Anda di halaman 1dari 11

THE ADVENTURE OF FRENCH PHILOSOPHY Alain Badiou

Let us be in t!ese "e#le$tions on $onte%&o"a"' F"en$! &!iloso&!' (it! a &a"ado)* t!at (!i$! is t!e %ost uni+e"sal is also, at t!e sa%e ti%e, t!e %ost &a"ti$ula"- He el $alls t!is t!e .$on$"ete uni+e"sal., t!e s'nt!esis o# t!at (!i$! is absolutel' uni+e"sal, (!i$! &e"tains to e+e"'t!in , (it! t!at (!i$! !as a &a"ti$ula" ti%e and &la$e- P!iloso&!' is a ood e)a%&le- Absolutel' uni+e"sal, it add"esses itsel# to all, (it!out e)$e&tion/ but (it!in &!iloso&!' t!e"e e)ist &o(e"#ul $ultu"al and national &a"ti$ula"ities- T!e"e a"e (!at (e %i !t $all %o%ents o# &!iloso&!', in s&a$e and in ti%e- P!iloso&!' is t!us bot! a uni+e"sal ai% o# "eason and, si%ultaneousl', one t!at %ani#ests itsel# in $o%&letel' s&e$i#i$ %o%ents- Let us ta0e t!e e)a%&le o# t(o es&e$iall' intense and (ell10no(n &!iloso&!i$al instan$es- Fi"st, t!at o# $lassi$al 2"ee0 &!iloso&!' bet(een Pa"%enides and A"istotle, #"o% t!e 3t! to t!e 4"d $entu"ies BC* a !i !l' in+enti+e, #oundational %o%ent, ulti%atel' 5uite s!o"t1li+edSe$ond, t!at o# 2e"%an idealis% bet(een 6ant and He el, +ia Fi$!te and S$!ellin * anot!e" e)$e&tional &!iloso&!i$al %o%ent, #"o% t!e late 78t! to t!e ea"l' 79t! $entu"ies, intensel' $"eati+e and $ondensed (it!in an e+en s!o"te" ti%es&an- I &"o&ose to de#end a #u"t!e" national and !isto"i$al t!esis* t!e"e (as1 o" t!e"e is, de&endin (!e"e I &ut %'sel#1a F"en$! &!iloso&!i$al %o%ent o# t!e se$ond !al# o# t!e :;t! $entu"' (!i$!, toute &"o&o"tion a"d<e, bea"s $o%&a"ison to t!e e)a%&les o# $lassi$al 2"ee$e and enli !ten%ent 2e"%an'-

Sa"t"e=s #oundational (o"0, Bein and Not!in ness, a&&ea"ed in 79>4 and t!e last ("itin s o# Deleu?e, @!at is P!iloso&!'A, date #"o% t!e ea"l' 799;s- T!e %o%ent o# F"en$! &!iloso&!' de+elo&s bet(een t!e t(o o# t!e%, and in$ludes Ba$!ela"d, Be"leau1Pont', L<+i1St"auss, Alt!usse", Fou$ault, De""ida and La$an as (ell as Sa"t"e and Deleu?e1and %'sel#, %a'be- Ti%e (ill tell/ t!ou ! i# t!e"e !as been su$! a F"en$! &!iloso&!i$al %o%ent, %' &osition (ould be as &e"!a&s its last "e&"esentati+e- It is t!e totalit' o# t!is bod' o# (o"0, situated bet(een t!e "ound1b"ea0in $ont"ibution o# Sa"t"e and t!e last (o"0s o# Deleu?e, t!at is intended !e"e b' t!e te"% =$onte%&o"a"' F"en$! &!iloso&!'=- I (ill a" ue t!at it $onstitutes a ne( %o%ent o# &!iloso&!i$al $"eati+it', bot! &a"ti$ula" and uni+e"sal- T!e &"oble% is to identi#' t!is endea+ou"- @!at too0 &la$e in F"an$e, in &!iloso&!', bet(een 79>; and t!e end o# t!e :;t! $entu"'A @!at !a&&ened a"ound t!e ten o" so na%es $ited abo+eA @!at (as it t!at (e

$alled e)istentialis%, st"u$tu"alis%, de$onst"u$tionA @as t!e"e a !isto"i$al and intelle$tual unit' to t!at %o%entA I# so, o# (!at so"tA

I s!all a&&"oa$! t!ese &"oble%s in #ou" di##e"ent (a's- Fi"st, o"i ins* (!e"e does t!is %o%ent $o%e #"o%, (!at (e"e its ante$edents, (!at (as its bi"t!A Ne)t, (!at (e"e t!e &"in$i&al &!iloso&!i$al o&e"ations t!at it unde"too0A T!i"d, t!e #unda%ental 5uestion o# t!ese &!iloso&!e"s= lin0 (it! lite"atu"e, and t!e %o"e ene"al $onne$tion bet(een &!iloso&!' and lite"atu"e (it!in t!is se5uen$e- And #inall', t!e $onstant dis$ussion t!"ou !out t!is (!ole &e"iod bet(een &!iloso&!' and &s'$!oanal'sis- O"i ins, o&e"ations, st'le and lite"atu"e, &s'$!oanal'sis* #ou" %eans b' (!i$! to atte%&t to de#ine $onte%&o"a"' F"en$! &!iloso&!'-

Con$e&t and inte"io" li#e

To t!in0 t!e &!iloso&!i$al o"i ins o# t!is %o%ent (e need to "etu"n to t!e #unda%ental di+ision t!at o$$u""ed (it!in F"en$! &!iloso&!' at t!e be innin o# t!e :;t! $entu"', (it! t!e e%e" en$e o# t(o $ont"astin $u""ents- In 7977, Be" son a+e t(o $eleb"ated le$tu"es at O)#o"d, (!i$! a&&ea"ed in !is $olle$tion La &ens<e et le %ou+e%ent- In 797:, si%ultaneousl', in ot!e" (o"ds, B"uns$!+i$ &ublis!ed Les Cta&es de la &!iloso&!ie %at!<%ati5ue- Co%in on t!e e+e o# t!e 2"eat @a", t!ese inte"+entions attest to t!e e)isten$e o# t(o $o%&letel' distin$t o"ientations- In Be" son (e #ind (!at %i !t be $alled a &!iloso&!' o# +ital inte"io"it', a t!esis on t!e identit' o# bein and be$o%in / a &!iloso&!' o# li#e and $!an e- T!is o"ientation (ill &e"sist t!"ou !out t!e :;t! $entu"', u& to and in$ludin Deleu?e- In B"uns$!+i$ =s (o"0, (e #ind a &!iloso&!' o# t!e %at!e%ati$all' based $on$e&t* t!e &ossibilit' o# a &!iloso&!i$al #o"%alis% o# t!ou !t and o# t!e s'%boli$, (!i$! li0e(ise $ontinues t!"ou !out t!e $entu"', %ost s&e$i#i$all' in L<+i1St"auss, Alt!usse" and La$an-

F"o% t!e sta"t o# t!e $entu"', t!en, F"en$! &!iloso&!' &"esents a di+ided and diale$ti$al $!a"a$te"- On one side, a &!iloso&!' o# li#e/ on t!e ot!e", a &!iloso&!' o# t!e $on$e&t- T!is debate bet(een li#e and $on$e&t (ill be absolutel' $ent"al to t!e &e"iod t!at #ollo(s- At sta0e in an' su$! dis$ussion is t!e 5uestion o# t!e !u%an subDe$t, #o" it is !e"e t!at t!e t(o o"ientations

$oin$ide- At on$e a li+in o" anis% and a $"eato" o# $on$e&ts, t!e subDe$t is inte""o ated bot! (it! "e a"d to its inte"io", ani%al, o" ani$ li#e, and in te"%s o# its t!ou !t, its $a&a$it' #o" $"eati+it' and abst"a$tion- T!e "elations!i& bet(een bod' and idea, o" li#e and $on$e&t, #o"%ulated a"ound t!e 5uestion o# t!e subDe$t, t!us st"u$tu"es t!e (!ole de+elo&%ent o# :;t!1$entu"' F"en$! &!iloso&!' #"o% t!e initial o&&osition bet(een Be" son and B"uns$!+i$ on(a"ds- To de&lo' 6ant=s %eta&!o" o# &!iloso&!' as a battle "ound on (!i$! (e a"e all t!e %o"e o" less e)!austed $o%batants* du"in t!e se$ond !al# o# t!e :;t! $entu"', t!e lines o# battle (e"e still essentiall' $onstituted a"ound t!e 5uestion o# t!e subDe$t- T!us, Alt!usse" de#ines !isto"' as a &"o$ess (it!out a subDe$t, and t!e subDe$t as an ideolo i$al $ate o"'/ De""ida, inte"&"etin Heide e", "e a"ds t!e subDe$t as a $ate o"' o# %eta&!'si$s/ La$an $"eates a $on$e&t o# t!e subDe$t/ Sa"t"e o" Be"leau1Pont', o# $ou"se, allotted an absolutel' $ent"al "ole to t!e subDe$t- A #i"st de#inition o# t!e F"en$! &!iloso&!i$al %o%ent (ould t!e"e#o"e be in te"%s o# t!e $on#li$t o+e" t!e !u%an subDe$t, sin$e t!e #unda%ental issue at sta0e in t!is $on#li$t is t!at o# t!e "elations!i& bet(een li#e and $on$e&t-

@e $ould, o# $ou"se, ta0e t!e 5uest #o" o"i ins #u"t!e" ba$0 and des$"ibe t!e di+ision o# F"en$! &!iloso&!' as a s&lit o+e" t!e Ca"tesian !e"ita e- In one sense, t!e &ost(a" &!iloso&!i$al %o%ent $an be "ead as an e&i$ dis$ussion about t!e ideas and si ni#i$an$e o# Des$a"tes, as t!e &!iloso&!i$al in+ento" o# t!e $ate o"' o# t!e subDe$t- Des$a"tes (as a t!eo"eti$ian bot! o# t!e &!'si$al bod'1o# t!e ani%al1%a$!ine1and o# &u"e "e#le$tion- He (as t!us $on$e"ned (it! bot! t!e &!'si$s o# &!eno%ena and t!e %eta&!'si$s o# t!e subDe$t- All t!e "eat $onte%&o"a"' &!iloso&!e"s !a+e ("itten on Des$a"tes* La$an a$tuall' "aises t!e $all #o" a "etu"n to Des$a"tes, Sa"t"e &"odu$es a notable te)t on t!e Ca"tesian t"eat%ent o# libe"t', Deleu?e "e%ains i%&la$abl' !ostile- In s!o"t, t!e"e a"e as %an' Des$a"tes as t!e"e a"e F"en$! &!iloso&!e"s o# t!e &ost(a" &e"iod- A ain, t!is o"i in 'ields a #i"st de#inition o# t!e F"en$! &!iloso&!i$al %o%ent as a $on$e&tual battle a"ound t!e 5uestion o# t!e subDe$t-

Fou" %o+es

Ne)t, t!e identi#i$ation o# intelle$tual o&e"ations $o%%on to all t!ese t!in0e"sI s!all outline #ou" &"o$edu"es (!i$!, to %' %ind, $lea"l' e)e%&li#' a (a' o# doin &!iloso&!' t!at is s&e$i#i$ to t!is %o%ent/ all, in so%e sense, a"e

%et!odolo i$al ones- T!e #i"st %o+e is a 2e"%an one, o" "at!e", a F"en$! %o+e u&on 2e"%an &!iloso&!e"s- All $onte%&o"a"' F"en$! &!iloso&!' is also, in "ealit', a dis$ussion o# t!e 2e"%an !e"ita e- Its #o"%ati+e %o%ents in$lude 6oDE+e=s se%ina"s on He el, attended b' La$an and also in#luential u&on L<+i1 St"auss, and t!e dis$o+e"' o# &!eno%enolo ' in t!e 794;s and >;s, t!"ou ! t!e (o"0s o# Husse"l and Heide e"- Sa"t"e, #o" instan$e, "adi$all' %odi#ied !is &!iloso&!i$al &e"s&e$ti+es a#te" "eadin t!ese aut!o"s in t!e o"i inal du"in !is soDou"n in Be"lin- De""ida %a' be "e a"ded as, #i"st and #o"e%ost, a t!o"ou !l' o"i inal inte"&"ete" o# 2e"%an t!ou !t- Niet?s$!e (as a #unda%ental "e#e"en$e #o" bot! Fou$ault and Deleu?e-

F"en$! &!iloso&!e"s (ent see0in so%et!in in 2e"%an', t!en, t!"ou ! t!e (o"0 o# He el, Niet?s$!e, Husse"l and Heide e"- @!at (as it t!at t!e' sou !tA In a &!"ase* a ne( "elation bet(een $on$e&t and e)isten$e- Be!ind t!e %an' na%es t!is sea"$! ado&ted1de$onst"u$tion, e)istentialis%, !e"%eneuti$s1 lies a $o%%on oal* t!at o# t"ans#o"%in , o" dis&la$in , t!is "elation- T!e e)istential t"ans#o"%ation o# t!ou !t, t!e "elation o# t!ou !t to its li+in subsoil, (as o# $o%&ellin inte"est #o" F"en$! t!in0e"s "a&&lin (it! t!is $ent"al issue o# t!ei" o(n !e"ita e- T!is, t!en, is t!e .2e"%an %o+e., t!e sea"$! #o" ne( (a's o# !andlin t!e "elation o# $on$e&t to e)isten$e b' "e$ou"se to 2e"%an &!iloso&!i$al t"aditions- In t!e &"o$ess o# its t"anslation onto t!e battle "ound o# F"en$! &!iloso&!', %o"eo+e", 2e"%an &!iloso&!' (as t"ans#o"%ed into so%et!in $o%&letel' ne(- T!is #i"st o&e"ation, t!en, is e##e$ti+el' a F"en$! a&&"o&"iation o# 2e"%an &!iloso&!'-

T!e se$ond o&e"ation, no less i%&o"tant, $on$e"ns s$ien$e- F"en$! &!iloso&!e"s sou !t to ("est s$ien$e #"o% t!e e)$lusi+e do%ain o# t!e &!iloso&!' o# 0no(led e b' de%onst"atin t!at, as a %ode o# &"odu$ti+e o" $"eati+e a$ti+it', and not %e"el' an obDe$t o# "e#le$tion o" $o nition, it (ent #a" be'ond t!e "eal% o# 0no(led e- T!e' inte""o ated s$ien$e #o" %odels o# in+ention and t"ans#o"%ation t!at (ould ins$"ibe it as a &"a$ti$e o# $"eati+e t!ou !t, $o%&a"able to a"tisti$ a$ti+it', "at!e" t!an as t!e o" ani?ation o# "e+ealed &!eno%ena- T!is o&e"ation, o# dis&la$in s$ien$e #"o% t!e #ield o# 0no(led e to t!at o# $"eati+it', and ulti%atel' o# b"in in it e+e" $lose" to a"t, #ind its su&"e%e e)&"ession in Deleu?e, (!o e)&lo"es t!e $o%&a"ison bet(een s$ienti#i$ and a"tisti$ $"eation in t!e %ost subtle and inti%ate (a'- But it be ins (ell be#o"e !i%, as one o# t!e $onstituti+e o&e"ations o# F"en$! &!iloso&!'-

T!e t!i"d o&e"ation is a &oliti$al one- T!e &!iloso&!e"s o# t!is &e"iod all sou !t an in1de&t! en a e%ent o# &!iloso&!' (it! t!e 5uestion o# &oliti$s- Sa"t"e, t!e &ost1(a" Be"leau1Pont', Fou$ault, Alt!usse" and Deleu?e (e"e &oliti$al a$ti+ists/ Dust as t!e' !ad one to 2e"%an &!iloso&!' #o" a #"es! a&&"oa$! to $on$e&t and e)isten$e, so t!e' loo0ed to &oliti$s #o" a ne( "elation bet(een $on$e&t and a$tion, in &a"ti$ula", $olle$ti+e a$tion- T!is #unda%ental desi"e to en a e &!iloso&!' (it! t!e &oliti$al situation t"ans#o"%s t!e "elation bet(een $on$e&t and a$tion-

T!e #ou"t! o&e"ation !as to do (it! t!e %ode"ni?ation o# &!iloso&!', in a sense 5uite distin$t #"o% t!e $ant o# su$$essi+e o+e"n%ent ad%inist"ations- F"en$! &!iloso&!e"s e+in$ed a &"o#ound att"a$tion to %ode"nit'- T!e' #ollo(ed $onte%&o"a"' a"tisti$, $ultu"al and so$ial de+elo&%ents +e"' $losel'- T!e"e (as a st"on &!iloso&!i$al inte"est in non1#i u"ati+e &aintin , ne( %usi$ and t!eat"e, dete$ti+e no+els, Da?? and $ine%a, and a desi"e to b"in &!iloso&!' to bea" u&on t!e %ost intense e)&"essions o# t!e %ode"n (o"ld- 6een attention (as also &aid to se)ualit' and ne( %odes o# li+in - In all t!is, &!iloso&!' (as see0in a ne( "elation bet(een t!e $on$e&t and t!e &"odu$tion o# #o"%s1 a"tisti$, so$ial, o" #o"%s o# li#e- Bode"ni?ation (as t!us t!e 5uest #o" a ne( (a' in (!i$! &!iloso&!' $ould a&&"oa$! t!e $"eation o# #o"%s-

In su%* t!e F"en$! &!iloso&!i$al %o%ent en$o%&assed a ne( a&&"o&"iation o# 2e"%an t!ou !t, a +ision o# s$ien$e as $"eati+it', a "adi$al &oliti$al en a e%ent and a sea"$! #o" ne( #o"%s in a"t and li#e- A$"oss t!ese o&e"ations "uns t!e $o%%on atte%&t to #ind a ne( &osition, o" dis&osition, #o" t!e $on$e&t* to dis&la$e t!e "elation bet(een t!e $on$e&t and its e)te"nal en+i"on%ent b' de+elo&in ne( "elations to e)isten$e, to t!ou !t, to a$tion, and to t!e %o+e%ent o# #o"%s- It is t!e no+elt' o# t!is "elation bet(een t!e &!iloso&!i$al $on$e&t and t!e e)te"nal en+i"on%ent t!at $onstitutes t!e b"oade" inno+ation o# t(entiet!1$entu"' F"en$! &!iloso&!'-

@"itin , lan ua e, #o"%s

T!e 5uestion o# #o"%s, and o# t!e inti%ate "elations o# &!iloso&!' (it! t!e $"eation o# #o"%s, (as o# $"u$ial i%&o"tan$e- Clea"l', t!is &osed t!e issue o# t!e #o"% o# &!iloso&!' itsel#* one $ould not dis&la$e t!e $on$e&t (it!out in+entin ne( &!iloso&!i$al #o"%s- It (as t!us ne$essa"' not Dust to $"eate ne( $on$e&ts but to t"ans#o"% t!e lan ua e o# &!iloso&!'- T!is &"o%&ted a sin ula" allian$e bet(een &!iloso&!' and lite"atu"e (!i$! !as been one o# t!e %ost st"i0in $!a"a$te"isti$s o# $onte%&o"a"' F"en$! &!iloso&!'- T!e"e is, o# $ou"se, a lon e" !isto"' to t!is- T!e (o"0s o# t!ose 0no(n to t!e 78t! $entu"' as &!iloso&!es 1 Voltai"e, Rousseau o" Dide"ot 1 a"e $lassi$s o# F"en$! lite"atu"e/ t!ese ("ite"s a"e in a sense t!e an$esto"s o# t!e &ost(a" allian$e- T!e"e a"e nu%e"ous F"en$! aut!o"s (!o $annot be allo$ated e)$lusi+el' eit!e" to &!iloso&!' o" to lite"atu"e/ Pas$al, #o" e)a%&le, is bot! one o# t!e "eatest #i u"es in F"en$! lite"atu"e and one o# t!e %ost &"o#ound F"en$! t!in0e"s- In t!e :;t! $entu"' Alain, to all intents and &u"&oses a $lassi$al &!iloso&!e" and no &a"t o# t!e %o%ent t!at $on$e"ns us !e"e, (as $losel' in+ol+ed in lite"atu"e/ t!e &"o$ess o# ("itin (as +e"' i%&o"tant to !i%, and !e &"odu$ed nu%e"ous $o%%enta"ies on no+els1!is te)ts on Bal?a$ a"e e)t"e%el' inte"estin 1and on $onte%&o"a"' F"en$! &oet"', Val<"' in &a"ti$ula"- In ot!e" (o"ds, e+en t!e %o"e $on+entional #i u"es o# t(entiet!1$entu"' F"en$! &!iloso&!' $an illust"ate t!is a##init' bet(een &!iloso&!' and lite"atu"e-

T!e su""ealists also &la'ed an i%&o"tant "ole- T!e' too (e"e ea e" to s!a0e u& "elations "e a"din t!e &"odu$tion o# #o"%s, %ode"nit', t!e a"ts/ t!e' (anted to in+ent ne( %odes o# li#e- I# t!ei"s (as la" el' an aest!eti$ &"o "a%%e, it &a+ed t!e (a' #o" t!e &!iloso&!i$al &"o "a%%e o# t!e 793;s and F;s/ bot! La$an and L<+i1St"auss #"e5uented su""ealist $i"$les, #o" e)a%&le- T!is is a $o%&le) !isto"', but i# t!e su""ealists (e"e t!e #i"st "e&"esentati+es o# a :;t!1$entu"' $on+e" en$e bet(een aest!eti$ and &!iloso&!i$al &"oDe$ts in F"an$e, b' t!e 793;s and F;s it (as &!iloso&!' t!at (as in+entin its o(n lite"a"' #o"%s in an atte%&t to #ind a di"e$t e)&"essi+e lin0 bet(een &!iloso&!i$al st'le and &"esentation, and t!e ne( &ositionin #o" t!e $on$e&t t!at it &"o&osed-

It is at t!is sta e t!at (e (itness a s&e$ta$ula" $!an e in &!iloso&!i$al ("itin Fo"t' 'ea"s on (e !a+e, &e"!a&s, "o(n a$$usto%ed to t!e ("itin o# Deleu?e, Fou$ault, La$an/ (e !a+e lost t!e sense o# (!at an e)t"ao"dina"' "u&tu"e (it! ea"lie" &!iloso&!i$al st'les it "e&"esented- All t!ese t!in0e"s (e"e bent u&on #indin a st'le o# t!ei" o(n, in+entin a ne( (a' o# $"eatin &"ose/ t!e' (anted to be ("ite"s- Readin Deleu?e o" Fou$ault, one #inds so%et!in 5uite

un&"e$edented at t!e le+el o# t!e senten$e, a lin0 bet(een t!ou !t and &!"asal %o+e%ent t!at is $o%&letel' o"i inal- T!e"e is a ne(, a##i"%ati+e "!'t!% and an astonis!in in+enti+eness in t!e #o"%ulations- In De""ida t!e"e is a &atient, $o%&li$ated "elations!i& o# lan ua e to lan ua e, as lan ua e (o"0s u&on itsel# and t!ou !t &asses t!"ou ! t!at (o"0 into (o"ds- In La$an one ("estles (it! a da??lin l' $o%&le) s'nta) (!i$! "ese%bles not!in so %u$! as t!e s'nta) o# Balla"%<, and is t!e"e#o"e &oeti$ 1 $on#essedl' so-

T!e"e (as, t!en, bot! a t"ans#o"%ation o# &!iloso&!i$al e)&"ession and an e##o"t to s!i#t t!e #"ontie"s bet(een &!iloso&!' and lite"atu"e- @e s!ould "e$all1 anot!e" inno+ation1t!at Sa"t"e (as also a no+elist and &la'("i !t Gas a% IH- T!e s&e$i#i$it' o# t!is %o%ent in F"en$! &!iloso&!' is to &la' u&on se+e"al di##e"ent "e iste"s in lan ua e, dis&la$in t!e bo"de"s bet(een &!iloso&!' and lite"atu"e, bet(een &!iloso&!' and d"a%a- One $ould e+en sa' t!at one o# t!e oals o# F"en$! &!iloso&!' !as been to $onst"u$t a ne( s&a$e #"o% (!i$! to ("ite, one (!e"e lite"atu"e and &!iloso&!' (ould be indistin uis!able/ a do%ain (!i$! (ould be neit!e" s&e$iali?ed &!iloso&!', no" lite"atu"e as su$!, but "at!e" t!e !o%e o# a so"t o# ("itin in (!i$! it (as no lon e" &ossible to disentan le &!iloso&!' #"o% lite"atu"e- A s&a$e, in ot!e" (o"ds, (!e"e t!e"e is no lon e" a #o"%al di##e"entiation bet(een $on$e&t and li#e, #o" t!e in+ention o# t!is ("itin ulti%atel' $onsists in i+in a ne( li#e to t!e $on$e&t* a lite"a"' li#e-

@it! and a ainst F"eud

At sta0e, #inall', in t!is in+ention o# a ne( ("itin , is t!e enun$iation o# t!e ne( subDe$t/ o# t!e $"eation o# t!is #i u"e (it!in &!iloso&!', and t!e "est"u$tu"in o# t!e battle#ield a"ound it- Fo" t!is $an no lon e" be t!e "ational, $ons$ious subDe$t t!at $o%es do(n to us #"o% Des$a"tes/ it $annot be, to use a %o"e te$!ni$al e)&"ession, t!e "e#le)i+e subDe$t- T!e $onte%&o"a"' !u%an subDe$t !as to be so%et!in %u"0ie", %o"e %in led in li#e and t!e bod', %o"e e)tensi+e t!an t!e Ca"tesian %odel/ %o"e a0in to a &"o$ess o# &"odu$tion, o" $"eation, t!at $on$ent"ates %u$! "eate" &otential #o"$es inside itsel#- @!et!e" o" not it ta0es t!e na%e o# subDe$t, t!is is (!at F"en$! &!iloso&!' !as been t"'in to #ind, to enun$iate, to t!in0- I# &s'$!oanal'sis !as been an inte"lo$uto", it is be$ause t!e F"eudian in+ention (as also, in essen$e, a ne( &"o&osition about t!e subDe$t- Fo" (!at F"eud int"odu$ed (it! t!e idea o# t!e un$ons$ious

(as t!e notion o# a !u%an subDe$t t!at is "eate" t!an $ons$iousness1(!i$! $ontains $ons$iousness, but is not "est"i$ted to it/ su$! is t!e #unda%ental si ni#i$ation o# t!e (o"d .un$ons$ious.-

Conte%&o"a"' F"en$! &!iloso&!' !as t!e"e#o"e also been en a ed in a lon 1 "unnin $on+e"sation (it! &s'$!oanal'sis- T!is e)$!an e !as been a d"a%a o# "eat $o%&le)it', !i !l' "e+ealin in and o# itsel#- At issue, %ost #unda%entall', !as been t!e di+ision o# F"en$! &!iloso&!' bet(een, on one side, (!at I (ould $all an e)istential +italis%, o"i inatin (it! Be" son and "unnin t!"ou ! Sa"t"e, Fou$ault and Deleu?e, and on t!e ot!e" a $on$e&tual #o"%alis%, de"i+ed #"o% B"uns$!+i$ and $ontinuin t!"ou ! Alt!usse" and La$an- @!e"e t!e t(o &at!s $"oss is on t!e 5uestion o# t!e subDe$t, (!i$! %i !t ulti%atel' be de#ined, in te"%s o# F"en$! &!iloso&!', as t!e bein t!at b"in s #o"t! t!e $on$e&t- In a $e"tain sense t!e F"eudian un$ons$ious o$$u&ies t!e sa%e s&a$e/ t!e un$ons$ious, too, is so%et!in +ital o" e)istin 'et (!i$! &"odu$es, (!i$! bea"s #o"t!, t!e $on$e&t- Ho( $an an e)isten$e bea" #o"t! a $on$e&t, !o( $an so%et!in be $"eated out o# a bod'A I# t!is is t!e $ent"al 5uestion, (e $an see (!' &!iloso&!' is d"a(n into su$! intense e)$!an es (it! &s'$!oanal'sis- Natu"all', t!e"e is al(a's a $e"tain #"i$tion (!e"e $o%%on ai%s a"e &u"sued b' di##e"ent %eans- T!e"e is an ele%ent o# $o%&li$it' 1 'ou a"e doin t!e sa%e as I a% 1 but also o# "i+al"'* 'ou a"e doin it di##e"entl'- T!e "elation bet(een &!iloso&!' and &s'$!oanal'sis (it!in F"en$! &!iloso&!' is Dust t!is, one o# $o%&etition and $o%&li$it', o# #as$ination and !ostilit', lo+e and !at"ed- No (onde" t!e d"a%a bet(een t!e% !as been so +iolent, so $o%&le)-

T!"ee 0e' te)ts %a' i+e us an idea o# it- T!e #i"st, &e"!a&s t!e $lea"est e)a%&le o# t!is $o%&li$it' and $o%&etition, $o%es #"o% t!e be innin o# Ba$!ela"d=s (o"0 o# 7948, La &s'$!anal'se du #eu- Ba$!ela"d &"o&oses a ne( &s'$!oanal'sis "ounded in &oet"' and d"ea%, a &s'$!oanal'sis o# t!e ele%ents1#i"e, (ate", ai" and ea"t!- One $ould sa' t!at Ba$!ela"d is !e"e t"'in to "e&la$e F"eudian se)ual in!ibition (it! "e+e"ie, to de%onst"ate t!at t!is is t!e la" e" and %o"e o&en $ate o"'- T!e se$ond te)t $o%es #"o% t!e end o# Bein and Not!in ness (!e"e Sa"t"e, in !is tu"n, &"o&oses t!e $"eation o# a ne( &s'$!oanal'sis, $ont"astin F"eud=s =e%&i"i$al= &s'$!oanal'sis (it! !is o(n Gb' i%&li$ationH &"o&e"l' t!eo"eti$al e)istential %odel- Sa"t"e see0s to "e&la$e t!e F"eudian $o%&le)1t!e st"u$tu"e o# t!e un$ons$ious1(it! (!at !e te"%s t!e =o"i inal $!oi$e=- Fo" !i% (!at de#ines t!e subDe$t is not a st"u$tu"e, neu"oti$ o"

&e"+e"se, but a #unda%ental &"oDe$t o# e)isten$e- A ain, an e)e%&la"' instan$e o# $o%&li$it' and "i+al"' $o%bined-

T!e t!i"d te)t $o%es #"o% C!a&te" > o# Anti1Oedi&us b' Deleu?e and 2uatta"iHe"e, &s'$!oanal'sis is to be "e&la$ed b' a %et!od t!at Deleu?e $alls s$!i?oanal'sis, in out"i !t $o%&etition (it! F"eudian anal'sis- Fo" Ba$!ela"d, it (as "e+e"ie "at!e" t!an in!ibition/ #o" Sa"t"e, t!e &"oDe$t "at!e" t!an t!e $o%&le)- Fo" Deleu?e, as Anti1Oedi&us %a0es $lea", it is $onst"u$tion "at!e" t!an e)&"ession/ !is $!ie# obDe$tion to &s'$!oanal'sis is t!at it does no %o"e t!an e)&"ess t!e #o"$es o# t!e un$ons$ious, (!en it ou !t to $onst"u$t it- He $alls e)&li$itl' #o" t!e "e&la$e%ent o# .F"eudian e)&"ession. (it! t!e $onst"u$tion t!at is t!e (o"0 o# s$!i?oanal'sis- It is st"i0in , to sa' t!e least, to #ind t!"ee "eat &!iloso&!e"s, Ba$!ela"d, Sa"t"e and Deleu?e, ea$! &"o&osin to "e&la$e &s'$!oanal'sis (it! a %odel o# t!ei" o(n-

Pat! o# "eatness

Finall', a &!iloso&!i$al %o%ent de#ines itsel# b' its &"o "a%%e o# t!ou !t@!at %i !t (e de#ine as t!e $o%%on "ound o# &ost(a" F"en$! &!iloso&!' in te"%s, not o# its (o"0s o" s'ste% o" e+en its $on$e&ts, but o# its intelle$tual &"o "a%%eA T!e &!iloso&!e"s in+ol+ed a"e, o# $ou"se, +e"' di##e"ent #i u"es, and (ould a&&"oa$! su$! a &"o "a%%e in di##e"ent (a's- Ne+e"t!eless, (!e"e 'ou !a+e a %aDo" 5uestion, Dointl' a$0no(led ed, t!e"e 'ou !a+e a &!iloso&!i$al %o%ent, (o"0ed out t!"ou ! a b"oad di+e"sit' o# %eans, te)ts and t!in0e"s- @e %a' su%%a"i?e t!e %ain &oints o# t!e &"o "a%%e t!at ins&i"ed &ost(a" F"en$! &!iloso&!' as #ollo(s-

7- To !a+e done (it! t!e se&a"ation o# $on$e&t and e)isten$e1no lon e" to o&&ose t!e t(o/ to de%onst"ate t!at t!e $on$e&t is a li+in t!in , a $"eation, a &"o$ess, an e+ent, and, as su$!, not di+o"$ed #"o% e)isten$e/

:- To ins$"ibe &!iloso&!' (it!in %ode"nit', (!i$! also %eans ta0in it out o# t!e a$ade%' and &uttin it into $i"$ulation in dail' li#e- Se)ual %ode"nit', a"tisti$ %ode"nit', so$ial %ode"nit'* &!iloso&!' !as to en a e (it! all o# t!is/

4- To abandon t!e o&&osition bet(een &!iloso&!' o# 0no(led e and &!iloso&!' o# a$tion, t!e 6antian di+ision bet(een t!eo"eti$al and &"a$ti$al "eason, and to de%onst"ate t!at 0no(led e itsel#, e+en s$ienti#i$ 0no(led e, is a$tuall' a &"a$ti$e/

>- To situate &!iloso&!' di"e$tl' (it!in t!e &oliti$al a"ena, (it!out %a0in t!e detou" +ia &oliti$al &!iloso&!'/ to in+ent (!at I (ould $all t!e =&!iloso&!i$al %ilitant=, to %a0e &!iloso&!' into a %ilitant &"a$ti$e in its &"esen$e, in its (a' o# bein * not si%&l' a "e#le$tion u&on &oliti$s, but a "eal &oliti$al inte"+ention/

3- To "e&"ise t!e 5uestion o# t!e subDe$t, abandonin t!e "e#le)i+e %odel, and t!us to en a e (it! &s'$!oanal'sis1to "i+al and, i# &ossible, to bette" it/

F- To $"eate a ne( st'le o# &!iloso&!i$al e)&osition, and so to $o%&ete (it! lite"atu"e/ essentiall', to "ein+ent in $onte%&o"a"' te"%s t!e 78t!1$entu"' #i u"e o# t!e &!iloso&!e"1("ite"-

Su$! is t!e F"en$! &!iloso&!i$al %o%ent, its &"o "a%%e, its !i ! a%bition- To identi#' it #u"t!e", its one essential desi"e 1 #o" e+e"' identit' is t!e identit' o# a desi"e 1 (as to tu"n &!iloso&!' into an a$ti+e #o"% o# ("itin t!at (ould be t!e %ediu% #o" t!e ne( subDe$t- And b' t!e sa%e to0en, to banis! t!e %editati+e o" &"o#esso"ial i%a e o# t!e &!iloso&!e"/ to %a0e t!e &!iloso&!e" so%et!in ot!e" t!an a sa e, and so ot!e" t!an a "i+al to t!e &"iest- Rat!e", t!e &!iloso&!e" as&i"ed to be$o%e a ("ite"1$o%batant, an a"tist o# t!e subDe$t, a lo+e" o# in+ention, a &!iloso&!i$al %ilitant1t!ese a"e t!e na%es #o" t!e desi"e t!at "uns t!"ou ! t!is &e"iod* t!e desi"e t!at &!iloso&!' s!ould a$t in its o(n na%e- I a% "e%inded o# t!e &!"ase Bal"au) att"ibuted to de 2aulle in Les $!nes 5u=on abat* =2"eatness is a "oad to(a"d so%et!in t!at one does not 0no(=- Funda%entall', t!e F"en$! &!iloso&!i$al %o%ent o# t!e se$ond !al# o# t!e :;t! $entu"' (as &"o&osin t!at &!iloso&!' s!ould &"e#e" t!at "oad to t!e oals it 0ne(, t!at it s!ould $!oose &!iloso&!i$al a$tion o" inte"+ention o+e" (isdo% and %editation- It is as &!iloso&!' (it!out (isdo% t!at it is $onde%ned toda'-

But t!e F"en$! &!iloso&!i$al %o%ent (as %o"e inte"ested in "eatness t!an in !a&&iness- @e (anted so%et!in 5uite unusual, and ad%ittedl' &"oble%ati$* ou" desi"e (as to be ad+entu"e"s o# t!e $on$e&t- @e (e"e not see0in a $lea" se&a"ation bet(een li#e and $on$e&t, no" t!e subo"dination o# e)isten$e to t!e idea o" t!e no"%- Instead, (e (anted t!e $on$e&t itsel# to be a Dou"ne' (!ose destination (e did not ne$essa"il' 0no(- T!e e&o$! o# ad+entu"e is, un#o"tunatel', ene"all' #ollo(ed b' an e&o$! o# o"de"- T!is %a' be unde"standable1t!e"e (as a &i"ati$al side to t!is &!iloso&!', o" a no%adi$ one, as Deleu?e (ould sa'- Yet =ad+entu"e"s o# t!e $on$e&t= %i !t be a #o"%ula t!at $ould unite us all/ and t!us I (ould a" ue t!at (!at too0 &la$e in late :;t!1 $entu"' F"an$e (as ulti%atel' a %o%ent o# &!iloso&!i$al ad+entu"e-

&ublis!ed in Ne( Le#t Re+ie( 43, Se&te%be"1O$tobe" :;;3-