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COMM 1208 Unit 4 FM

Analogue Modulation (FM)


1. Frequency Modulation...........................................................................2 1.1 Frequency Deviation.............................................................................................. 2 1.2 Modulator Sensitivity............................................................................................. 2 1.3 Modulation Inde ................................................................................................ 3 1.4 !o"er in an FM Si#nal and $oise I%%unity..........................................................4 1.& 'ule to calculate () o* an FM si#nal....................................................................4 2. Radio Receivers.....................................................................................5 2.1 Introduction........................................................................................................... & 2.2 +'F 'eceiver......................................................................................................... & 2.3 C,aracteristics o* a 'eceiver................................................................................. 3. Superheterodyning................................................................................ 3.1 .eterodynin#......................................................................................................... 3.2 +,e Su/er,eterodyne 'eceiver............................................................................. 0 3.3 Furt,er 1 /lanation on t,e Su/er,eterodyne 'eceiver........................................0 3.4 C,oice o* 2ocal Oscillator Frequency.....................................................................3 3.& I%a#e C,annel Inter*erence................................................................................10 3.- Furt,er 1 /lanation on I%a#e C,annel Inter*erence...........................................10 !. FM Stereo............................................................................................11 4.1 Stereo +rans%itter.............................................................................................. 11 4.2 Stereo 'eceiver................................................................................................... 12 5. Relative "erits o# AM against FM..........................................................13 . Frequency $ands.................................................................................1!

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COMM 1208 Unit 4 FM

1.

Frequency Modulation

+,is also uses a sinusoidal carrier. +,e #requency o* t,e carrier is %ade to c,an#e in accordance "it, t,e c,aracteristics o* t,e %odulatin# 4audio5 si#nal. +,e no%inal value o* t,e carrier *requency is t,e *requency it ,as ",en t,e instantaneous value o* t,e %odulatin# si#nal is 06. ),en t,e instantaneous volta#e o* t,e %odulatin# si#nal is ,i#, t,e carrier *requency increases7 ",en t,e instantaneous volta#e o* t,e %odulatin# si#nal is lo" t,e carrier *requency decreases. +,e si8e o* t,e c,an#e in t,e carrier *requency at any instant is /ro/ortional to t,e value o* t,e %odulatin# si#nal at t,at instant

1.1

Frequency Deviation

+,e *requency deviation o* t,e carrier *ro% its no%inal *requency at any instant is directly /ro/ortional to t,e level o* t,e %odulatin# si#nal at t,at instant. +,ere is no in,erent li%it to t,e %a i%u% a%ount o* *requency deviation. 4'e%e%9er "it, :M t,ere is a li%it to t,e a%ount o* a%/litude deviation; ",ic, occurs ",en t,e %odulation inde % < 1.5 .o"ever a trans%ittin# station "ill ,ave a *requency 9and ",ic, it ,as 9een allocated and it %ust ensure t,at t,e *requency deviation never #oes outside o* t,is 9and. +,e %a i%u% allo"ed *requency deviation is also called t,e rated syste" deviation % #d. : sy%9ol *or *requency deviation is F. 'e%e%9er t,at at di**erent ti%es t,e *requency deviation can 9e /ositive or ne#ative. +,e #requency s&ing is de*ined as t,e di**erence 9et"een t,e %a i%u% and t,e %ini%u% *requencies out/ut < 2 = F.

1.2

Modulator Sensitivity

+,is is a %easure o* ,o" #reat an out/ut *requency deviation is /roduced 9y a #iven a%/litude o* in/ut si#nal. 'ts value &ill (e #i)ed #or any given "odulator . I* an inco%in# volta#e o* 6 causes a *requency deviation o* F t,en t,e sensitivity is Sensitivity % *+ per ,olt. -)a"ple. :n audio si#nal ,as an a%/litude o* 3.& 6 and *requency %odulates a carrier o* 100 M.8. It causes t,e *requency to s"in# *ro% 33.30& M.8 to 100.02& M.8. ),at is t,e sensitivity o* t,e %odulator> Ans&er. +,e /ositive /ea? o* t,e %odulatin# si#nal 43.&65 causes t,e carrier *requency to #o *ro% 100.00 to 100.02& M.8. +,is is a deviation o* 0.02& M.8 or 2& ?.8. +,e sensitivity is 2&;000@3.& < 0;140 .8@6 or 0.14 ?.8@6. -)a"ple. : *requency %odulated syste% ,as a sensitivity o* 4 ?.8@6 and a rated syste% deviation o* 30 ?.8. ),at is t,e %a i%u% allo"ed %odulatin# si#nal volta#e> Ans&er. Use t,e equationA Sensitivity < .8 /er 6olt. +,is #ives 6 < F @ Sensitivity Usin# t,e %a i%u% value o* F < 30 ?.8 and Sensitivity < 4 ?.8@6 #ives t,e %a i%u% value o* 6 as 30 ?.8 @ 4 ?.8@6 < 0.& 6. -)a"ple. :n FM syste% ,as a rated syste% deviation o* 0& ?.8; /roduced 9y an in/ut si#nal o* 10 6. ),at is t,e sensitivity o* t,e %odulator and t,e *requency deviation /roduced 9y a 2 6 si#nal. Ans&er. Sensitivity < 0& ?.8 @ 10 6 < 0.& ?.8@6 Deviation < 0.& ?.8@6 = 2 6 < 1& ?.8

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COMM 1208 Unit 4 FM

1.3

Modulation Index

+,is is /01 t,e sa%e as t,e %odulation inde *or :M. It is a /ure nu%9er de*ined as % % +,e %odulation inde *or FM can ,ave any value; i.e. it can 9e less t,an or #reater t,an 1. +,e %odulation inde can 9e e /ressed in a nu%9er o* "ays e.#. < < < -)a"ple. : 100 M.8 carrier is *requency %odulated 9y a 10 6 /ea? to /ea? si#nal o* 10 ?.8. +,e instantaneous carrier *requency varies 9et"een 33.3& and 100.0& M.8. CalculateA t,e %odulator sensitivity; t,e %odulation inde . Ans&er2 Frequency deviation < 100.0& B 100 M.8 < &0 ?.8. +,is is caused 9y a 10 6 si#nal. +,ere*ore sensitivity is &0@10 ?.8@6 < & ?.8@6 +,e %odulation inde is &0 ?.8 @ 10 ?.8 < &. -)a"ple. ),at "ill 9e t,e ne" value *or t,e *requency and %odulation inde i* t,e %odulatin# si#nal is c,an#ed to one o* - 6 /ea? to /ea? and *requency 8 ?.8. Ans&er. +,e sensitivity ,as already 9een *ound to 9e & ?.8@6. +,e ne" *requency deviation is t,ere*ore & ?.8@6 = - 6 < 30 ?.8. +,e %odulation inde is Frequency deviation@Modulatin# *requency < 30 ?.8 @ 8 ?.8 < 3.0&

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COMM 1208 Unit 4 FM

1.4

Power in an FM Signal and Noise I

unity

+,e a%/litude o* an FM si#nal does not vary. +,ere*ore t,e /o"er in an FM si#nal is constant and is al"ays equal to t,e /o"er o* t,e un%odulated carrier. +,e /o"er does not de/end in any "ay on t,e %odulation. 4Unli?e :M5. 1very trans%itted si#nal /ic?s u/ noise 9et"een t,e trans%itter and t,e receiver. Usually t,is noise adds to t,e a%/litude o* t,e si#nal. In t,e case o* an :M si#nal t,e *unction o* t,e radio receiver is to recover t,e envelo/e o* t,e si#nal as t,is s,ould 9e an e act co/y o* t,e ori#inal audio in/ut. I* noise c,an#es t,e a%/litude o* t,e si#nal t,en t,e s,a/e o* t,e envelo/e ,as c,an#ed and t,e radio receiver "ill recover t,e noise B it "ill re/roduce t,is as /art o* t,e audio si#nal. +,e noise "ill a//ear in t,e audio out/ut. :M is susce/ti9le to noise. In t,e case o* FM t,e radio receiver does not de/end on t,e a%/litude o* t,e envelo/e to recover t,e audio si#nal. I* noise ,as c,an#ed t,e a%/litude t,en t,e receiver "ill 9e a9le to i#nore t,is. +,e noise "ill not 9e /assed on to t,e audio out/ut. FM is %uc, less susce/ti9le to noise t,an :M; it /er%its a %uc, %ore accurate re/roduction o* t,e ori#inal audio si#nal.

V2 2 R

1.!

"ule to calculate #$ o% an FM signal

: quic? "ay to esti%ate t,e 9and"idt, 4()5 o* t,e FM si#nal isA $3 % 2 (#requency o# "odulating signal 4 #requency deviation) < 2 4 *% C F5 < 2 4 1 C F@*%5 = *% % 2 ( 1 4 ) 5 #" +,e e /ressions in 9old are used in /ractise. +,is is ?no"n as 6arson7s Rule. -)a"ple. : radio station "is,es to use an audio si#nal containin# *requencies u/ to 1& ?.8 4*or .iBFi re/roduction o* %usic5 to *requency %odulate a carrier. +,e rated syste% deviation is 0& ?.8. ),at "ill 9e t,e 9and"idt, o* t,e %odulated si#nal> Ans&er. Usin# equation 1 t,e 9and"idt, "ill 9e () < 24 1& ?.8 C 0& ?.85 < 180 ?.8. 1quations 2 and 3 "ill #ive t,e sa%e result. (Try them5 +,e s/acin# 9et"een FM trans%itters in t,e 6.F 9and is nor%ally 200 ?.8 I* is %uc, less t,an 1.0 t,en t,e 9and"idt, "ill 9e 2 = * %. +,is is t,e sa%e as *or :M I* is %uc, #reater t,an 1.0 t,en t,e 9and"idt, "ill 9e 2 = *. It s,ould 9e noted t,at t,e 9and"idt, is al"ays #reater t,an t,e *requency s"in#. :ny FM trans%itter ,as to 9e desi#ned to cater *or t,e %a i%u% level and *requency o* %odulatin# si#nal ",ic, are li?ely to occur so t,at t,e out/ut 9and"idt, required is 0utput $and&idth % 2 5 (Ma)i"u" "odulating #requency 4 Ma)i"u" allo&ed #requency deviation) -)a"ple. S/eec, is incor/orated into a +6 c,annel as an FM si#nal. I* t,e %a i%u% allo"ed *requency deviation is 2& ?.8 and t,e %a i%u% %odulatin#

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COMM 1208 Unit 4 FM

*requency is 1& ?.8; ",at is t,e %odulation inde and t,e 9and"idt, o* t,e out/ut FM si#nal Ans&er. Modulation inde < *requency deviation@%odulatin# *requency < 2& ?.8@1& ?.8 < 1.-0 (and"idt, is 2 4%odulatin# *requency C *requency deviation5 < 2 42& ?.8 C 1& ?.85 < 80 ?.8

2.
2.1

Radio Receivers
Introduction

: receiver /ic?s u/ an electro%a#netic radio "ave; converts it to an electrical current or volta#e and recovers t,e "anted si#nal 4",ic, contains all t,e si#nals 9roadcast /lus noise5. It ,as an antenna 4or aerial5 to convert t,e electro%a#netic "aves into electrical current; cou/led to t,e receiver t,rou#, an antenna circuit B si%/ly a "ire or a %ore co%/le syste%. It is necessary to 9e a9le to select t,e desired *requency 4or station5. +,is is done 9y t,e tuner ",ic, can 9e a (!F "it, a varia9le centre *requency. +,e si#nals /ic?ed u/ 9y t,e antenna are "ea? and %ust 9e a%/li*ied *or t,e in*or%ation to 9e easily re%oved *ro% Audio RF t,e %odulated "ave. +,is a%/li*ication Tuner Detector Loudspeaker Amplifier Amplifier can 9e done 9e*ore t,e tuner; a*ter t,e tuner or 9ot,. In t,e dia#ra% t,e a%/li*ication is done a*ter t,e tuner 9y t,e 'F a%/li*ier. +,e in*or%ation can no" 9e detected 4i.e. de%odulated5. +,e resultin# si#nal ",ic, s,ould 9e a scaled re/lica o* t,e ori#inal audio si#nal; is a%/li*ied 9y an audio a%/li*ier and t,en *ed to a louds/ea?er. +,e a9ove si%/le descri/tion o* a +'F receiver ,olds *or :M; SS( and FM. +,e tuned radio receiver and t,e su/er,eterodyne receiver are t"o /ractical receivers. +,e su/er,eterodyne receiver is t,e %ost co%%only used 9ecause o* its %any advanta#es over t,e +'F receiver. (ut t,e +'F receiver "ill 9e discussed as it is si%/ler and 9ecause t,e reason *or t,e over",el%in# /o/ularity o* t,e su/er,eterodyne receiver is clear a*ter t,e s,ortco%in#s o* t,e +'F receiver are s,o"n.

2.2

&"F "eceiver

+,e si%/lest ty/e o* +'F receiver is s,o"n ,ere. +,e resonant *requency o* t,e tuned circuit can 9e :ntenna c,an#ed 9y adDustin# ca/acitor C so t,e desired station can 9e selected. +,e diode D; ca/acitor C and to .ead/,ones ,ead/,ones are a si%/le diode detector 4t,e D ,ead/,ones ,ave an internal resistance ' t,rou#, C ",ic, t,e ca/acitor can disc,ar#e 9et"een /ea?s o* t,e in/ut :M "ave *or%5. +,e :F out/ut /o"er can 9e increased i* an :F a%/li*ier is added Furt,er increase in t,e out/ut /o"er delivered 9y t,e receiver can 9e ac,ieved i* a second and t,ird sta#e o* :F #ain are used 9ut t,e out/ut si#nal to noise ratio "ould 9e rat,er /oor.

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COMM 1208 Unit 4 FM

anged

RF in

RF out to Demodulator

+,e a9ove receiver lac?s 9ot, selectivity and sensitivity. :lso ,ar%onics /roduced "it,in t,e detector sta#e could radiate *ro% t,e aerial. One %et,od o* overco%in# t,ese /ro9le%s and also increasin# t,e :F /o"er out/ut is to e%/loy radioB*requency 4'F5 a%/li*ication 9et"een t,e antenna and t,e detector circuits.

2.3

'(aracteristics o% a "eceiver

+,e *ive 9asic c,aracteristics t,at deter%ine t,e quality o* a receiver are 1. S-8-61','19 +,e a9ility to reDect adDacent un"anted si#nals. +,e s/acin# 9et"een t,e carrier *requencies allocated to di**erent trans%itters is li%ited 9y t,e availa9le *requency s/ectru%. e.#. 3 ?.8 *or 9roadcast in t,e %ediu% "ave9and. +,e selectivity o* a receiver is its a9ility to reDect si#nals at carrier *requencies adDacent to t,e "anted carrier *requency. In t,e su/er,eterodyne receiver see later5 t,e selectivity is %ainly deter%ined 9y t,e #ain versus *requency c,aracteristics o* t,e IF a%/li*ier. +,e ad:acent channel ratio is t,e ratio; in deci9els o* t,e in/ut volta#es at t,e "anted and adDacent c,annel si#nal *requencies necessary to /roduce t,e sa%e out/ut /o"er. 2. S-/S'1','19 +,e a9ility to receive very s%all si#nals and /roduce an out/ut o* satis*actory si#nal to noise ratio. Usually e /ressed as t,e %ini%u% in/ut si#nal 4#enerally in %icro volts5; %odulated at 400 .8 required to /roduce &0 %) out/ut /o"er "it, a si#nal to noise ratio o* 1& d( It is necessary to include a si#nal to noise in t,e %easure%ent o* sensitivity 9ecause it "ould ot,er"ise 9e /ossi9le *or t,e out/ut /o"er to consist %ainly o* noise. 3. S';/A8 10 /0'S- RA1'0 +,e ratio o* si#nal /o"er to noise /o"erA S@$ < 10 lo# 4!s@ !n5. +,e si#nal is t,e desired si#nal and t,e noise is all ot,er electrical si#nals; %an%ade or natural 4noise is covered later5. It is %ost desira9le to ,ave a ,i#, si#nal to noise ratio. 4. S1A$'8'19 +,e a9ility to re%ain tuned to a station once it ,as 9een set &. F'<-8'19 +,e a9ility to /reserve t,e e act s,a/e o* t,e in*or%ation envelo/e o* t,e carrier ",ile t,e si#nal /ro#resses t,rou#, t,e receiver circuits -)a"ple : receiver is tuned to a certain *requency at ",ic, an in/ut volta#e i* 10 6 /roduces an out/ut /o"er o* &0 %). I* t,e si#nal volta#e required at t,e adDacent c,annel to /roduce t,e sa%e out/ut /o"er is 1 %6; *ind t,e adDacent c,annel ratio. Solution +,e adDacent c,annel ratio < 20 lo#E 1 = 10B3 @ 10 = 10B-5 < 40 d(.

3.
3.1

Superheterodyning
)eterodyning

Fro% )i?i/edia; t,e *ree encyclo/aedia. In teleco%%unications; /,ysics; and radio astrono%y; ,eterodynin# is t,e #eneration o* ne" *requencies 9y %i in# t"o or %ore si#nals in a nonlinear device suc, as a vacuu% tu9e; transistor; diode %i er; Fose/,son Dunction; or 9olo%eter. +,e %i in# o* eac, t"o *requencies results in t,e creation o* t"o ne" *requencies; one at t,e su% o* t,e t"o *requencies %i ed; and t,e ot,er at t,eir di**erence. : lo" *requency /roduced in t,is %anner is so%eti%es re*erred to as a 9eat *requency. : 9eat
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COMM 1208 Unit 4 FM

*requency; or G9eatin#;G can 9e ,eard ",en %ulti/le en#ines o* an aircra*t are runnin# at close 9ut not identical s/eeds; or t"o %usical instru%ents are /layin# sli#,tly out o* tune. For e a%/le; a *requency o* 3;000 ,ert8 and anot,er o* 3;100 ,ert8 "ould 9eat to#et,er; /roducin# an audi9le 9eat *requency o* 100 ,ert8. : ,eterodyne radio or in*rared receiver is one ",ic, uses suc, a *requency s,i*tin# /rocess.

3.2

&(e Su*er(eterodyne "eceiver

+,e su/er,eterodyne receiver 4 su/er,et *or s,ort5 is %ore /ractical t,an t,e +'F receiver 9ecause it /rovides 9etter selectivity; sensitivity and sta9ility. +,e 9asic /rinci/le i* t,e su/er,et is illustrated in t,e 9loc? dia#ra% 9elo"A

Tuner

RF Amplifier

%i&er

#F Amplifier A "

Detector

Audio Amplifier

Loudspeaker

Local $scillator

: trans%itted radio *requency si#nal is /ic?ed u/ 9y t,e receivin# aerial and is selected 9y an 'F sta#e. +,e 'F sta#e; %i er and local oscillator ,ave %anually #an#ed tuned circuits *or selectin# a desired station. One o* t,e *unctions o* t,e 'F sta#e is to cou/le t,e in/ut si#nal to t,e %i er. +,e out/ut o* a sel* e cited oscillator is also a//lied to t,e %i er. ),en selectin# a station t,e *requency o* t,e local oscillator trac?s t,e *requency o* t,e in/ut si#nal in suc, a %anner t,at t,ere e ists a constant *requency di**erence 9et"een t,e t"o si#nals. +,is *requency di**erence is ?no"n as t,e inter%ediate *requency 4IF5. +,e *requencies ",ic, a//ear in t,e o@/ o* t,e %i er include t,e su% and di**erence *requencies. +,e su% *requencies are reDected and t,e di**erence or inter%ediate *requency is selected and a%/li*ied 9y a *i ed tuned IF a%/li*ier. +,e IF a%/li*ier %ay consist o* one or %ore a%/li*ier sta#es. +,e /rocess o* %i in# %oves t,e si#nal *ro% t,e 'F carrier to a lo"er *requency IF carrier. +,e IF carrier still retains t,e %odulation ",ic, "as initially i%/osed on t,e 'F carrier at t,e trans%itter. +,e out/ut o* t,e IF trans%itter is *ed to a detector. +,e :F si#nal ",ic, results *ro% detection is a%/li*ied 9y audio *requency a%/li*iers ",ose out/ut activates t,e s/ea?er. +,e su/er,et syste% is used in virtually all :M and FM receivers and also in +6 and radar.

3.3

Furt(er +x*lanation on t(e Su*er(eterodyne "eceiver


is

Fro% )i?i/edia; t,e *ree encyclo/aedia. In receivers usin# t,e su/er,eterodyne /rinci/le; a si#nal at varia9le *requency converted to a *i ed lo"er *requency; ; 9e*ore detection. is called t,e inter%ediate *requency; or GIFG. In ty/ical :M 4Mediu% )ave5 ,o%e receivers; t,at *requency is 4&& ?.87 *or FM 6.F receivers; it is usually 10.0 M.8. .eterodyne receivers G%i G all o* t,e inco%in# si#nals "it, an internally #enerated "ave*or% called t,e local oscillator. +,e user tunes t,e radio 9y adDustin# t,e setHs oscillator *requency; In t,e %i er sta#e o* a receiver; t,e local oscillator si#nal %ulti/lies "it, t,e inco%in# si#nals; ",ic, s,i*ts t,e% all do"n in *requency. +,e one

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COMM 1208 Unit 4 FM

t,at s,i*ts to is /assed on 9y tuned circuits; a%/li*ied; and t,en de%odulated to recover t,e ori#inal audio si#nal. +,e oscillator also s,i*ts a Gco/yG o* eac, inco%in# si#nal u/ in *requency 9y a%ount +,ose very ,i#, *requency Gi%a#esG are all reDected 9y t,e tuned circuits 4Filters5 in t,e IF sta#e. Most receivers no" use t,is %et,od. +,e su/er,eterodyne receiver /rinci/le overco%es certain li%itations o* /revious receiver desi#ns. +uned radio *requency 4+'F5 receivers su**ered *ro% /oor selectivity; since even *ilters "it, a ,i#, I *actor ,ave a "ide 9and"idt, at radio *requencies.

T'e diagram (elo) s'o)s t'e (asic elements of a single con*ersion super'et recei*er+ #n practice not e*er, design )ill 'a*e all t'ese elements- nor does t'is con*e, t'e comple&it, of ot'er designs- (ut t'e essential elements of a local oscillator and a mi&er follo)ed (, a filter and #F amplifier are common to all super'et circuits+ "ost.optimi/ed designs ma, use one acti*e de*ice for (ot' local oscillator and mi&er0t'is is sometimes called a 1con*erter1 stage+

T'e ad*antage to t'is met'od is t'at most of t'e radio2s signal pat' 'as to (e sensiti*e to onl, a narro) range of fre3uencies+ $nl, t'e front end 4t'e part (efore t'e fre3uenc, con*erter stage5 needs to (e sensiti*e to a )ide fre3uenc, range+ For e&ample- t'e front end mig't need to (e sensiti*e to 1637 %8/- )'ile t'e rest of t'e radio mig't need to (e sensiti*e onl, to 455 k8/- a t,pical #F fre3uenc,+ $nl, one or t)o tuned stages need to (e ad9usted to track o*er t'e tuning range of t'e recei*er: all t'e intermediate.fre3uenc, stages operate at a fi&ed fre3uenc, )'ic' need not (e ad9usted+ ;ometimes- to o*ercome o(stacles suc' as image response- more t'an one #F is used+ #n suc' a caset'e front end mig't (e sensiti*e to 1637 %8/- t'e first 'alf of t'e radio to 5 %8/- and t'e last 'alf to 57 k8/+ T)o fre3uenc, con*erters )ould (e used- and t'e radio )ould (e a 1Dou(le "on*ersion ;uper 8eterod,ne10a common e&ample is a tele*ision recei*er )'ere t'e audio information is o(tained from a second stage of intermediate fre3uenc, con*ersion+ $ccasionall, special.purpose recei*ers )ill use an intermediate fre3uenc, muc' 'ig'er t'an t'e signal- in order to o(tain *er, 'ig' image re9ection+ ;uper 8eterod,ne recei*ers 'a*e superior c'aracteristics to simpler recei*er t,pes in fre3uenc, sta(ilit, and selecti*it,+ #t is muc' easier to sta(ili/e an oscillator t'an a filter- especiall, )it' modern fre3uenc, s,nt'esiser tec'nolog,- and #F filters can gi*e muc' narro)er pass(ands at t'e same < factor t'an an e3ui*alent RF filter+ A fi&ed #F also allo)s t'e use of a cr,stal filter in *er, critical designs suc' as radiotelep'one recei*ers )'ic' 'a*e e&ceptionall, 'ig' selecti*it,+

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COMM 1208 Unit 4 FM

3.4

'(oice o% ,ocal -scillator Frequency

+,e 'F is t,e di**erence 9et"een t,e "anted si#nal *requency and t,e local oscillator 42O5 *requency. +,e 2O *requency can 9e set eit,er a9ove; or 9elo" t,e "anted si#nal *requency. In /ractice ,o"ever it is set ,i#,er t,an t,e si#nal *requency. +,e reason *or t,is can 9e seen *ro% t,e *ollo"in# e a%/le. -)a"ple. Consider a receiver o/eratin# over t,e *requency ran#e7 &00 ?.8 to B 1&00 ?.8. I* t,e 2O is 4-& ?.8 9elo" t,e si#nal *requency t,en t,e oscillator *requency %ust vary *ro% 3& ?.8 to 103& ?.8. +,is is a *requency ratio o* 103&@3&.1 or 23.- to 1 and "ould require t,e use o* a varia9le ca/acitor ,avin# a ratio o* %a i%u% ca/acitance to %ini%u% ca/acitance o* 423.-5 2 to 1; or 804 to 1 . Suc, a lar#e ca/acitance ratio could not 9e o9tained "it, a sin#le varia9le ca/acitor and "ould not 9e easy or c,ea/ to ac,ieve. I* t,e 2O is 4-& ?.8 ,i#,er t,an t,e "anted si#nal t,en t,e local oscillator %ust vary *ro% 3-& ?.8 to 13-& ?.8; a *requency ratio o* 13-&@3-& to 1 or 2.04 to 1. +,is "ould require a ca/acitance ratio o* 42.0452 or 4.14 to 1. Suc, a ca/acitance ratio is easily o9tained. It is t,ere*ore usual to %a?e t,e 2O *requency ,i#,er t,an t,e "anted si#nal *requency; i.e. *2O < *s C *IF. /01+,e su% *requency co%/onent o* t,e %i er out/ut 4'F C 2O5 is not c,osen *or t,e IF 9ecause 'F C 2O is not constant B 9ot, increase at t,e sa%e ti%e.

Page > of 14

COMM 1208 Unit 4 FM

3.!

I age '(annel Inter%erence

+,ere is al"ays anot,er *requency 4a/art *ro% t,e si#nal5 t,at "ill /roduce t,e inter%ediate *requency; no %atter ",at *requency a su/er,et receiver is tuned to. +,is ot,er *requency is called t,e i%a#e *requency. +,e i%a#e si#nal ,as a *requency *i% suc, t,at t,e di**erence 9et"een it and t,e local oscillator is equal to t,e inter%ediate *requency i.e. *IF < *i% B *2O < *i% B 4*s C *IF5 < *i% B *s B *IF +,ere*ore *i% < *s C 2 *IF +,e i%a#e si#nal is t,us se/arated *ro% t,e "anted si#nal 9y t"ice t,e inter%ediate *requency. +,e i%a#e si#nal %ust 9e /revented *ro% reac,in# t,e %i er or it "ill /roduce an inter*erence si#nal ",ic,; since it is at t,e inter%ediate *requency; cannot 9e eli%inated 9y t,e selectivity o* t,e IF a%/li*ier. +,e 'F sta#e %ust include a resonant circuit "it, su**icient selectivity to reDect t,e i%a#e si#nal ",en tuned to t,e "anted si#nal *requency. +unin# is necessary 9ecause t,e "anted si#nal *requency and ,ence t,e i%a#e si#nal *requency; "ill vary. It is not di**icult to o9tain a resonant circuit "it, #ood enou#, selectivity to acce/t t,e "anted si#nal and reDect t,e i%a#e si#nal ",en t,eir se/aration is an acce/ta9le *raction o* t,e "anted si#nal *requency. +,e i%a#e reDection is less e**icient as t,e si#nal *requency is increased 9ecause t,e *ractional *requency se/aration 9eco%es s%aller. :ny vesti#e o* t,e i%a#e si#nal reac,in# t,e %i er "ill /roduce crosstal? at t,e out/ut o* t,e receiver. I* a si#nal at a *e" ?ilo,ert8 a"ay *ro% t,e i%a#e si#nal reac,es t,e %i er; t,en t,e t"o IF si#nals "ill 9eat to#et,er to /roduce a ",istle at t,e out/ut o* t,e receiver. +,e i%a#e res/onse ratio is t,e ratio; in deci9els; o* t,e volta#es at t,e "anted si#nal and i%a#e si#nal *requencies necessary at t,e receiver in/ut ter%inals to /roduce t,e sa%e audio out/ut.

3..

Furt(er +x*lanation on I age '(annel Inter%erence

Fro% )i?i/edia; t,e *ree encyclo/aedia. 4Called .i#,Bside and lo"Bside inDection5 +,e a%ount t,at a si#nal is do"nBs,i*ted 9y t,e local oscillator de/ends on ",et,er its *requency 4 5 is ,i#,er or lo"er t,an +,at is 9ecause its ne" *requency is in eit,er case. +,ere*ore; t,ere are /otentially t"o si#nals t,at could 9ot, s,i*t to t,e sa%e one at and anot,er at . One or t,e ot,er o* t,ose si#nals ,as to 9e *iltered out /rior to t,e %i er to avoid aliasin#. ),en t,e u//er one is *iltered out; it is called high=side in:ection ; 9ecause is a9ove t,e *requency o* t,e received si#nal. +,e ot,er case is called lo&=side in:ection . .i#,Bside inDection also reverses t,e order o* a si#nalHs *requency co%/onents. ),et,er or not t,at actually c,an#es t,e si#nal de/ends on ",et,er it ,as s/ectral sy%%etry or not. +,e reversal can 9e undone later in t,e receiver; i* necessary.

Page 17 of 14

COMM 1208 Unit 4 FM

4.

FM Stereo

FM stereo 9roadcasts ,ave 9een %ade since 13-1. +,e essence o* stereo is t,at t,ere are t"o c,annels B one c,annel carryin# t,e sound ",ic, "ould 9e ,eard 9y t,e le*t ear and t,e ot,er to carry t,e sound to t,e ri#,t ear. One direct %et,od o* trans%ittin# stereo is to ,ave t"o trans%itters and t"o receivers B one *or eac, c,annel. +,is %et,od is not used 9ecause it uses too %uc, equi/%ent B 2 co%/lete sets o* equi/%ent; it requires t"o trans%ission 9ands in t,e li%ited 9ands availa9le to co%%ercial users; t,e listener %ust tune into t"o receivers si%ultaneously B "it, only one receiver ,e loses ,al* o* t,e si#nal; i* t,ere is any di**erence in t,e trans%ission or /rocessin# /at,s *or t,e t"o si#nals; t,e si#nals "ill lose sync,ronis% and li*eli?e stereo "ill not 9e received. : %et,od is required so t,at t,e t"o c,annels are trans%itted 9y one trans%itter and received 9y a sin#le receiver i* t,e receiver can only receive one c,annel it s,ould lose any o* t,e in*or%ation B t,e stereo si#nal %ust 9e co%/ati9le "it, %onaural; t,e le*t and ri#,t si#nals %ust not #et out o* sync,ronis%.

'F oscillator 8 8 R inverter R =R adder 8=R 9alanced %odulator 84 R 84 R 3>*+ =15?*+ FM %odulator

audio in/ut 4le*t5

/re e%/,asis

adder

delay

rest o* trans%itter

audio in/ut 4ri#,t5

/re e%/,asis

adder 8=R 23=53?*+ 1@?*+ pilot carrier

38 ?.8 oscillator

divide 9y 2

4.1

Stereo &rans itter

: 9loc? dia#ra% o* a ty/ical syste% ",ic, is used is s,o"n in t,e dia#ra%. +,e 2C' c,annel contains t,e su% o* t,e in*or%ation in 9ot, audio c,annels i.e. all o* t,e audio in*or%ation. It /asses strai#,t t,rou#, unc,an#ed 4a s%all delay is introduced to co%/ensate *or t,e ti%e delay in t,e 2B' si#nal as it /asses t,rou#, t,e inverter5 and is used directly to %odulate t,e 'F carrier in t,e FM %odulator. I* a radio receiver is not ca/a9le o* re/roducin# stereo it "ill %erely need to de%odulate t,is co%/onent to re/roduce 9ot, c,annels o* t,e audio si#nal as a sin#le audio si#nal and out/ut all t,e audio in*or%ation in a sin#le louds/ea?er. +,e 2B' contains t,e di**erence 9et"een t,e in*or%ation in t,e t"o c,annels. +,is si#nal is %oved into an inaudi9le *requency 9and in t,e ran#e 23 ?.8 to &3 ?.8; usin# t,e 9alanced %odulator and a 38 ?.8 carrier. +,is c,annel is used 9y t,e receiver to re/roduce t,e stereo si#nal.

Page 11 of 14

COMM 1208 Unit 4 FM

+,e *requency s/ectru% is as s,o"n. $ote t,at t,e 38 ?.8 carrier is not trans%itted. +,is is 9ecause t,ere is a #a/ o* only -0 .8 4 < 2 =305 9et"een t,e to/ o* t,e lo"er 2 C' 2 B' 2 B' :udio side9and and t,e 9otto% o* t,e u//er 2 o"er U//er side9and so %a?in# e traction di**icult at side9and side9and *req 4?.85 t,e receiver end. Instead a su9B carrier o* 0.03 1& 13 23 38 &3 13 ?.8 4 < 38@25 is trans%itted. +,is is in t,e centre o* an unused 9and o* *requencies *ro% 1& ?.8 to 23 ?.8 and is easily e tracted in t,e receiver.
!ilot su9Bcarrier Su//ressed su9Bcarrier
audio a%/li*ier 22 adder de B e%/,asis 2 C' inverter 2 B' 38 ?.8 13 ?.8 9and/ass *ilter 2 B2 C ' 2' de B e%/,asis 'i#,t S/ea?er audio a%/li*ier adder 2 e*t S/ea?er

4.2

Stereo "eceiver

lo"/ass *ilter

delay

2 C'

2 B' *ro% FM receiver 23B&3 ?.8 9and/ass *ilter :M de%odulator lo"/ass *ilter

In t,e receiver t,e t"o receiver c,annels are 2C' and 2B'. +,ese are added and su9tracted as in t,is dia#ra% to /roduce t,e ' and 2 audio c,annels ",ic, are /assed on to eac, s/ea?er. +,e 13 ?.8 su9Bcarrier /ilot is /ic?ed out o* t,e received si#nal and used to #enerate t,e 38 ?.8 carrier to in/ut into t,e :M de%odulator B in t,is de%odulator a si%/le diode envelo/e detector can su**ice.

Page 12 of 14

COMM 1208 Unit 4 FM

5.

Relative merits of M against FM

5.1.1 Why use AM?


Full "ave envelo/e detection is easy and c,ea/. +,is is i%/ortant ",en t,ere are %illions o* receivers as in t,e case o* do%estic users. +,e 9and"idt, is narro" 42 = *% 5. +,is is i%/ortant *or M) trans%ission 9ecause t,e availa9le 9and"idt, is s%all and t,e sa%e 9and can not 9e used over a very lar#e #eo#ra/,ical area +,e 9and"idt, 4and t,e out/ut /o"er o* t,e trans%itter5 can 9e reduced 9y SS( %et,ods 49ut co%/le ity and cost o* t,e receiver is increased5. For /orta9le trans%itters and receivers /o"er and si8e considerations are i%/ortant 9ut cost not so i%/ortant as t,ere "ill only 9e a s%all nu%9er o* units. Over t,e ,ori8on rece/tion is /ossi9le in t,e case o* %ediu% "ave.

5.1.2 Why not use AM?


I* t,e %odulation inde is #reater t,an 1.0 t,e envelo/e does not *ollo" t,e "ave*or% o* t,e %odulation 4intelli#ence5 si#nal 9ut is a distorted version o* it. I* t,ere is noise on t,e received si#nal it cannot 9e re%oved. Sound quality is not #ood on :M and it is %ainly used no" *or s/eec, rat,er t,an %usic.

5.1.3 Why use FM?


$oise on t,e received si#nal can 9e re%oved 9y li%itin# t,e level o* t,e si#nal : lar#e %odulation inde is /ossi9le. +,is allo"s t,e /ea? levels o* %usic or s/eec, to 9e *ollo"edB i%/ortant ",en tryin# to recover all *requencies and levels in %usic *or ,iB*i.

5.1.4 Why not use FM?


)ide 9and"idt, is required 4 < 2 * % 4 C15 5. +,is is %ore t,an is availa9le in %ediu% "ave and %eans t,at 6.F is required to %a?e t,e 9and"idt, availa9le. +,e trans%itter and receivin# equi/%ent is relatively co%/le and e /ensive. Use o* 6.F %eans t,at rece/tion is /ossi9le only in line o* si#,t o* trans%itter. +,ere*ore t,e sa%e *requencies can 9e reBused in relatively close locations; %a?in# it use*ul *or local 9roadcast radio; services suc, as ta i etc. (ut *or a national service a lot o* trans%itters are required. 1ac, station is assi#ned 200 ?.8 and t,ere is o*ten s/ace *or ne" stations. 42ine o* si#,t ran#e < 42 = r = , C , = ,5 1@2 ",ere , is t,e ,ei#,t o* t,e trans%ittin# aerial and r is t,e radius o* t,e 1art, < -400 ?%.5 I* M) is used a sin#le trans%itter can serve an entire country. (ut t,ere is t,e c,ance t,at t,ere "ill 9e rece/tion across a continent. +,e sa%e *requencies cannot 9e reB used on t,e sa%e continent. +,is %eans t,at t,e 9and is very li%ited. 1ac, station is assi#ned 3 ?.8 and t,ere is no s/ace *or %ore stations.

Page 13 of 14

COMM 1208 Unit 4 FM

!.

Frequency "ands
30 ?.8 to 300 ?.8 300 ?.8 to 3 M.8 3 M.8 to 30 M.8 30 M.8 to 300 M.8 300 M.8 to 3 J.8

2on# )ave 42o" Frequency5 42)5 Mediu% )ave 4Mediu% Frequency5 S,ort )ave 4.i#, Frequency5 4S)5 6ery .i#, Frequency 46.F5 Ultra .i#, Frequency 4U.F5

Page 14 of 14