressure rise
(Allevi's Chart -fig. 8.33, Manual on Development of Small Hydroelectric Projects -
design of Civil Works, page - 139.)
Chhuba SHEP (7 MW), Sikkim - Tail Race Channel
Input data:
Design discharge: 2.36 cumec
Flow for overloading: 15%
Design with 15 % overlaoding : 2.71 cumec
Provided base width: 3.50 m
Provided depth: 1.00 m
Rugosity coefficient: 0.018
Velocity limit: 1.50 m/s
Area = 3.50 sq.m
Velocity = 0.78 m/s
Wetted Perimeter = 5.50 m
Hydraulic radius = 0.64 m
Using Manning's formula
S
1/2
= 0.0255
S= 0.0007
= 1 in 1538
Provide slope of 1 in 1538
Design Calculation: