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PART I

KINEMATICS AND MECHANISMS

Chapter 1

The World of Mechanisms


1.1 Sketch at least six different examples of the use of a planar four-bar linkage in practice. They can be found in the workshop, in domestic appliances, on vehicles, on agricultural machines, and so on. Since the variety is unbounded no standard solutions are shown here. 1.2 The link lengths of a planar four-bar linkage are 25, 75, 125, and 125 mm. Assemble the links in all possible combinations and sketch the four inversions of each. Do these linkages satisfy Grashof's law? Describe each inversion by name--for example, a crankrocker mechanism or a drag-link mechanism.

s = 1, l = 5, p = 3, q = 5 ; these linkages all satisfy Grashofs law since 1 + 5 < 3 + 5 .

Drag-link mechanism

Drag-link mechanism

Crank-rocker mechanism

Crank-rocker mechanism

Double-rocker mechanism

Crank-rocker mechanism

1.3

A crank-rocker linkage has a 100-mm frame, a 25-mm crank, a 90-mm coupler, and a 75-mm rocker. Draw the linkage and find the maximum and minimum values of the transmission angle. Locate both toggle positions and record the corresponding crank angles and transmission angles.

Extremum transmission angles: min = 1 = 53.1; max = 3 = 98.1 Toggle positions: 2 = 40.1; 2 = 59.1; 4 = 228.6; 4 = 90.9 1.4

In the figure, point C is attached to the coupler; plot its complete path.

1.5

Find the mobility of each mechanism shown in the figure. (a) n = 6, j1 = 7, j2 = 0;


m = 3 ( 6 1) 2 ( 7 ) 1( 0 ) = 1

Ans. Ans. Ans.

(b) n = 8, j1 = 10, j2 = 0; m = 3 ( 8 1) 2 (10 ) 1( 0 ) = 1 (c) n = 7, j1 = 9, j2 = 0; m = 3 ( 7 1) 2 ( 9 ) 1( 0 ) = 0

(d) n = 4, j1 = 3, j2 = 2; m = 3 ( 4 1) 2 ( 3) 1( 2 ) = 1

Note that the Kutzbach criterion fails in this case; the true mobility is m=1. The exception is due to a redundant constraint. The assumption that the rolling contact joint does not allow links 2 and 3 to separate duplicates the constraint of the fixed link length O2O3 .
Ans.

Note that each coaxial set of sliding joints is counted as only a single prismatic pair.
1.6

Use the mobility criterion to find a planar mechanism containing a moving quaternary link. How many distinct variations of this mechanism can you find? To have at least one quatenary link, a planar mechanism must have at least eight links. The Grbler criterion then indicates that ten single-freedom joints are required for mobility of m=1. According to H. Alt, Die Analyse und Synthese der achtgleidrigen Gelenkgetriebe, VDI-Berichte, vol. 5, 1955, pp. 81-93, there are a total of sixteen distinct eight-link planar linkages having ten revolute joints, seven of which contain a quatenary link. These seven are shown below:

1.7

Find the time ratio of the linkage of Problem 1.3. From the values of 2 and 4 we find = 188.5 and = 171.5 . Then, from Eq. (1.5), Q = = 1.099 .
Ans.

1.8

Devise a practical working model of the drag-link mechanism.

1.9

Plot the complete coupler curve of the Roberts' mechanism of Fig. 1.19b. Use AB = CD = AD = 60 mm and BC = 30 mm.

1.10

If the crank of Fig. 1.8 is turned 10 revolutions clockwise, how far and in what direction will the carriage move? Screw and carriage move by (10 rev ) (1.5 rev/ mm ) = 6.67mm to the left. Carraige moves (10 rev ) ( 2 rev/mm ) = 5mm to the right with respect to the screw. Net motion of carriage = 6.67 5 = 1.67 mm to the left. More in depth study of such devices is covered in Chap. 10.

1.11

Show how the mechanism of Fig. 1.12b can be used to generate a sine wave. With the length and angle of crank 2 designated as R and 2, respectively, the horizontal motion of link 4 is x4 = R cos 2 = R sin ( 2 + 90 ) .

1.12

Devise a crank-and-rocker linkage, as in Fig. 1.11c, having a rocker angle of 60. The rocker length is to be 0.50 m.