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Once Through Hydrocracker Unit (OHCU)



Submitted to: Prof. Vandana Sakhare Department of Chemical Engineering


1) Acknowledgment 2) Introduction to Mathura Refinery 3) Introduction of OHCU Unit 4) Purpose 5) Primary Product 6) Make up Hydrogen Section 7) Reaction Section 8) Process Description 9) Light Ends Recovery Section 10) Summary And Conclusion


Training at INDIAN OIL CORPORATION, Mathura has very helpful to increase our skill capability & ability to understand what I have been studied so far in my engineering courses. Being here I have gained knowledge about the various processes which has been taking place in the hydrocracking unit (OHCU). It is pleasure & opportunities for me to express my feelings of thank & respect to the people of IOCL, Mathura who have always helped & guided me in understanding various concept which were unknown to me. I am very thankfully to: JAGANNATH BHILWARE (Chief training officer) SUMIT SEXANA (Process Engineer) ATUL RANJAN (Process Engineer)

INTRODUCTION TO MATHURA REFINERY Mathura Refinery is the sixth refinery of Indian Oil which was commissioned in 1982 with capacity of 6.0 MMTPA to meet the demand of petroleum products. The major secondary processing units provided were Fluidised Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU),Vis-breaker Unit (VBU) and Bitumen Blowing Unit(BBU).The original technology for these units was sourced from USSR,UOP etc. With the commissioning of Once Through Hydrocracker Unit in July 2000, capacity of Mathura Refinery is increased to 8.0 MMTPA. Diesel Hydro treating unit (DHDT) & MS Quality Up-gradation unit (MSQU) was installed with worldwide class technology from Axons and UOP in 2005 for production of EURO-III grade HSD &MS. Mathura Refinery is having its own captive power plant, which was augmented with the commissioning of three Gas Turbine (GT) And Heat Recovery Steam Generator in phases from 1997 to 2005 using Natural Gas as fuel to take care of environment. Mathura Refinery has planted 1,67,000 trees in surrounding areas including refinery & township and 1,15,000 trees in Agra region around Tajmahal. The Ecological Park which is spread across 4.45 acres is a thriving green oasis in the heart of sprawling Refinery.

Once Through Hydrocracker Unit (OHCU) DATE OF COMMISIONING TECHNOLOGY CAPACITY Introduction: Hydrocracking is an extremely versatile catalytic process in which feedstock ranging from Naphtha to Vacuum Residue can be processed in presence of Hydrogen and catalyst to produce almost any desired products lighter than the feed. For Vacuum Gas Oil as feed, it can produce LPG, Naphtha, ATF, Diesel and FCCU feed in varying proportions as per design requirement. Depending upon the feed quality, product mix desired and the capacity of unit, following process flow configurations can be adopted for Hydrocracker: a) Single stage - For 100% conversion of the feed to products. b) Two stage - For 100% conversion of the feed to products. c) Once through - For partial conversion of feed to products (60%80%) In Once Through Operation, there is no recycle and fractionators bottom is taken as product (FCC feed). In Single stage scheme, the uncovered material from fractionators bottom is recycled to first reactor along with fresh feed. In the two-stage scheme, the unconverted material is routed separately to another reactor. Purpose: : : : Jan,1982 USA 1.2 MMTPA

Residue up gradation into middle distillates and light distillates is currently being done in the Indian Refineries primarily by employing FCC process, delayed Cocking process & Visbreaking. Visbreaking is adopted primarily to reduce the viscosity of the residue thereby making it marketable. Delayed coking is adopted if Coke is also to be a product. poor with respect to stability, & sulphur and have to be blended with other straight run products to be able to market them. Otherwise, product treatment would be necessary (Hydro-treatment, Merox treatment etc.) Environment policy and stringent quality norms Mathura Refinery is required to produce cleaner fuels to meet the existing specifications in market. Primary function of Hydrocracker unit is to reduce sulfur emission and maximize middle distillate production in Mathura Refinery. Feed to the unit consists of Vacuum gas oil (VGO) from atmospheric vacuum distillation unit (AVU) 70 % High sulphur & 30 % low sulphur. Primary Product: L.P.G Stabilized Light Naphtha Heavy Naphtha Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF)/ Superior Kerosene (SK) High Speed Diesel (HSD) FCC feed


Make up section

Reaction section

Fractionation section

Light ends recovery section

MAKE UP HYDROGEN SECTION: The makeup hydrogen compression section consists of three identical parallel compressor trains, each with three stage of compression. During normal operation two trains are in use and compress make up hydrogen from a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to reaction section. The compressed make up hydrogen is combined with hydrogen recycle gas in the reaction to from reactor feed gas.

REACTION SECTION: The reaction section contains one reaction stage in a single high-pressure loop. Due to reactor weight limits of approximately 400 metric tons, the reaction section consists of two reactors in series. The hydrotreating and hydrocracking reactions taking place in the reaction stage occurs at high temperature and pressure. A high hydrogen partial pressure is required to promote the hydrocracking reactions and to prevent coking of the catalyst. An excess of hydrogen is recirculated in the reactor loop for reactor cooling to maintain a high hydrogen partial pressure, and to assure even flow distribution in the reactors. FRACTIONATION SECTION: The purpose of the fractionation section is to separate reaction section products into sour gas, unstabilised liquid naphtha, heavy naphtha, kerosene and diesel. Furthermore bottom containing unconverted product serves as feed to the FCC unit or is sent to tankage. The sour gas and unstabilised light naphtha are sent to the light ends section to make fuel gas, LPG and light naphtha. LIGHT ENDS RECOVERY SECTION: Light Naphtha from the fractionators is sent to Deethanizer, where gases are removed and sent to Amine Absorber where the H2S is absorbed in the Amine and H2S free fuel gas is sent to Fuel Gas system. Rich amine with dissolved H2S is sent to Amine Regeneration Unit in Sulfur Recovery Unit Block. The bottom of Deethanizer is sent to debutanizer for the recovery of LPG. LPG is taken out from the top and sent to treating section where it is washed with caustic for removal of H2S. The stabilized Naphtha from the bottom of the stabilizer is sent to Hydrogen Unit for production of Hydrogen. PROCESS DESCRIPTION

REACTOR FEED SYSTEM, FILTERATION & FEED PUMP SECTION Fresh feed to the Hydrocracker consists of a blend of Arab mix and Bombay high VGO. The VGO comes from tankage at 80 0C. The cold VGO will be first heated by heat exchange with kerosene product and then by a steam heater. The unconverted oil further heats the feed before being filtered in the feed filter. The filtered feed is pumped from feed surge drum by the feed pump which provides the pressure necessary to send the feed through two additional heat exchangers and a feed furnace. Feed Filter / Back Flush Oil system The feed filter are designed to remove particulate materials from the row feed that would otherwise cause plugging of the lead reactor catalyst beds and consequent pressure drop problems in the reactor. The filter system consists of two banks of filters each filter banks is having 360 filter elements. During normal operation one bank will be in line and one will remain in standby in back flushed condition. The one bank filters the feed until the particulate matter accumulates to a level where the pressure drop across the filter increases beyond the set point the set point of the differential pressure switch (PDSH). When the set point pressure (1.4 kg/cm2) is reached PDSH triggers the sequence of back flushing of filter starts and cleaned filter will come in line. After completion of back flushing the flushed filter will remains standby till the time back flush sequence is not activated. A feed filter bypass line is provided on the feed line. The bypass valve is located downstream of the feed inlet to the filter and is normally closed. This bypass is provided to prevent a low low level in the surge drum and potential loss of feed to the high pressure feed pump caused by an excessively high-pressure drop across the filter. The filter bypass line is also used during plant commissioning. REACTOR FEED HEATING SYSTEM HEAT EXCHANGERS Fresh feed (VGO) at 188Kg/cm2 (at Mixing point) & 200 0C mixes with feed gas (Make-up & recycle H2) before entering heat exchangers where it exchanges heat with reactor effluents. A by-pass line from these exchangers (before gas mixing) is provided to control the inlet temp to furnace. The temperature control valve controls through the amount of VGO feed by pass.

FEED FURNACE The reactor feed furnace is a natural draft heater having 40 gas burners. The VGO feed and gas split in two by a symmetrically branched manifold before entering the firebox. Hence, the furnace has two passes. Each pass has horizontal tubes fired from both sides to provide uniform heat transfer. Combined feed with the oil /gas mixture entering at the top of furnace and leaving at the bottom to prevent the possibility of liquid stalling in the tubes. After the feed is heated and has exited the firebox the two passes are rejoined and sent to lead reactor. The outlet temp is controlled by temperature control valve located on common outlet. The furnace operation is very critical for maintaining conversion temp in 1st catalyst bed. This furnace is small heat duty & the temp rise across the furnace is about 20-25 0C only. In case of temperature runaway in the reactor shutting off the furnace firing reduces the reactor inlet temperature by 20-25 0C effecting immediate control. However as the contents of the heater tubes are at high pressure & temp and having Hydrogen it is potentially highly hazardous in case of any tube leak etc. Thus, it is very important to ensure that no impingement on tubes occurs & there is regular monitoring on flame length & tube temperatures

REACTOR SYSTEM The reaction system consists of two reactors in series a lead reactor and a main reactor. The lead reactor contains three catalyst beds and main reactor contains two catalyst beds. In these reactors the fresh oil feed is hydrotreated and partially converted (hydrocracked) into products. The lead reactor inlet pressure should be maintained at 189.0 kg/cm2 (g) to maximize hydrogen partial pressure. REACTOR INLET TEMP The reactor is designed to operate at inlet temp ranging from 360 0C at start of Run (SOR) to 390 0C at End Of Run (EOR). These high temps are necessary for the catalyst to hydrocrack the feed. The higher temp tends to increase the catalyst activity. This compensates for the gradual loss of catalyst activity which occurs as the run progress due to coke deposition on the catalyst. REACTOR BED OUTLET TEMPERATURE

The various hydrocracking reactions which take place on catalyst beds are exothermic thus the outlet temperature of each is more than inlet temperature. As the first bed outlet is the second bed inlet or second bed outlet is the third bed inlet the reactants must be quenched to bring down its temperature for desired reactions in succeeding bed. The quenching is accomplished by part of recycle gas from Compressor discharge and injected between beds. The temperature rise across reactor should not exceed more than 55 0C for proper reactions and the inlet temp to each to be kept same. For obtaining better temperature control by utilizing quench gas the Lead reactor has been divided in to three unequal beds and Main reactor has been divided in to equal bed. This helps to achieve same temp rise in each bed & control the rise in temp across the reactor about 55 0C. REACTOR CATALYST BEDS PRESSURE DROP MEASUREMENT FACILITIES At fixed temp with all other variables unchanged the catalyst will produce nearly constant product slate but over a period of time the Catalyst will slowly fouled become coked-up with reaction and beds accumulate feed impurities. The impurities like Iron in feed can plug the catalyst interstices. Thus excessive pressure drop may develop across the catalyst bed/beds. As per the design the Pr. drop for SOR/EOR for 1st bed & total across reactor are 5.27 Kg/cm2 and 10 Kg/cm2.

REACTOR EFFLUENT COOLING The two-phase reactor effluent which is at temperature of 400 0C / 415 0C at SOR/EOR conditions respectively is cooled in various exchangers before phase separation. EFFLUENT FEED HEAT EXCHANGERS After leaving main reactor the effluent is initially cooled by incoming VGO feed and then further cooled by heat exchange with recycle gas and with product fractionator feed. EFFLUENT STEAM GENERATOR The effluent is further cooled to 210 0C exchanging heat with Boiler feed water

HOT HIGH PRESSURE SEPERATOR (HHPS) After the effluent stream cooled it sent to the HHPS. In this separator the reactor products are separated from the excess hydrogen and gases formed in the reactors. The effluent inlet temperature should not be more than 210 0C. This separation temperature was selected for the following reasons: To avoid hydrogen attack to Carbon steel. To minimize heat exchange area needed to reheat the oil for fractionation. Liquid from the HHPS flows to the power recovery turbine where it is let down in pressure before entering the hot low-pressure separator (HLPS). EFFLUENT VAPOR COOLING The first step in cooling the effluent vapor from HHPS occurs by heat exchange with the CLPS liquid. This exchange causes some of the effluent vapor to condense. The vapor is further cooled where it exchanges heat with the reactor feed gas before it enters the effluent vapor air cooler. EFFLUENT AIR COOLER The air cooler provides the final cooling stage for the reactor effluent. COLD HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATOR (CLPS) & PORTA-TEST SEPARATOR Cooled reactor effluent vapor condensed light hydrocarbons and sour water enter the CHPS at 65 0C after leaving the effluent vapor air cooler. Hydrogen rich recycle gas separates from the oil and water phases exits the CHPS and enters the recycle gas loop. The majority of the water entering the separator settles to the bottom of the drum because of its higher density relative to the oil. Liquid hydrocarbon is drawn off just below the horizontal baffle at the furthest point from the coalescing pad and is sent to the CLPS. The sour water, containing about 7-wt % ammonia disulfide is drawn from the separator bottom and sent to sour water stripper. The vapor phase passes through a demister pad to collect any entrained liquid and is sent to a Porta-Test Separator. The porta-Test Separator has specially designed internals that effectively remove any entrained liquid in the CHPS vapor. H2S ABSORBER

The H2S absorber designed to remove at least 95 % of the H2S out of recycle gas in order to minimize H2S partial pressure in the high-pressure loop and increases the hydrogenation rate of aromatic compounds. The resulting H2S concentration in the recycle gas is less than 500 PPM. The H2S is removed from the recycle gas by being absorbed by an amine solution (25 wt %) flowing countercurrent to the recycle gas. The H2S absorber consists of eight valve trays. The lean amine first heated up by heat exchange with diesel product and then further heated with steam. After heating lean amine is sent to surge drum before being pumped up to system pressure. The H 2S rich amine stream from the bottom of the absorber is let down in pressure and sent to a flash drum and amine regeneration unit. RECYCLE GAS COMPRESSOR The recycle gas compressor is most critical equipment as this machine is first to start after Make-up Compressor and continue to run for HCU operation. The recycle gas (H2, methane, ethane etc.) is circulated by steam driven centrifugal compressor. The major portion of discharge of compressor along with make-up H2 joins the oil feed up stream of the feed/effluent exchanger. Another portion of the gas stream flows on temperature control to the reactor for inter bed quench. Protection against low recycles gas flow for compressor is provided by antisurge system. COLD LOW PRESSURE SEPARATION The HHPS hydrocarbon liquid is let down in pressure through the PRT and letdown valve is flashed at 36.0 kg/cm2 (g) in the HLPS. The vapor from the HLPS becomes part of the CLPS feed and the liquid becomes part of the fractionator feed. This high temperature low-pressure flash allows for recovery of dissolved hydrogen from HHPS liquid. Before entering the CLPS the HLPS vapor is cooled in the HLPS vapor air cooler to 65 0C and is then combined with hydrocarbon liquid from the CHPS. The low temperature low pressure flash in the CLPS release hydrogen rich vapor which is sent to Membrane purification unit for hydrogen recovery to reduce net hydrogen consumption. The CLPS is designed to be a three-phase separator. There will be very little water entrained in the oil from the CHPS therefore the amount of water

accumulated in the CLPS during normal operation will be small. Any water accumulated is sent to sour water. The oil phase passes through a coalescer before exiting the vessel to capture any of the entrained water and prevent carry over. The oil is then drawn off just below the horizontal baffle at the furthest point from the coalescing pad. Liquid from the CLPS is used to cool the vapor from the HHPS before it is combined with the HLPS liquid to from the product fractionator feed.

Fractionator Feed Pre-heat Section CLPS liquid from is sent to heat exchanger and then combined with HLPS liquid. Combined liquid is sent to exchangers where it is further heated up to 305 C by Reactor effluent Fractionator bottom and inter reactor exchanger. Fractionator feed is then heated up to 345 0C in the furnace before it enters the fractionator column. PRODUCT FRACTIONATION The fractionator operates much like a crude unit atmospheric column to separate the products. The fractionator contains a total of 51 trays out of the 39 trays above and 12 trays below the flash zone. In normal operation off gas and unstabilized light naphtha are sent overhead heavy naphtha is drawn as a side cut from tray 8, Kerosene is drawn as a side cut from tray 18, diesel is drawn as a side cut from tray 30 and split into product and pump around. The unconverted oil is drawn as the bottoms. The fractionator has 51 trays for Vapour liquid contacting. Feed at 345 0C enters the flash zone between Trays 39 & 40.

Stripping Section The unconverted oil is cooled by heat exchange first with the reactor feed in heat exchangers and lastly by an air cooler before going to tank. In the stripping section (Tray 40-51), superheated medium pressure steam is supplied to strip recoverable products out of fractionator bottoms. OVERHEAD SECTION

Fractionator over head vapors are partially condensed in air cooler and the trim cooler. It is then combined with spill back from the firststage off gas compressor and then goes to Fractionator Overhead accumulator at 43 0C. The condensed hydrocarbon & water separate in the accumulator. The hydrocarbon liquid is split in two streams. One stream under flow controller cascaded is sent back to column at Tray-1 as reflux to maintain column overhead temp at 102 0C. The other stream is the product (i.e. unstabilized naphtha) and routed to the light end recovery section. Heavy Naphtha Draw Off Heavy Naphtha is drawn from Tray 8 of Fractionator and flows to the Heavy naphtha side cut stripper. The vapor from stripper top is returned to Fractionator above Tray 7.The stripper is a packed bed column with thermo-siphon reboiler which exchanges heat with the diesel pump around. The heavy naphtha product is pumped via water cooler to storage at 40 0C. ATF PRODUCT SIDECUT STRIPPER ATF drawn from Tray-18 flows to side stripper. The stripper was design with 10 valve trays with a thermo siphon reboiler which exchanges heat with diesel pump around. The ATF is first heat exchange with cold feed VGO from tankage then air cooled and finally cooled to 40 0C in water cooler before it is sent to storage. PUMP AROUND SECTION One circulating reflux (pump around) is drawn from the fractionator to control column fractionation i.e. vapor liquid traffic and provide heat for reboiler & MP steam generator. The pump around is drawn from Tray 30 same as Diesel draw tray and pumped to provide reboiling for ATF side cut stripper in heat exchanger the heavy naphtha side cut stripper, the deethanizer reboiler, and the stabilizer reboiler.

DIESEL PRODUCT SIDECUT STRIPPER HSD is also drawn from Tray-30 and flows to side cut stripper. The side cut stripper is designed with 10 valve trays and uses superheated medium pressure

steam to remove light components from the product. The overhead vapor is returned to the fractionator above Tray 28. LIGHT ENDS RECOVERY SECTION The light end recovery section performs three basic functions: Remove Light ends and waters from light naphtha C-2, H2S Separate LPG from light naphtha and treat LPG to meet the desired specification. Sweeten the sour gas for further use as fuel gas.

LIGHT ENDS COMPRESSION SECTION The purpose of the compression section is to compress the vapor from the fractionator overhead accumulator to the pressures required in the fuel gas system. The light ends compression system consists of two stages of compression. Between the two compression stages there is a water cooler and a knock out drum. DEETHANISER The deethanizer remove light ends C-2, H2S and water from the Light naphtha and LPG. The column was designed for high C3 recovery and almost completes removal of H2S from the light naphtha and LPG. The column contains three packed beds with the feed entering the top of the column. The feed to the deethanizer comes from the combined liquid stream leaving the deethanizer reflux drum and is pumped to the top of the deethanizer. The diesel pump around supplies heat to the deethaniser reboiler. NAPHTHA STABILISER Stabiliser column separates the LPG from light naphtha. Stabiliser column is provided with 44 valve trays for fractionation. Unstabilised naphtha feed entering between trays 22 and 23. The overhead vapors from stabiliser column are totally condensed in air cooler.The diesel pump around supplies heat to the stabiliser reboiler. The overhead vapor from the Stabiliser will normally be fully

condensed into LPG. The stabilizer bottom is cooled in the Stabiliser air cooler and then by cooling water. Some of the stabilizer bottoms (cooled light naphtha) is sent to the overhead of the sponge absorber. It is pumped to the sponge oil absorber overhead line. The remainder of the cooled light naphtha sent to tank. LPG TREATING SYSTEM LPG treating section removes traces of H2S and free water to meet LPG specification. The LPG and caustic stream flows through a static mixer and a mixing valve to ensure contacting between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases. The hydrocarbon and aqueous phase are separated in the caustic washer. Caustic washed LPG flows to water washer to remove any entrained caustic. Water is pumped to top of vessel the by pumps and the LPG enters at the bottom. Water washed LPG flows out from through a demister Pad which removes the entrained water and then goes to LPG coalescer to remove free water. Separated LPG from top is then sent to the storage.

SOUR GAS TREATING SECTION Sour gas from deethanizer reflux drum is treated here to remove H2S. These streams are combined and passed through filter separator to remove entrained liquid & solid particles. Hydrocarbon liquid or solids can cause foaming in the absorber. Level gauges with high-level alarms are provided in filter separator. PDI-7702 measure pressure drops across filter separator. Filter by pass is also provided which is normally kept close. Sour gases from filter separator are sent to H2S absorber.

SUMMARY AND C0NCLUSION Summary Hydro cracking is a catalytic chemical process used in petroleum refineries for converting the high- boiling constituent hydrocarbons in petroleum crude oils to more valuable lower-boiling products such as gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel and diesel oil. The process takes place in a hydrogen- rich atmosphere at elevated temperatures (260-425) and pressure (35-200 bar). Hydro cracking plants are capable of processing a wide variety of feed stocks of different characteristics to produce a broad range of products. They can be designed and operated to maximize the production of a gasoline blending component (called hydro crack ate) or to maximize the production of diesel oil. 5.2 Conclusion This training report presents all the information about process methodology of the plant according to the equipment individually, their process conditions, temperature, pressure and operating conditions. All the necessary guidance for the preparation of the report is taken from the training manual of Mathura Refinery. There is a limitation in this training report regarding the details like optimization ,simulation and designing. --****-