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# CONTENTS

TITLE............................................................................................................................................ 2
1.0 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 2
2.0 OBJECTIVE .............................................................................................................................. 2
3.0 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND .................................................................................................. 3
4.0 SET OF APPARATUS ................................................................................................................ 5
5.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES ................................................................................................. 7
6.0 DATA AND RESULT ................................................................................................................. 8
Test 1 (Smooth Plate) ............................................................................................................... 8
Test 2 ( Smooth Plate) .............................................................................................................. 9
Test 3 ( Rough Plate) .............................................................................................................. 10
Test 4 ( Rough Plate) .............................................................................................................. 11
7.0 DATA ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................... 12
Test 1 ..................................................................................................................................... 12
Test 2 ..................................................................................................................................... 13
Test 3 ..................................................................................................................................... 14
Test 4 ..................................................................................................................................... 15
8.0 SAMPLE OF CALCULATION .................................................................................................... 17
9.0 & 10.0 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION.................................................................................. 18
11.0 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 19
12.0 APPENDICES ....................................................................................................................... 20

TITLE
Flat plate boundary layer

1.0 INTRODUCTION
When a viscous fluid flows along a fixed impermeable wall, or past the rigid surface
of an immersed body, an essential condition is that the velocity at any point on the wall or
other fixed surface is zero. The extent to which this condition modifies the general character
of the flow depends upon the value of the viscosity. If the body is of streamlined shape and
if the viscosity is small without being negligible, the modifying effect appears to be confined
within narrow regions adjacent to the solid surfaces; these are called boundary layers.
Within such layers the fluid velocity changes rapidly from zero to its main-stream value, and
this may imply a steep gradient of shearing stress; as a consequence, not all the viscous
terms in the equation of motion will be negligible, even though the viscosity, which they
contain as a factor, is itself very small. A more precise criterion for the existence of a welldefined laminar boundary layer is that the Reynolds number should be large, though not so
large as to imply a breakdown of the laminar flow.

2.0 OBJECTIVE
There are 3 main objectives are:
1. To measured the boundary layer velocity layer and observed the growth of the
boundary layer for the flat plate with smooth and rough surface.
2. To measured the boundary layer properties for the measured velocity profile.
3. To studied the effect of surface roughness on the development of the boundary
layer.

## 3.0 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

A boundary layer is that layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface,
where viscous effects are important. In the Earth's atmosphere, the planetary boundary
layer is the air layer near the ground affected by diurnal heat, moisture or momentum
transfer to or from the surface. On an aircraft wing the boundary layer is the part of the flow
close to the wing. The boundary layer effect occurs at the field region in which all changes
occur in the flow pattern. The boundary layer distorts surrounding non-viscous flow. It is a
phenomenon of viscous forces. This effect is related to the Reynolds number.

The boundary layer thickness, d, is defined as the distance required for the flow to
nearly reach Ue. We might take an arbitrary number (say 99%) to define what we mean by
"nearly", but certain other definitions are used most frequently. The displacement thickness
and momentum thickness are alternative measures of boundary layer thickness and are
used in the calculation of various boundary layer properties.
The boundary layer thickness is the distance from the surface to the point where
the velocity is within 1% of the free stream velocity.
The displacement thickness *, is the distance by which the solid boundary would
Have to be displaced in a frictionless flow the same mass deficit exists in the boundary layer.
The momentum thickness , is defined as the thickness of the layer fluid of velocity,
U (free stream velocity), for which the momentum flux is equal to the deficit of momentum
3

flux through the boundary layer. The Blasiuss exact solution to the laminar boundary layer
yields the following equations for the above properties.

5.0 x

1.72 x

Re x
Re x

0.664 x

Re x

Due to the complexity of the flow, there is no exact solution to the turbulent
boundary layer. The velocity profile within the boundary layer is commonly approximated
using the 1/7 power law.
1

u y 7

U

The properties of the boundary layer are approximated using the momentum
integral equation which results in the following expression.

0.370 x
(Re x )

1
5

0.0463 x
(Re x )

1
5

0.036 x
(Re x )

1
5

Another measured of the boundary layer is the shape factor, H, which is the ratio
displacement thickness to the momentum thickness, H=*/. For laminar flow, H increase
from 2.6 to 3.5 at separation. For turbulent boundary layer, H increase from 1.3 to
approximately 2.5 at separation.

## 4.0 SET OF APPARATUS

1) Airflow bench

Figure 3: Airflow bench where the reading of Pitot tube & static tube pressure will be taken
from

2) Test Apparatus

Figure 4: flat plat where there are two condition of it that is smooth surface & rough surface

3) Micrometer

## Figure 5: Micrometer, where the value will be adjusted at interval of 0.25 mm

4) Velocity Measurement

## 5.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

The experiment were carried out by the following procedures:
1) The apparatus has been setup on the bench. Smooth surface of the plate was used
for the first part of the experiment.
2) The position of the central plate was adjusted to set the measurement plate at the
required distance from leading edge which is 50 mm.
3) The fan and the air flow speeds were switched on to set the air stream velocity at
medium speed. The total pressure of the pitot tube was read for a range of several
points as the tube traverse toward the plate at an interval of 0.25 mm.
4) As the pressure began to fall, the increment of the advanced should be reduced so
as to clearly defined the velocity profile. The pressure reading would not fall to zero
as the pitot tube had a finite thickness. A further indication that the wall has been
reach was that the pressure reading would be zero.
5) Step 2 to step 4 were repeated for setup of measurement plane at 200 mm.
6) The entire experiment was repeated for the rough surface plate.

## 6.0 DATA AND RESULT

Test 1 (Smooth Plate)
Distance From Leading edge, x = 0.05 m
Static
Micrometer
pressure
manometer
(mm)
( mBar)
0.00
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.75
3.00
3.25
3.50
3.75
4.00
4.25
4.50
4.75

7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20

Pitot tube
pressure
manometer
(mBar)
9.20
9.20
9.20
9.20
9.20
9.20
9.20
9.20
9.20
9.20
9.20
9.20
9.20
9.40
9.40
9.40
9.40
9.40
9.40
9.40

Differential Differential
manometer manometer
height
height h
(mBar)
(mm)
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20

## Free Stream Velocity U, (m/s) = 19.1591

Reynolds Number, Ux/ = 63198.849

25.60
25.60
25.60
25.60
25.60
25.60
25.60
25.60
25.60
25.60
25.60
25.60
25.60
28.16
28.16
28.16
28.16
28.16
28.16
28.16

u/U

18.08
18.08
18.08
18.08
18.08
18.08
18.08
18.08
18.08
18.08
18.08
18.08
18.08
18.97
18.97
18.97
18.97
18.97
18.97
18.97

0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.94
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99

0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

## Test 2 ( Smooth Plate)

Distance From Leading Edge, x = 0.2 m
Static
Pitot tube
Micrometer
pressure
pressure
manometer manometer
(mm)
( mBar)
(mBar)
0.00
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.75
3.00
3.25

7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20
7.20

9.20
9.20
10.00
10.00
10.00
10.20
10.20
10.20
10.20
10.20
10.20
10.20
10.20
10.20

Differential
manometer
height
(mBar)

Differential
manometer
height h
(mm)

u/U

2.00
2.00
2.80
2.80
2.80
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00
3.00

25.60
25.60
35.84
35.84
35.84
38.40
38.40
38.40
38.40
38.40
38.40
38.40
38.40
38.40

18.08
18.08
21.40
21.40
21.40
22.15
22.15
22.15
22.15
22.15
22.15
22.15
22.15
22.15

0.81
0.81
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99

## Free Stream Velocity U, (m/s) = 22.3734

Reynolds Number, Ux/ = 295201.3373

0.15
0.15
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

## Test 3 ( Rough Plate)

Distance From Leading Edge, x = 0.05 m
Static
Pitot tube Differential Differential
Micrometer
pressure
pressure
manometer manometer
manometer manometer
height
height h
(mm)
( mBar)
(mBar)
(mBar)
(mm)
0.00
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.75
3.00
3.25
3.50
3.75
4.00
4.25
4.50
4.75
5.00
5.25
5.50
5.75
6.00
6.25
6.50
6.75
7.00
7.25

7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40
7.40

10.00
10.00
9.80
9.80
9.80
9.80
9.80
9.80
9.80
9.60
9.80
9.80
9.20
9.20
9.20
9.80
9.80
9.00
9.00
9.60
9.00
9.00
9.00
9.40
9.40
9.40
9.40
9.40
9.40
9.40

2.60
2.60
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.20
2.40
2.40
1.80
1.80
1.80
2.40
2.40
1.60
1.60
2.20
1.60
1.60
1.60
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00

## Free Stream Velocity U, (m/s) = 20.8282

Reynolds Number, Ux/ = 68704.3723

10

33.28
33.28
30.72
30.72
30.72
30.72
30.72
30.72
30.72
28.16
30.72
30.72
23.04
23.04
23.04
30.72
30.72
20.48
20.48
28.16
20.48
20.48
20.48
25.60
25.60
25.60
25.60
25.60
25.60
25.60

u/U

20.62
20.62
19.81
19.81
19.81
19.81
19.81
19.81
19.81
18.97
19.81
19.81
17.16
17.16
17.16
19.81
19.81
16.18
16.18
18.97
16.18
16.18
16.18
18.08
18.08
18.08
18.08
18.08
18.08
18.08

0.99
0.99
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.91
0.95
0.95
0.82
0.82
0.82
0.95
0.95
0.78
0.78
0.91
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.87

0.01
0.01
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.08
0.05
0.05
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.05
0.05
0.17
0.17
0.08
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11
0.11

## Test 4 ( Rough Plate)

Distance From Leading Edge, x = 0.2 m
Static
Pitot tube Differential
Micrometer
pressure
pressure
manometer
manometer manometer
height
(mm)
( mBar)
(mBar)
(mBar)
0.00
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.75
3.00
3.25

7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00

8.80
9.00
9.00
9.40
9.60
9.60
9.40
9.40
9.40
9.40
9.40
9.40
9.40
9.40

1.80
2.00
2.00
2.40
2.60
2.60
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40

## Free Stream Velocity U, (m/s) = 20.8222

Reynolds Number, Ux/ = 274737.5223

11

Differential
manometer
height h
(mm)

u/U

23.04
25.60
25.60
30.72
33.28
33.28
30.72
30.72
30.72
30.72
30.72
30.72
30.72
30.72

17.16
18.08
18.08
19.81
20.62
20.62
19.81
19.81
19.81
19.81
19.81
19.81
19.81
19.81

0.82
0.87
0.87
0.95
0.99
0.99
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95
0.95

0.15
0.11
0.11
0.05
0.01
0.01
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05

## 7.0 DATA ANALYSIS

Test 1

Height , mm

Height vs u/U
5.000
4.500
4.000
3.500
3.000
2.500
2.000
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
0.93

0.94

0.95

0.96

0.97

0.98

0.99

u/U

Figure 1

Height ,mm

Height vs (u/U)(1-(u/U))
5.000
4.500
4.000
3.500
3.000
2.500
2.000
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
0

0.01

0.02

0.03
(u/U)(1-(u/U))

Figure 2

12

0.04

0.05

0.06

Test 2

Height vs u/U
3.5

Height , mm

3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

u/U

Figure 3

Height vs (u/U)(1/(u/U))
3.5

Height,mm

3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0

0.05

0.1
(u/U)(1-(u/U))

Figure 4

13

0.15

0.2

Test 3

Height vs u/U
8
7
Height, mm

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

u/U

Figure 5

Height vs (u/U)(1-(u/U))
8
7
Height,mm

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

0.05

0.1
(u/U)(1-(u/U))

Figure 6

14

0.15

0.2

Test 4

Height vs u/U
3.5

Height ,mm

3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

u/U

Figure 7

Height vs (u/U)(1-(u/U))
3.5

Height, mm

3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.000

0.020

0.040

0.060

0.080

0.100

(u/U)(1-(u/U))

Figure 8

15

0.120

0.140

0.160

Boundary

Displacement

Momentum thickness,

thickness,

thickness, *

Test 1 theoretical

3.14

3.4209

0.1320637

Test 1 experimental

3.25

3.25

3.2175

6.33139

6.33

2.44

Test 2 experimental

1.25

1.25

1.2375

Test 3 theoretical

1.99

2.5

1.94

Test 3 experimental

5.75

5.75

5.6925

Test 4 theoretical

6.05

7.57

5.88

Test 4 experimental

1.5

1.5

1.485

Test 2 theoretical

16

## 8.0 SAMPLE OF CALCULATION

oil = 784
air = 1.204
gravity , g = 9.81
5 mBar = 64 mm
Free stream velocity,U (m/s) = The highest value of u / 0.99
Test 1
Reynolds number

=
=
= 63198.83

## = pitot pressure manometer - static pressure manometer

= p2 p1
= 9.2 7.2
= 2 mBar
= 2 mbar 12.8 mm
= 25.6 mm

Velocity , u

=
=
= 18.08482339 m/s

=
=
= 19.15911393

u/U

=
= 0.944

u/U (1 u/U)

= 0.944 (1 0.944)
= 0.05

17

## 9.0 & 10.0 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

18

11.0 REFERENCES
There are several resources that we used in order to complete this report:
1. P.M Gerhart, R.J. Gross and J.I. Hochstein, Fundamentals of fluid Mechanics, 2 nd
Edition, 1992.
2. F.M White, Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill, 4th Edition, 1999.
Fundamental of Fluid Mechanics, B.r. Munson, D.F. Young and T.H. Okiishi, John Wiley and
Sons, 3rd Edition, 1998

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12.0 APPENDICES

20