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Drug Name Generic name: Tenofovir Brand Name: Viread

Dosage Adult- The dose is one 300 mg tablet once daily taken orally, without regard to food.

Classification Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)

Mode of Action It works by blocking the growth of HIV

Indication/ Contraindicaion Indication: prescribed for HIV infection in combination with other medicines, and chronic hepatitis B in adults Contraindication: Hypersensitivity

Adverse effects

Nursing Consideration

Body as a Whole - Medical history, Headache, generalized especially of: kidney pain, fever, abdominal problems, liver pain, back pain and problems (such weakness. as hepatitis Gastrointestinal C, cirrhosis), bone Diarrhea, nausea, problems (such as indigestion and bone disease, bone vomiting. loss/osteoporosis, Metabolic Weight weak/broken loss. bones), disease of Musculoskeletal the pancreas Joint pain and muscle (pancreatitis), pain. alcohol use Central Nervous Prescription and System - Depression, nonprescription sleeplessness, medicines, vitamins, dizziness and anxiety. nutritional Respiratory supplements, and Pneumonia. herbal products you Skin Rash and are taking or plan to sweating. take. Tenofovir DF may affect the way other medicines or products work, and other medicines or products may affect how tenofovir DF works. Taking tenofovir DF together with certain medicines or products may cause serious and/or lifethreatening side effects.

Drug Name Generic name: lamivudine Brand Name: Epivir Epivir-HBV

Dosage HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents >16 years of age is 300 mg daily, administered as either 150 mg twice daily or 300 mg once daily

Classification Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)

Mode of Action Inhibits replication of HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV).

Indication/ Contraindicaion Indication: Epivir In combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV infection. Epivir-HBV Treatment of chronic hepatitis B associated with evidence of hepatitis B viral replication and active liver inflammation.

Adverse effects

Nursing Consideration Instruct patients that the lamivudine tablets and oral solution are for oral ingestion only and to take only as prescribed. Inform patients that discontinuation of lamivudine has been associated with deterioration of liver disease in patients with HBV with or without HIV. Instruct patients to discuss any changes in regimen with their health care provider.

headache, nausea,
malaise, fatigue, nasal signs and symptoms, diarrhea and cough.

Lactic acidosis and

severe hepatomegaly with steatosis

exacerbations hepatitis B

acute of

decompensation in patients co-infected with HIV-1 and hepatitis C

Contraindication: Hypersensitivity to any component of the product


Drug Name Generic name: Efavirenz Brand Name: Sustiva

Dosage Adults600 milligrams (mg) once a day, taken with other medicines.

Classification Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)

Mode of Action It helps keep HIV from reproducing and appears to slow down the destruction of the immune system

Indication/ Contraindicaion Indication: Treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents.

Adverse effects CNS Depression,dizziness/li ghtheadedness/faintin g,anxiety headache,fatigue,inso mnia, nervousness,impaired concentration,abnorm al dreams,somnolence,a bnormal coordination,aggressiv e reactions,agitation,ast henia,

Nursing Consideration

Instruct patient to
take efavirenz at the same time each day as prescribed in combination with other antiviral drugs and not to skip doses, which could increase the viral load.

Contraindication: Concomitant use with bepridil, cisapride, ergot derivatives (eg, dihydroergotamine, ergonovine, ergotamine,

Caution patient or
family that long-term effects and adverse reactions are not known. Therefore,

methylergonovine), midazolam, pimozide, St. John's wort ( Hypericum perforatum ), or triazolam; hypersensitivity (eg, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, toxic skin eruptions) to any component of the product.

ataxia,cerebellar coordination and balance disturbances, convulsions,delusions, emotional lability,hypoesthesia, mania,neuropathy,ne urosis,paranoia,parest hesia, psychosis, suicide, tremor Dermatologic Rash; pruritus;erythema multiforme, flushing, photoallergic dermatitis, StevensJohnson syndrome EENT Abnormal vision, tinnitus (postmarketing) GI Diarrhea ; nausea/vomiting; dyspepsia; abdominal pain; anorexia; constipation, malabsorption Hepatic Hepatic enzyme increase, hepatic failure, hepatitis Musculoskeletal Arthralgia, myalgia, myopathy Respiratory Cough;dyspnea Miscellaneous Fever; aches/discomfort; pain; allergic reactions,

report any problems to the primary health care provider.

gynecomastia, redistribution of body fat Drug Name Generic name: Rifampin Brand Name: Rifadin, Rimactane Dosage Adults: 10 mg/kg, in a single daily administration, not to exceed 600 mg/day, oral or IV Pediatric Patients: 1020 mg/kg, not to exceed 600 mg/day, oral or IV It is recommended once Contraindication: Hypersensitivity to rifampin, product components, or to any rifamycin; concomitant therapy with unboosted or ritonavir-boosted saquinavir, atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir, or tipranavir. Classification Antimycobacterial Mode of Action Inhibits DNAdependent RNA polymerase in susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms Indication/ Contraindicaion Indication: Adjunctive treatment of tuberculosis (TB); short-term management to eliminate meningococci from nasopharynx in asymptomatic N. meningitidis carriers. Adverse effects Nursing Consideration

that oral rifampin be administered daily, either 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal with a full glass of water.

Cardiovascular Instruct patients to Hypotension; shock. take drug on empty CNS stomach 1 h before Behavioral changes; or 2h after meals dizziness; drowsiness; The pharmacologic fatigue; generalized effects of enalapril numbness; headache; may be decreased, inability to resulting in a concentrate; mental decrease in confusion. antihypertensive Dermatologic control. Monitor BP; Flushing; pruritus; consider an rash. alternative EENT antihypertensive if Conjunctivitis; visual BP remains disturbances. uncontrolled. GI Anorexia; cramps; diarrhea; epigastric distress; gas; heartburn; nausea; pseudomembranous colitis; sore mouth and tongue; vomiting. Hematologic Decreased Hgb; eosinophilia; hemolytic anemia; leukopenia; thrombocytopenia. Hepatic Jaundice; transient elevations of LFTs (eg, serum bilirubin, bromsulphalein, alkaline phosphatase,

serum transaminases). Hypersensitivity Anaphylaxis; erythema multiforme including StevensJohnson syndrome; pemphigoid reaction; pruritus; TEN; urticaria; vasculitis. Musculoskeletal Ataxia; muscular weakness; pain in extremities. Respiratory Shortness of breath; wheezing. Miscellaneous Discoloration of body fluids (eg, urine, sweat, sputum, tears); edema of face and extremities; elevated serum uric acid; elevations in BUN; fever; flu syndrome (eg, fever, chills, headache, malaise, dizziness, bone pain); menstrual disturbances. Drug Name Generic name: Pyrazinamide Brand Name: Pyrazinamide Dosage Oral Adult: As part of a mulitdrug regimen, 20-25 mg/kg (max: 2 g) daily or 1.5-3 g 3 times wkly. Child: As part of a mulitdrug regimen, 35 mg/kg daily or 50 Classification Antituberculous agent Mode of Action Pyrazinamide has bactericidal action against M. tuberculosis in acid environment present in macrophages and inflammed tissue. Together with rifampicin provides Indication/ Adverse effects Contraindicaion Indication: Hepatotoxicity initial treatment of (hepatomegaly, active tuberculosis in splenomegaly and adults and children jaundice may when combined with develop and in rare other antituberculous case fulminating agents. acute yellow atrophy and death). Contraindication: Anorexia, nausea, Nursing Consideration Medical history, especially of: liver disease, kidney disease, diabetes, gou t, high uric acid level in the blood, alcohol use.

mg/kg 3 times wkly or 75 mg/kg twice wkly. Max dose: 3 g daily.

greatest sterilising action with reduction in relapse rate. Reduces tubular secretion of uric acid.

Hypersensitivity; existing liver disease; acute gout or hyperuricaemia. Porphyria. Pregnancy and lactation.

vomiting, arthralgia, malaise, fever, hyperuricaemia, abnormal LFT, skin rashes.

Drug Name Generic name: Ethambutol Brand Name: Myambutol

Dosage Oral Adult: As hydrochloride: Initial 8 wk: 15 mg/kg/day or 30 mg/kg thrice wkly given with isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide. For patients with history of antimycobacterial therapy: Initial doses: 25 mg/kg/day for 60 days, thereafter reduce to 15 mg/kg/day. Child: For treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis: 15-25 mg/kg daily or 50 mg/kg twice wkly. For congenitally acquired tuberculosis: Neonates: 15 mg/kg once daily and 1 mth: 15 mg/kg once daily or 30 mg/kg 3 times wkly for 2 mth initial treatment phase. Dosage Oral Adult: 5 mg/kg daily.

Classification Antituberculous agent

Mode of Action Ethambutol interferes with RNA synthesis, causing suppression of Mycobacteria multiplication. It also has bacteriostatic action against M tuberculosis by acting on rapidly growing pathogens in cavity walls and is also effective in slowgrowing pathogens. Has some action against atypical opportunistic Mycobacteria e.g. M kansasii, M avium complex (MAC).

Indication/ Adverse effects Contraindicaion Indication: Most Common Primary treatment of Vision impairment. pulmonary Hypersensitivity and extrapulmonary Stevens-Johnson tuberculosis syndrome, skin inflammation, Contraindication: redness of the skin, Hypersensitivity; optic itching and joint neuritis. Lactation. pain. Gastrointestinal Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, stomach upset and abdominal pain. Central Nervous System Fever, uneasiness, headache, dizziness, mental confusion, disorientation and hallucinations. Blood - Decrease in white blood cells and platelets.

Nursing Consideration Medical history, especially of: eye problems (such as optic neuritis, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy), liver disease, kidney disease, alcohol use.

Drug Name Generic name: Isoniazid

Classification Antituberculous agent

Mode of Action One of its main mechanisms appears

Indication/ Contraindicaion Indication: Tuberculosis

Adverse effects Peripheral optic neuritis, neuritis;

Nursing Consideration medical history, especially of: kidney

Brand Name: Tubizid, Nydrazid

Drug Name Generic name: Doxycycline Brand Name: Vibramycin

Max: 300 mg daily. For intermittent treatment: 10 mg/kg 3 times a wk or 15 mg/kg twice wkly. Similar doses may also be given via IM admin. For latent tuberculosis: 300 mg daily for 6 mth; alternatively, 5 mg/kg daily or 15 mg/kg twice wkly for 9 mth. Child: 10-15 mg/kg/day in 1-2 divided doses (max: 300 mg/day). Alternatively, intermittent therapy can be given at 20-40 mg/kg (max: 900 mg) 2-3 times wkly. For latent tuberculosis: 10-20 mg/kg/day or 20-40 mg/kg twice wkly for 9 mth. Max: 300 mg/dose for daily regimen and 900 mg/dose for intermittent regimens. Dosage Oral Adults: The usual dose is 200 mg on the first day of treatment in divided doses, followed by a maintenance dose of 100 mg/day. Child: The

to be mycolic acid synthesis inhibition resulting in loss of acid-fastness and bacterial cell wall disruption.

Contraindication: Acute liver disease or history of hepatic damage during INH therapy; hypersensitivity.

psychotic reactions, convulsions, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, epigastric distress, visual disturbances, fever, rash, pyridoxine deficiency.

or liver problems, diabetes, a history of alcohol use, previous treatment for tuberculosis, allergies (especially drug allergies)

Classification Tetracycline antibiotic

Mode of Action Doxycycline binds to 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits thus causing alterations on the cytoplasmic membrane of susceptible organisms.

Indication/ Adverse effects Contraindicaion Indication: Permanent staining prescribed for certain of teeth; rash, types of bacterial superinfection; infections such as nausea, GI upsets, pneumonia and other glossitis; dysphagia; respiratory tract photosensitivity, infections, Lymes hypersensitivity; disease, infections of haemolytic anaemia, skin, genital, and thrombocytopenia,

Nursing Consideration Allergic reactions to doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline, sulfites (for doxycycline syrup only), or any other medications. History of diabetes or kidney or liver

recommended dosage is 2 mg/lb of body weight divided into two doses

urinary systems and anthrax. Contraindication: Children <8 yr; pregnancy, lactation; porphyria; hypersensitivity to tetracyclines; severe hepatic dysfunction; prolonged exposure to sunlight or tanning equipment.

neutropenia eosinophilia.