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Rachel West Professor Rand Honors English October 30, 2013 Annotated Bibliography for Inquiry Project Albarracn,

Dolores, and Robert S. Wyer, Jr. The Cognitive Impact of Past Behavior: Influences on Beliefs, Attitudes, and Future Behavioral Decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79.1 (July 2000): 5-22. Google Scholar. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. Albarracn and Wyer argue that if an individual has engaged in a behavior before, they are likely to do so again (1). One influence on these forming patterns of behavior is a persons thoughts. If a person thinks about the implications of his or her previous actions, their conclusions and thoughts could have a strong influence on whether they behave the same way in the future (1). In addition, if the conditions are similar to a previous experience connected with a certain behavior, an individual will likely complete the behavior again without thinking much about the conditions again (1). Basically, the individuals confidence in the situation increases when they recognize the familiarity of its context. They are more certain of their intended behaviors when they have past behaviors in similar contexts to refer to in their mind (1). The premise of the authors experiment was that they told individuals that they had previously expressed support or opposition for comprehensive exams at their respective universities. In reality, the individuals had expressed no support or opposition (1). The researchers analyzed the participants behaviors and their connections towards their supposed supportive or opposing view on comprehensive exams. They found that individuals perception of their past actions strongly affect their attitudes and intentions independently of any specific consequences of the behavior that the individuals might otherwise take into account (15). In this case, the past can overrule present feelings or thoughts when preparing for the future.

Additionally, the researchers found that distractions decreased the influence of past behaviors on present actions or future thinking (16). Therefore, when an individual is motivated and able to focus on thinking about the future, the influence of past behaviors (whether actual or implied) on future behaviors is amplified.

Bar, Moshe. The Proactive Brain: Using Analogies and Associations to Generate Predictions. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11.7 (Sept. 2007): 280-289. Google Scholar. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. Bar claims that humans have a proactive brain, as it regularly anticipates the future based upon memories of past events (1). The brain constantly predicts future events using gist information gathered from thoughts or sensory input (1). The proactive brain has three major components, argues Bar: associations, analogies, and predictions, all of which are crucial parts of the brains memory-based predictions of the future (1). Associations are formed by extracting repeating patterns and statistical regularities from our environment, and storing them in memory (1). The associations then contribute to analogies, which are formed when the brain connects new input (such as sensory information and new surroundings) with existing memories that are stored in the brain. The analogies that the brain forms then comprise associated representations that the brain transforms into predictions of the future (1). These predictions prepare our brain for present or future events at hand as the brain makes sense of these events, perhaps in new surroundings or other unfamiliar contexts. The applications of Bars theory range from expecting pain after an injury to anticipating complicated experiences to planning for the future (6). He also notes that because we are continually experiencing new things, the storehouse of associations in our brain is always

growing, and the analogies that our brain creates are always changing, therefore altering what the brains predictions look like for different situations (6). One such example is contextual priming (6). When an individual sees a series of related objects or words, his or her brain will be anticipating a similarly related object or word even before they see it. On the negative side, individuals with certain fears will anticipate coming into contact with the source of their fear, producing anxiety (6). For example, if an individual is afraid of spiders, he or she will anticipate seeing a spider and become anxious even if they do not actually see a spider. Additionally, Bar argues that the main purpose of mental time travel is to create new memories (7). Even though these simulated memories do not occur in reality, they are just as important and helpful in planning for the future as real memories are (7). They provide more frameworks on which to form the foundations of our future thoughts, actions, and thinking. For example, Bar explains, some athletes find that imagining a race (creating a simulated memory) helps them do better while actually performing in a race (7). Their simulated memory helped them anticipate what would actually happen in the race; it also helped them plan their strategies to do their best in the actual event (7). In other words, simulating the future guides us by providing a rudimentary script for the optimal course of action when the anticipated future arrives (7).

Botzung, Anne, Ekaterina Denkova, and Lilianne Manning. Experiencing Past and Future Personal Events: Functional Neuroimaging Evidence on the Neural Bases of Mental Time Travel. Brain and Cognition 66.2 (March 2008): 202-212. Google Scholar. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

Botzung, Denkova, and Manning form their own specific definition of mental time travel (MTT) as the capacity to both re-experience episodes from ones personal past, and preexperience possible events that may occur in the future (202). The hypothesis of the authors study was the medial prefrontal cortex region of the brain and the medial temporal lobes in the brain will be active while re-experiencing past events and pre-experiencing future events. In the experiment, ten right-handed participants freely remembered and described twenty events that had happened that week, and twenty events that were planned or expected to occur the following week. The description of each event was rated on a scale of one to five with a score of two reflecting poorly detailed generic events, three reflecting richly detailed generic events, four reflecting a poorly detailed specific event, and five reflecting a detailed specific event the researchers did not use the numbers zero or one as part of the scale (203). Two cue-words were assigned to the events by participants to help them recall and remember the events later (203). Participants were then shown the word pairings on a screen (both from the experimental and control group) and asked whether or not they matched the original event that the participants remembered or pre-experienced and described. The participants pressed a button for Yes indicating that they did match (204). The researchers found that evoking thoughts of past and future events used similar networks within the brain. Based on their findings, the researchers proposed that past personal experiences provide the necessary foundations to construct possible future events, and that reand pre-experiencing past and future events may rely on similar cognitive capacities (208). Furthermore, memories that we construct in our brain are formed on the foundations of events that we have already experienced, including the details, thoughts and feelings we had during the experience. In the experiment, the anterior medial prefrontal cortex region of the brain was

especially active while remembering past events. According to the researchers, this indicated that remembering the past reflects greater self-involvement than thinking about future events, which, unlike memories of the past, are not entirely based on past experiences that are set in stone. There is a requirement of a great amount of past experiences reactivation in gaining insights into the future (209). The final results of the experiment supported the theory that there is a system in the brain that is used to both re-experience and pre-experience events. This system is especially reliant upon the medial temporal and the medial prefrontal regions of the brain, which both involve both the integration of the episodes we have experienced in the past into the process of envisaging our future, and the involvement of a similar set of basic cognitive capacities (210).

Schacter, Daniel L., and Donna Rose Addis. Constructive Memory: The Ghosts of Past and Future. Nature (4 Jan. 2007): 27. Google Scholar. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. Why doesnt memory play back directly in our minds, like a video camera plays back videos recently recorded? The answer is unknown, but the authors suggest that it is a good thing that our memory is not like a video camera. Our thoughts of the future are based on our memories of the past. They are not always perfect or coherent, but rather, they are based on the gist of similar past events (1). Our memory selects different snippets of memories to combine to form one new thought or scenario about the future. According to Schacter and Addis, this system of memory is better than a perfect, video-like playback of memories because it can draw on the elements and gist of the past, and extract, recombine and reassemble them into imaginary events that never occurred in that exact form (1). Even though we must contend with memory errors, we are also given more freedom in our future thinking because of the flexibility that our

memory performs under. It is not held rigidly to one single remembrance of an event, but pulls from several similar memories to create one single thought.

Schacter, Daniel L., Donna Rose Addis, and Randy L. Buckner. Remembering the Past to Imagine the Future: The Prospective Brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience (Sept. 2007): 657-661. Google Scholar. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. Schacter, Addis, and Buckner introduce what they call the prospective brain (1), stressing that one of the brains most important functions is to use stored information to imagine, simulate and predict possible future events (1). Specific parts of the brain including the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus are used to both retrieve memories of past events and imagine future events. Using these regions, the brain performs mental time travel (MTT) retrieving stored information and memories from the past and using these memories to construct possible future scenarios (1). However, the researchers also found that the frontopolar and medial temporal regions of the brain are more active when individuals imagine the future than when they remember past events (3). While both remembering the past and imagining the future use information from memory, thinking about the future involves taking details from past events and combining them to create a new future event in the mind. Because of this extra step, imagining the future requires more use of active parts of the brain than remembering the past because the future uses parts of the past to form new, future scenarios. Specifically, the medial temporal lobe systemmight actually gain adaptive value through its ability to provide details that serve as the building blocks of future event simulation in the mind (3). The authors then introduce the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis, which states that thinking about the future is thought to require a

system that can flexibly recombine details from past events (3). Memory is, therefore, a tool used by the prospective brain to generate simulations of possible future events (4).