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THE MUSICAL TIMES.-FEBRUARY
1,
1861.
THE MUSICAL TIMES,
tntr
Singitng alas Qitrcular.
FEBRUARY
1st,
1861.
MOZART'S
SUCCINCT THOROUGH-BASS SCHOOL.*
TRANSLATED PROM TIlE GERIIAN BY
SABILLA NOVELLO.
(Continued from page 398.)
THE OCTAVE.
The octave is
two-fold, namely:
diminished
and
perfect,
b8
or
48,
and 8. Beneath the first
is
usually
figured
the minor
sixth,
to which must
be added the minor third in four-note chords.
When the
perfect
octave stands
alone,
or follows
a ninth or a
seventh,
a third is added in three-
note
chords,
and a third and fifth in four-note
chords;
for
example:-
No
39,
,- I . -, ,
I- 1 I 11 .1
I J L
I I I L
KI
f
I 0% -j . y
e6ti
f
~ t75
t.5
034 ~
.
7o
27
with 3
6
6-
7 &C
5 9 5 4 3 7 5 9 5- 9 8
):
I I -
-
f
j
IH , I I .EF I I1
'- - -I, i I
I Ji
I
1
-14 'i -1 !
"
i! !
,j
--
,i
P , -J a l
"'~
MaJor.
~
Mi~r:~
MaJor.
1^ ,,J .-J-HLL-$H-4'4u- J
?
? i,aJ-J-n
f5 64 4
5 1
I
9 N 1
54
I
^9 _OBtter7
8
'--J
*
11
J
*
n-;-l-J '11
r"iJ
H
Transient.
Major
ninth.
Augmented.
Remark.--When the fifth is
figured
with the
sixth,
(
;
the sixth with the
seventh,
7
; or the octave with
the
ninth, ; which often
occurs,
especially
on
pedal
notes
(tasto solo),
these consonants sound like disso-
nants,
and
require
to be resolved
by descending;
for
example:-
No. 41.
[-,
! I
I
I
I'i
9
4 5
[fl
j G 4 3 4 5
;J - p
-
-
a
I-
.=_ I. 1p ,
ii
rJ
[r ii
, , , , , --n
'-
Diminislled Octaves.
A
1 1 1~~~~~~~~~~
Jt
,cd
,
J
Hl-
-e -
- - ' 5
I -
1w
I
i --
^
i -r -=U-
"
Perfect Octaves.
THE NINTH.
ThLe
ninth is two-fold: minor and
major.
To
both
belong
a third and a
fifth;
sometimes the
third is doubled instead of the fifth. Both ninths
are
prepared
in the right
hand
by suspension,
and are resolved
by descending
a whole tone or
a semitone.
Remark.-The minor ninth is the nearest
major
semitone above the
octave;
the
major
ninth is the
nearest whole tone above the octave. When the ninth
occurs as a
passing
note,
the
major
seventh
may
be
taken as a fourth
part,
unless the whole is
played
in
three-note chords. The student need not fear to use
an
augmented
$9
with , which is
only
the
augmented
second. Some
composers
make the
mistake, also,
of
marking
the
augmented
octave instead of the
aug-
mented unison. The
following
are some
examples:-
No. 40.
-5,,,-
'
,
'] d ' ,
_ I
J
S.-.-
7
-~-v------- - -.-
7 6 6 5 6 -
3 4 2 3 5 4 4 3
Remark.-A
pedal
note is seldom
figured,
and is not
to be
accompanied
unless
figured.
THE TENTH.
The tenth is three
fold-diminished, minor,
and
major;
and is
nothing
else than a third above
the octave:
therefore,
all that has been said re-
specting
thirds is
applicable
to tenths.
IV.
All chords have three
movements,
namely:
direct movement,
in which both hands descend
or
ascend;
this is the worst
movement,
as in it
consecutive octaves and fifths are
prohibited.
The
contrary
movement,
which is
better,
is
pro-
duced when one hand ascends and the other de-
scends. The
oblique
movement is
produced
when one hand
moves,
while the other remains
stationary,
and is the best movement. For
example:-
No. 42.
movement.
It is
good
in
progressions
of the
perfect
fourth in
* lleprinted by permission from Novello's Library for the
v
of Musical Knowledge.
Vol. IV.
411
-? II- r_ I
- -
=?1-w-t-w--4
-0
_
do
S ks 14
2---- 1' I
I I r
!'
I -I I
I .
' l
1-
I
I
THE MUSICAL TIMES.-FEBRUARY
1, 1861.
ascending
and
descending;
and in
progressions
of minor or
major sixths, in
ascending only:-
No. 43.
Remark.-In the direct movement it is allowable to
use a concealed consecutive fifth or octave, when the
upper part progresses a third, or the bass progresses
an
octave,
if a
melody
or a
preparation require it; for
example:-
No. 44.
I~r
Every chord can be taken in three
positions in
the
right hand
alone, excepting
in divided har-
mony, in which each hand takes two
parts
in a
four-note
chord, or when the left hand
plays three
parts, and the
right
hand
only one; for
example,
above F:-
No 45.
'
Octave, Thlird, Fifth position. Octave, Tlhird, Fifth
position.
The first three are called F
major,
the three
others F minor chords. The same rule
applies
to
all other full
common
chords.
Imperfect and
dissonant
clhords
also
may
be taken in three
posi-
tions: the sixth
above, beneath, or in the
middle;
the fourth above, beneath, or in the
middle, &c.;
for
example:
No. 46.
I 7 6 # or
7
6 N.B.
t'
N.LB.
L~l N.B.
Better.
Good-
-
-posit o
?
-r-r
Better. Good position.
7 6 7 6
Or
high. or
&C; .
7 6 76 t ;
e
i~
J :
I:
f)
trrrC
f
I-il
l4
6Q:X4 s ^ J j L _ 31 l ,
I
-
P
I
- -
--
-
C- II
ti
P Cr Vj
9 S 5 9 8
- . . P r r ,
r Ir I
I
0:
'-, I
oJ
[ -'1
1-
~
J
,
ery adUJ J
I IJvd l"'i Ve-r r-6
Very bad.
Improved. Very bad.
-t
#6
6
t7
17
Improved. Bad. Goor
r
\
Improved, Bad. Goodi.
6 (66 4 3
4 3 4 3
It is not well, especially in
fugue playing,
to
move
the
position
of the
right
hand
by leaps;
brut of course it must be
changed
when the two
hands are too near each other, or too far
apart;
also on a
long
bass
note, or after a
pause; for
example
:-
No. 47.
-&
.
_
-'I----
4.f4
d-Af_
-
6
K'oj-
[L5E--4V-A .'~- _
.
~ fLi t~ff~~ff~~ff~~ff~~ff
I
,
z~fi_i
J6 9
6 6
Too near. . 6
: 5
Too inear.
9
6
9
6 6
- T
_
o -? -
-45
.t _
Better.
6 66 6
'l . 5 9 5 9
4Ii [F1
L L
-g[-
_
--
5
IL--
I
,T i !
I
- I I
- -
-'I r . *I I a
I
412
THE MUSICAL TIMES.-FEBRUARY
1, 1861.
V.
It is not
necessary
to
accompany
all funda-
mental notes
by
four-note
chords, especially
when
the bass lies
high,
and takes a tenor
character;
or when consecutive fifths are to be
avoided;
in
both
cases, some of the notes
may
be
accompanied
by
three-note
chords,
even when the
passage
is
in four
parts;
for
example
:-
No. 48.
No. 50.
When the
following sign (- )
is
placed
over
one or more
figures,
the fundamental notes are to
be
accompanied by
three-note
chords,
as in
No. 51. A
pointed
curve
(A) signifies
that the di-
minished fifth
.A,
or t, or 6, is to be
played
in
four
parts
with a third and
octave;
as in No. 52.
This
sign
is also
placed
above
8,
when the funda-
mental note is to be
accompanied by
a three-
note
chord,
that
is,
without the
third;
as in
No. 53-
When the tenor is
figured,
three-note chords
are
played,
and the alto is
usually accompanied
in two
parts;
but when the
following
dashes
yt ! tt are
placed
over the
notes,
they
are
played
by
one hand without
accompaniment,
whatever
key may
be marked. In
choruses, tutti-passages,
and
symphonies (in
forte or
fortissimo),
notes
bedring
these t t t
,
may
be
played
with octaves
in
unison;
this is not allowed in
leading
off a
fugue;
for
example:
No. 49.
No. 51. No, 52.
|
I [ -
I la A .
i
3 3
5.
&c
dIIIf
r r
rr-r
?
t--
(To
be
continued.)
ERRATA IN LAST NUMBER.
Page 395, No.
15,
second
bar,
treble
stave,
second crotchets should
be , not
Page 396, No.
19,
first
bar, treble stave,
E minim should be D.
Page 396,
No.
23,
first
bar,
C
sharp
should be D
sharp.
-
'
f
f
p
A dash
through
a
figure
signifies
the same as
a
sharp,
and sometimes a contradicted flat; it
therefore makes an interval
major
or
augmented.
A flat or a natural
(when contradicting
a
sharp),
placed
before a
figure,
makes the interval minor
or diminished.
Reinark.-Prepared
notes are not
generally
marked
by accidentals,
as the
preparatory
notes indicate the
change.
A
straight
stroke
(-) placed after a
figure
signifies
that the
chord,
or sometimes a
part
of
it,
is
to remain in the
right hand,
until new
figures occur,
or until the notes under the strokes have ceased. A
diagonal
stroke
inclining upwards
from left to
right
(/- ), signifies
that the fundamental note is an irre-
gular passing
note,
and must be
accompanied by
the
full chord of the note which
follows;
for
example;-
TO CORRESPONDENTS.
A
Young Professional,
whose object is to ascertain how he
may
set
about
acquiring
"a
thorough knowledge of thorough bass, theory,
and all that is
necessary
to make a
perfect musician and com-
poser,'
is advised to
place himself at once with a master capable of
teaching
him. If he requires books,
he will
find
that Catel's
"
Treatise on
Harmony,"
and
Albrechtsberger's
"
Thorough
Bass," contain all he can desi re to know.
We cannot undertake to return
offered contributions; the
authors, there.
fore,
will do well to retain
copies.
tWe would request those who send us
country newspapers, wishing
us to
read
parlicular paragraphs,
to mark the
passage, by cutting
a
slip
in the
paper
near it.
Colored
Envelopes
aresent to all Subscribers whose
payment
in advance
is exhausted. The
paper
will be discontinued where the Subscriber
neglects
to renew. We
again remind those who are
disappointed in
getting
back
numbers,
that
only
the muisic
pages
are
stereotyped,
and of
the rest
of
the
paper, only sufficient
are
printed
to
supply
the
current sale.
Notices of concerts and other information supplied by
our friends in the
country, must be
forwarded
as
early
as
possibleaftertheoccurrence,
otherwise they cannot be inserted. Our
correspondents must
spe-
cifically
denote the date
of each
concert, for
without such date no
notice can be taken
of
the
performance.
All communications must
be authenticated
by
the
proper
name and address
of the writer;
413