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Mangoes are very abundant in the Philippines. Green mango or ripe mango can be made into something unique recipes that people will love. Making Green Mango nectar and Mango puree is a viable business for anyone. Starting a green mango nectar and mango puree business is a good idea to start because many are becoming health conscious and mango is a very delicious fruit that Filipinos loved to eat in different ways. Green Mango Nectar Recipe Ingredients: 1 kg green mango 2 cups refined sugar 1.5 g ascorbic acid per liter of mixture 0.3 g sodium benzoate per liter of mixture Materials: Weighing scale Knife Blender Measuring cup Sterile bottles Thermometer Procedures:

Stainless steel peeler Stainless steel mixing ladle Sterilized jars Blender or food processor Thermometer Procedures: 1. Wash mangoes thoroughly. Peel using the stainless steel peeler. 2. Scrape the pulp and homogenize in a blender to a smooth puree. 3. Heat the puree in a stainless steel stock pot with constant stirring. 4. Add citric acid and continue stirring. 5. Pack the puree in bottles while hot and process in water bath for 30 minutes. 6. Air cool and store. Source: Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI) National Mango Research and Development Center (NMRDC) San Miguel, Jordan, Guimaras

Mango Puree
Ingredients: 10 kgs firm ripe mangoes 25 g citric acid Materials:

1. Select and weigh sound mature green mangoes. 2. Pare. Slice into small pieces. 3. Pass through a blender adding 1/2 cup water for every sliced mango. 4. Prepare syrup by boiling one cup sugar and one cup water. 5. For every cup of mango puree, add 1/2 cup syrup. 6. Add ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate (optional) to the mixture and mix well. o 7. Heat for 1 to 2 minutes at 75-80 C. 8. Pour in dry sterile preserving bottles. Remove air bubbles. Cover tightly. o 9. Pasteurize for 15 minutes at 83 C. 10. Check for air tightness. 11. Label and store in a cool dry place. Direction for use: For every cup of mango nectar, add 1-1/2 cups cold water. Mango Puree Recipe Ingredients: 10 kgs firm ripe mangoes 25 g citric acid Materials: Stainless steel knife Stainless steel stock pot Chopping board

Stainless steel knife Stainless steel stock pot Chopping board Stainless steel peeler Stainless steel mixing ladle Sterilized jars Blender or food processor Thermometer Procedures: 1. Wash mangoes thoroughly. Peel using the stainless steel peeler. 2. Scrape the pulp and homogenize in a blender to a smooth perre. 3. Heat the puree in a stainless steel stock pot with constant stirring. 4. Add citric acid and continue stirring. 5. Pack the puree in bottles while hot and process in water bath for 30 minutes. 6. Air cool and store.

Pastillas de Mangga Ingredients 2 cups mango puree cup flour cup refined sugar cup powdered skim milk

Procedure Sift together powdered skim milk, all purpose flour, and refined sugar. Mix well with mango puree. Cook mixture over moderate fire with constant stirring until mixture no longer sticks to the cooking pan. Remove mixture from pan and form into a cooky sheet. Let stand until cool and slightly stiff. Cut into strips and roll in sugar. Wrap in cellophane paper lined with wax paper. Frozen Mangoes Ingredients Ripe mangoes Refined sugar Ascorbic acid or calamansi juice Procedure Proportion of ingredients must be five parts fruit to one part sugar. Wash mangoes to remove surface dirt. Slice and scoop out flesh. Gently mix mangoes and sugar with 0.1 percent ascorbic acid or calamansi juice (1tsp juice for every 2 cups of sugar). Pack in polyethylene bags, seal, and freeze. Mango Syrup Concentrate for Juice Preparation Ingredients

Procedure Select firm ripe mangoes free from bruises and blemishes. Wash mangoes to remove surface dirt, slice into halves, scoop out flesh with a stainless steel, and place in sterilized jars. Prepare medium syrup 35 degree Brix (approximate 1 cup sugar for every 2 cups of water). If desired, use 50-degree Brix syrup (1-cup sugar for a cup of water). Boil and add calcium chloride (1/4 teaspoon per 4 cups syrup) and citric acid (1/8 teaspoon per 4 cups syrup). Pour hot syrup into jars leaving a inch headspace. Exhaust by heating the filled jar over a steamer until the internal pressure seals cap jars tightly. Process in boiling water for 25 minutes. Cool, label, and store.

Mango Chutney Ingredients 4 cups sliced green mangoes (Carabao or Pico variety) 1 piece of ginger root 1 clove garlic 8 pcs native onions 2 pcs hot pepper 1 small box raisins 2 cups vinegar 3 cups brown sugar 4 tbsp coarse salt Procedure

4-5 medium-sized ripe mangoes or 2 cups of mango flesh cup refined sugar teaspoon citric acid Procedure Wash mangoes to remove surface dirt. Slice and scoop out flesh from slices with a stainless steel spoon. Separate the flesh from the seed using the blunt end of the knife. Be careful not to include the fibers. Macerate the flesh in a blender to obtain a smooth puree. Add sugar equivalent to one-fifth of the puree. Adjust the flavor by adding citric acid. Pasteurize until temperature reaches 82 degree C (180 degree F). Pour the mixture into cans or glass jars, leaving a 6-cm headspace. Seal immediately. Cool, label, and store.

Salts sliced green mangoes and allow to stand overnight, then drain. Boil vinegar and sugar. Add spices. Simmer until thick. Add the sliced mangoes and continue cooking until transparent. Pack in sterilized jars. Cool and store.

Commercial Processing of Mangoes

Essentially a prime table fruit, mango pulp is perfectly suited for conversion to juices, nectars, drinks, jams, fruit cheese or to be had by itself or with cream as a superb dessert. It can also be

Mango Halves in Syrup Ingredients Firm ripe mangoes Refined sugar Calcium chloride Citric acid

used in puddings, bakery fillings, and fruit meals for children, flavours for food industry, and also to make the most delicious ice cream and yoghurt. While the raw fruits are utilized for products like chutney, pickle, amchoor (mango powder), green mango beverage, etc. ripe ones

are used in making pulp, juice, nectar, squash, leather, slices, etc. Major export products include dried and preserved vegetables, mango and other fruit pulp, jams, fruit jellies, canned fruits and vegetables, dehydrated vegetables, frozen fruits, vegetables and pulp, freeze dried products and traditional Indian products like pickles and chutneys.

A key step for preparation of the above products is pulping, as described below. Flowcharts are included which depict the manufacturing steps for mango products The receiving area must be clean, well ventilated, and free of insects, rodents or other animals. It is not advisable to hold the fruits too long before processing to avoid spoilage.

Processed mangoes enable exporters to serve their markets even during off-season period for fresh mangoes. Ripe mangoes may be frozen whole or peeled, sliced and packed in sugar (1 part sugar to 10 parts mango by weight) and quick-frozen in moisture-proof containers. The diced flesh of ripe mangoes, bathed in sweetened or unsweetened lime juice, to prevent discoloration, can be quick-frozen, as can sweetened ripe or green mango puree. Immature mangoes are often blown down by spring winds. Half-ripe or green mangoes are peeled and sliced as filling for pie, used for jelly, or made into sauce, which, with added milk and egg whites, can be converted into mango sherbet. Green mangoes are peeled, sliced, parboiled, then combined with sugar, salt, various spices and cooked, sometimes with raisins or other fruits, to make chutney; or they may be salted, sun-dried and kept for use in chutney and pickles. Thin slices, seasoned with turmeric, are dried, and sometimes powdered, and used to impart an acid flavour to chutneys, vegetables and soup. Green or ripe mangoes may be used to make relish (Morton, 1987).

2. Washing The washing pit should be filled with water containing 15 ppm chlorine in order to reduce microbial load and impurities from the fruit. A second washing with clean water is made to eliminate residual chlorine.

3. Blanching This operation is done to inactivate enzymes, eliminate air inside the fruit tissues, remove offflavours and aromas, fix fruit colour and soften the tissues for further pulping. Two methods are currently used to effect blanching: dip in boiling water or direct steam injection. The thermal treatment is applied such that internal fruit temperature reaches 75C. This usually requires 10 minutes in boiling water, or 6 minutes with steam. Fruit is blanched unpeeled.

4. Peeling and cutting Pulp is separated from the seed manually with knives made of stainless steel, on a working bench. Mango pieces are placed in clean plastic containers and taken to the pulping machine.

Pulping and juicing

5. Pulping

Mesocarp pieces are passed through a fine mesh to remove undesirable particles. After pulping, a smooth puree is obtained. Recommended mesh size is 0.5 mm. coarser material is separated in the process and disposed properly. The pulp is transferred in containers to the kettle.

closings should be inspected. Finally, containers are cleaned and labels affixed to be sent to a fresh, clean storage place. Source: Agafruits (2000)

Dryers around the world are using improved methods to make all sorts of new dried fruit products. Many of these make great natural

6. Thermal treatment A heat treatment is applied in the kettle to prevent chemical and microbial spoilage. In this treatment the pulp reaches 95 C and is held for 10 min. with continuous stirring.

snacks. Mango is delicious as a snack, in a sauce or in a salad. Snacks are packed in transparent plastic bags. (See Figure 38 Tommy Atkins mango stripes) mangoes are dried in the form of pieces, powders, and flakes. Drying procedures such as sun drying, tray drying (See Figure 39

7. Additives The use of additives is recommended to extend the pulp shelf life. Commonly used additives include 0.39 percent citric acid to decrease pH and prevent microbial growth and enhance effectiveness of preservatives as sodium benzoate (0.5 percent).

Tray dryer) tunnel dehydration, vacuum drying, osmotic dehydration may be used. Packaged and stored properly, dried mango products are stable and nutritious. Figure 38. Tommy Atkins mango strips. One described process involves as pretreatment dipping mango slices for 18 hr (ratio 1:1) in a

To prevent discoloration 0.1 percent ascorbic acid is used as antioxidant. Additives are incorporated to the pulp right before the thermal treatment is finished (ca. 5 min before) by dispersing in hot water or pulp and proper stirring. Final product should have 13 Brix and pH values between 3.4 to 3.5.

solution containing 40Brix sugar, 3 000 ppm SO2, 0.2 percent ascorbic acid and 1 percent citric acid; this method is described as producing the best dehydrated product. Drying is described using an electric cabinet through flow dryer operated at 60C. The product showed no browning after 1 year of storage. Figure 39. Tray dryer.

8. Packing The pulp is packed when hot in plastic containers, sealed immediately and flipped over so the internal part of the lid gets in contact with the hot product. All packing materials must be clean before used.

Drum drying (See Figure 40 Drum dryer) of mango pure is described as an efficient, economical process for producing dried mango powder and flakes. Its major drawback is that the severity of heat pre-processing can produce undesirable cooked flavours and aromas in the dried product. The drum-

9. Cooling Hot containers are cooled with fresh water at the lowest temperature attainable. After cooling, lid

dried products are also extremely hygroscopic and the use of in-package desiccant is recommended during storage. The stone removed, the fruit is cut in

slices, dried and afterwards ground to a pale grey powder. This powder is used frequently instead of tamarind, the other important sour element in Indian cuisine; mango powder is, however, much weaker than tamarind and has a subtle, resin-like taste. It is mainly used when only a hint of tartness is desired or when the dark brown colour of tamarind is to be avoided. Mango powder is generally more popular with vegetables than with meat, but is frequently found in tikka spice mixtures for barbecued meat. To prepare the barbecued meat of Northern Indian cuisine, an Indian clay oven (tandoor) is required, but substitution by a Western baking oven is acceptable. Meat to be grilled is seasoned with a mixture of several spices (cumin, coriander, fresh ginger, garlic and mango powder, but little or no chiles) with red food colouring and plain yoghurt. After a few hours, it is quickly roasted in the very hot tandoor. Mango powder here serves not only as a tart and sour spice, but also as a meat tenderizer. Figure 40. Drum dryer. Ripe mangoes are a popular fruit and may be used for stewed fruits, fruit jam, fruitcakes and many other standard fruit applications; they can, however, even used for savoury dishes. Indonesian fruit salad (rujak) combines fresh fruits (not too ripe mango, pineapple, papaya, in Java frequently cucumber) with a pungent sauce of palm sugar (won from coconut or other palm trees), fresh red chiles and salt; on Bali, a hint of shrimp paste is never omitted. The result tastes even more delicious that the recipe looks strange! Mexicans sometimes use ripe mangoes or other tropical fruits for their fiery salsas (Katzer, 2000). Mango fruits have been utilized for long time at every stage of growth. While the raw fruits are utilized for products like pickle, amchoor, green

mango beverage, etc. ripe ones are used in making pulp, juice, nectar, squash, leather, slices, etc.

Raw mango products

Mango fruits during early stages of growth are commonly used for sweet or sour chutney. As the fruits attain stone hardening stage, they become suitable for some other useful products like amchoor (seasoning made by pulverizing sun-dried, unripe (green) mango into a fine powder. Amchoor has a tart, acidic, fruity flavour that adds character to many dishes including meats, vegetables and curried preparations. Its also used to tenderize poultry, meat and fish), pickle, etc.

Ripe mango products Ripe mango fruit has a characteristic blend of taste and flavour. It contains important amounts of sugar, pectin, carotenoids, etc. Due to comparatively shorter storage life of mango fruits, it is essential to prepare their products immediately.

Mango Leather or Aam Papad: Homogenized mango pulp is prepared and potassium metabisulphite is added to it at a rate of 2 g/kg of pulp. The pulp is then spread on trays smeared without and kept for drying in solar dehydrator or sun. After drying of one layer, another layer is spread over it and dried. The process is repeated until the desired thickness is attained. Finally the leather slabs are cut into pieces and wrapped in butter paper or plastic sheets.

Fresh-cut Mangoes Mangoes could be an attractive addition to the growing market for fresh-cut produce, but browning

and drying have prevented such marketing. Researchers at the USDA-ARS Horticultural Crops Quality Laboratory found that fresh-cut mangoes could be preserved by treating the slices with a combination of hexylresorcinol, isoascorbic acid and potassium sorbate (all food-safe compounds derived from natural products) and storing the slices in plastic containers to prevent drying. Treating whole fruits with methyl jasmonate (an inexpensive product derived from plant essential oils) prevented the development of chilling injury during cold storage and hence markedly increased fruit quality after storage. The treatment worked on fruits at various stages of maturity and had no effect on ripening, softening processes or water loss.

along the pit or stone from stem to apex; slices, if the mango is cut into long, slender pieces either lengthwise or crosswise; diced, if the mango is cut into approximately cube-shaped pieces with at least 12 millimetres on the longest side; and pieces, mixed pieces or irregular pieces, if the mango is cut into pieces of irregular shape and size.

Quality Standards: have a colour that is typical of the variety; have a characteristic flavour and aroma of properly prepared, properly processed canned mangoes; in the case of slices style, these shall be reasonably uniform in size, and in the case of halves style, have at least 90 per cent by count of the units approximately the same size; in the case of

Canning Canned mangoes do not have to meet any specific standards, but CODEX Alimentarius (Latin, meaning Food Law or Code, UN Commission for Food Standards) is developing international standards. In general, mangoes are processed in cans or in glass jars. FDA requires nutritional facts written on containers. Mangoes are the common product name of the canned food that is made from properly prepared fresh mango varieties, that have the peel (rind), stems and pits (stones) removed; shall be packed in a packing medium consisting of water, with or without a sweetening ingredient, or natural reconstituted, concentrated fruit juice or juices, or fruit puree or nectar, with or without a sweetening ingredient; and may contain: pectin, a suitable acid ingredient, calcium-based firming agents, and betacarotene.

halves and slices styles, shall not have more than 20 per cent of the units cut other than parallel to the crease, and not have more than half of those units cut horizontally; have units that are reasonably fleshy with little objectionable fibre, and not excessively soft or excessively firm, and in a 500 g sample of the drained product, not contain more than: six square centimetres in the aggregate of rind, one-eighth of a stone equivalent of pit material, and one piece of harmless extraneous plant material not greater than 10 millimetres in any dimension; and not have more than 30 per cent by count of units that: are blemished by discolouration or dark spots on the surface or that penetrate into the flesh, or in the case of halves and slices styles, have trim damage with gouges in the units serious enough to detract from the appearance of the product, and five per cent by drained weight of units that are crushed and severed into two or more parts or have lost their normal shape. Mangoes, when properly packed,

Styles. The styles of mangoes are: halves, if the mango is cut into two approximately equal parts

shall have a minimum drained weight that is not less than 55 per cent of the weight of distilled water at

20C that the sealed container will hold when full. Varieties most suited for canning include Creole, Mora, Filipino, Irwin and Haden.

o o o o o

thermometer (dial type) stainless steel casserole measuring cups LPG with stove stainless steel ladle Packaging Materials: sterilized bottles/jars Procedure:

Calamansi is commonly used as a condiment for dishes. However, it can also be used in making calamansi juice concentrate which prefers by most parents in preparing nutritious juice drink for their family. Like other citrus fruits, the calamansi is high in vitamin C. Calamansi Concentrate Ingredients: 70 pcs. calamansi (medium size) Sugar (if desired) Sodium benzoate Utensils: Kitchen knife, Mixing bowl, Cheesecloth, Casserole for cooking, Spoon, Cooking stove, Bottles (8 oz.), Measuring spoon, Measuring cups, Chopping board, Strainer Procedure: 1. Carefully wash the fruits with water. 2. Cut crosswise and squeeze the juice through a cheesecloth. 3. Add sugar if necessary. The amount of sugar added is according to taste. 4. For every 4 1/2 cups of calamansi juice, and 1/4-1/3 tsp. sodium benzoate dissolved in water. o 5. Heat the mixture up to 75 C or until the mixture is about to boil. Continue to maintain at this temperature for about 5 minutes while stirring constantly. 6. Transfer while hot to sterile bottles. Cover the bottles. 7. Boil for 20 minutes. Close tightly and let cool in an inverted position. 8. Wipe dry and store in a cool place. Source: Food and Nutrition Research Institute (DOST)

1. Slice calamansi at its topmost part. Avoid injuring the seeds to prevent bitter taste of the product. 2. Squeeze. Strain juice using cheesecloth. 3. Measure/weigh the juice. Heat calamansi juice for 1 minute at 70-80C. Set aside. 4. Prepare syrup, 1 part sugar in part water or 1:0.5 based on the weight of the juice. Boil syrup (108C or 226F). 5. Strain syrup. 6. Cool syrup to 80C then add calamansi juice. Mix. 7. Pour the mixture in sterilized bottles. Seal thoroughly. 8. Process in boiling water for 5 minutes at 70-80C. 9. After processing, cool at room temperature. Label and store. The Process of Manufacturing Orange Drink Fruit can be divided into a good many varieties; especially oranges are popular fruit. Oranges are eaten by many ways; such as the orange drink. The process of manufacturing orange drink can be divided into four stages: picking and preparation of the fruit, extracting and processing the juice, bottling and distribution. Firstly, oranges' picking and preparation consists of five steps. First of all, the oranges are picked in the citrus groves, and then they are transported by lorry to the factory. Next they are not only graded by size in the factory, but also some diseased oranges are also picked out at the same time. After that, they are peeled. Finally, these peeled oranges are put on the conveyor belt to continue next stage. Secondly, extracting and processing the juice consists of three steps. To start with, these peeled oranges are crushed into the juice and collected by conveyor belt. Some non-crushed pulp and pips are eliminated. Later, sugar, water and flavouring are added to the fresh orange juice and stirred. Finally, the orange juice needs to be tested before the next stage. Thirdly, bottling just consists of two steps. After the orange juice is tested, it is bottled immediately and labeled on the surface of bottle. The manufacturing working procedures of the orange drink are completed.

Making Calamansi Juice Concentrate

Ingredients: o o o 1 kilo calamansi refined white sugar water Utensils: stainless steel strainer stainless steel bowls stainless steel knives plastic chopping board cheesecloth

o o o o o

Lastly, distribution consists of two steps. The orange drink are packed in crates, and then they are distributed by lorry to retail outlets. To sum up, manufacturing orange drink is a quite complex process that it needs to complete four stages which include eleven steps.

are added cup refined sugar and 2 tbsp. calamansi juice. The mixture is packed in a plastic bag container o and stored in a freezer (24 F). To serve as juice, enough cold water and sugar are added to taste. 6. Guyabano Jelly thoroughly ripe fruit is rinsed and sliced, retaining the skin and seeds. It is put in a pan with enough water to cover, and boiled until soft, with constant stirring. It is removed from the fire and passed through a double cheesecloth. The extract is returned to the fire, boiled until all the scrum has risen, and strained again. To each cup, 1 tbsp. calamansi juice is added and the mixture is boiled again. To the boiling juice is added 1 cup hot dissolved sugar and the mixture is boiled until it hardens on spoon removing all rising scrum in the process. 7. Guyabano Juice Concentrate fully ripe, sound fruits are thoroughly washed with detergent and carefully rinsed in water. They are cut into halves and the skin and seeds are removed. Two cups of water are added to 1 pulp, the mixture is blended to facilitate juice extraction, and strained through a muslin cloth bag. The o clear juice is concentrated juice is cut back to 16 C Brix by adding freshly prepared juice. Ascorbic acid equivalent to 50 mg/cc is added during pasteurization to retard normal oxidation browning in storage. Fortified o concentrate is pasteurized at 85 C for 5 minutes, hot filled into previously sterilized cans, sealed completely and processed into boiling water for 10 minutes. Cans are immediately cooled in running water and wiped dry. Source: Production Guide on Guayabano

Preservation/utilization of fruits has been getting widespread attention not only on its increasing acceptability in the food market but also because of its potential as a means of generating an export. The various preservation of guyabano was briefly described in the following procedures. 1. Guyabano Juice after washing sound ripe fruits, they are blanched for 3-4 minutes in boiling water. They are cooled in water, peeled and their inner core removed. They are cut into 5 cm square pieces. One cup water is added to 1 cup fruit heated at 800C for 3 minutes or until the fruit is soft enough to squeeze of the juice. The juice is pressed through a muslin bag while hot. The juice from the residue is extracted for the second time with the same amount of water. The two extracts are mixed and sugar is added to taste. The juice o is poured into jars and exhausted before sealing to 82 C (approximately 15 minutes from boiling time). The jar is sealed immediately, sterilized in boiling water for 10 minutes, cooled and stored. 2. Guyabano Preserve mature but firm fruit is peeled sliced about 1 cm thick using stainless steel knife, and soaked in water. It is blanched in boiling water for 5 minutes cooked in syrup (2 parts sugar and 1 part water), and soaked in syrup overnight. It is again boiled for 30 minutes until thick, drained and packed in preserving jar. The jar is filled up with syrup, half-sealed, sterilized for 25 minutes in boiling water and sealed completely. 3. Guyabano Candy mature but firm fruits peeled sliced to about 1 cm thick with a stainless steel knife, and soaked at once in water to avoid discoloration. It is cooked in syrup (2 parts sugar to 1 part water) for 10 minutes and soaked in syrup for 1 week, boiling it daily for 5 minutes. It is cooked over a slow fire until syrup becomes sugary. It is removed from fire, separated from sugar, cooled and wrapped individually in cellophane. 4. Guyabano Jam the fully ripe, sound fruit is peeled and its seeds are removed. To every cup of fruit, an equal amount of sugar is added and the mixture is cooked to jam consistency. It is poured while hot in a preserving jar. After removing the bubbles, the jar is halfsealed, sterilized for 25 minutes in boiling water and sealed completely. 5. Frozen Guyabano Pulp the sound ripe fruit is peeled and its seeds are removed. To every cup of fruits

SAGO AT GULAMAN INGREDIENTS 2-3 cups sago 2 pcs gulaman 3 cups water 3 cups sugar ice-cold water or crushed ice SAGO AT GULAMAN PROCEDURES 1. To cook sago: In a saucepan, boil water and put in uncooked sago. Stir constantly to prevent them from sticking. Drain and rinse. Set aside. 2. To cook gulaman: Boil water in a saucepan and put in uncookedgulaman. When it has dissolved in the water, strain thoroughly. Set aside to cool, then cut into cubes. 3. To make arnibal (sugar syrup): Over medium heat, caramelize sugar. When melted, pour in waer and continue cooking to make sure that the sugar is dissolved completely. Set aside to cool. Put some arnibal on the sago to sweeten the latter. 4. Put some sago and gulaman in glasses. Sweeten by adding enough arnibal. Add ice-cold water or crushed ice.

Ingredients 2 cups cooked sago (tapioca pearls) 1 bar white gulaman (or 1 pack Jello) soaked in water and drained 2 cups water 1 cup sugar METHOD 1. Caramelize sugar and when golden brown add water and bring to a boil. Place in the softened gulaman (or Jello) and mix till completely melted. Strain into a baking pan. Cool and cut into cubes. 2. Make a syrup following the procedure for gulaman for the sago. Continue cooking the caramelized sugar and water until syrupy. Dispense boiling water over the sago, drain and combine with the syrup. Serve with cubed gulaman with crushed ice.

Zingiber officinale Rose.

Chiang-t'i Other scientific names

Amomum zingiber Linn.

Common names
Agat (Pamp., Pang.)

Zingiber blancoi Hassk.

Baseng (Ilk.) Gengibre (Span.) Laial (Sbl.) Laiya (If.) Laya (Ilk., Bon., Ibn., It.) Luy-a (Bis.) Luya (Tag.) Chiang-t'i (Chin.) Ginger (Engl.)

Botany Luya is an erect, smooth plant arising from thickened, very aromatic rootstocks. Leafy stems are 0.4 to 1 meter high. Leaves are distichous, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 15 to 25 cm long, and 2 cm wide or less. Scape arising from the rootstock is erect, 15-25 cm high, covered with distant imbricate bracts. Spike is ovoid to ellipsoid, about 5 cm long. Bracts are ovate, cuspidate, and about 2.5 cm long, and pale green. Calyx is 1 cm long, or less. Corolla is greenish-yellow with a tube less than 2 cm long; while the tip is oblong-obovate and slightly purplish

Distribution Widely cultivated in the Philippines. Constituents Pungent principles, mainly zingerone and shogaol, provides the characteristic taste. The most biologically active phenolic compounds, gingerols and shogaols, are found in the root. Volatile oil, 1.23 to 3% - gingerol, zingerone, zingiberene, cineol, borneol, phellandrene, citral, zingiberene, linalool, geraniol, chavicol, vanillyl alcohol, camphene; resin. Properties Extracts and active constituents have shown potent antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antimutagenic, antimicrobial and possible anticancer activities. Considered adaptogenic, anodyne, anthelmintic, antiallergenic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, antifungal, antithrombotic, antitumore, antiulcer, aphrodisiac, carminative, diuretic, rubifacient, anti-platelet aggregation, hypolipidemic, thermoregulatory. Pungency is attributed to the pungent principle, zingerone and shogaol, while the aroma is imparted by the volatile oil. Considered stomachic, carminative, stimulant, diaphoretic, sialagogue, and digestive. Parts utilized Tops, leaves and edible roots. Uses Nutritional - Flavoring for confectioneries, ginger ale, ginger beer, ginger champagnes, and other beverages. - Salabat, a native beverage, is prepared from the rhizomes. - A prominent condiment in Filipino cuisine. - Taken with rocksalt before meals is cleansing to the tongue and throat and increases the appetite. - In Malaya fresh ginger is an important ingredient in curry. Folkloric - In the Philippines, pounded rhizome, alone or mixed with oil, used as revulsive and antirheumatic. - As antiseptic, tincture of dried rhizome prepared with 70% alcohol (not rubbing alchol) and applied on superficial cuts and wounds; or, juice from fresh rhizome used similarly. - As digestive aid and for flatulence and tympanism, decoction of the rhizome drunk as tea. - Ginger juice rubbed on and around the navel is said to cure all kinds of diarrhea. - For rheumatism, roasted rhizome is pounded and mixed with oil and applied locally. - For sore throat and hoarseness, warm decoction of the rhizome is drunk as ginger tea (salabat); piece of small rhizome chewed for the same. - Rhizome used as cough remedy, rubifacient, carminative and diuretic. - Also used for hangovers. - For chronic rheumatism, ginger infusion ( 2 drams in 6 ounces of boiling water and strained) is taken at bedtime - Poulticed of pounded and warmed leaves applied to bruises.

- Ginger taken with rock salt before meals is said to clean the tongue and throat and increase the appetite. Chewing ginger is said to diminish biliousness and delirium, relieve sore throat, hoarseness and aphonia, and increases the flow of saliva. - For headaches: Ginger plaster (bruised ginger in water to the consistency of poultice) is applied to the forehead. Same preparation may be helpful for toothaches and facial pain. - In Indo-China, cataplasm used for furuncles; when mixed with oil is antirheumatic. Rhizomes also used for tuberculosis, general fatigue and uterine affections. - In Perak, rhizomes used as vermifuge. - In the Antilles powdered rhizome used as revulsive for pleuritis. - In Ayurvedic medicine, used for inflammation and rheumatism. - In India, used as carminative adjunct along with black pepper and long pepper. - In Chinese folk medicine, pulverized fresh ginger used for baldness and vitiligo. Juice from fresh root used for treatment of burns. New uses Motion Sickness / Pregnancy-related Nausea: Antiemetic properties. Used for Nausea, motion sickenss (1 gm taken 1/2 hour before the voyage). Stimulates digestion. Possibly antiinflammatory. Preparations Ginger tea Ginger tea preparation, the Chinese way : Bring one cup of water to boil. Add one teaspoon of the roasted (parched and browned) rice and a small piece of ginger root. Boil for one minute. Let stand to cool for drinking. (Preparation of dried rice: Pour enough water to cover 1/2 cup white rice in a flat dish; and let stand overnight. In the morning, drain off the excess water. Roast the rice in a dry pan, stirring constantly until parched and brown. Store in a glass jar for future use, tightly covered to keep moisture out.) Ginger lozenges Wash and peel the ginger, then mince. Spread and air-dry for a day or oven-dry at 250 C. Grind and strain the dried ginger. * In a mortar, mix 1 cup ground giner and 1 cup confectioner's sugar. Pound and mix while gradually adding water until a pulp is formed. Level the pulp on a board lined with wax paper. Using a mold, make balls from the pulp and wrap each lozenge in aluminum foil. How to make medicated candies from powdered rhizomes Materialls, proportion and procedure Go to Traditional and Modern Medicine Studies Prokinetic: Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders: Study confirmed prokinetic activity of the extract. Spasmolytic constituents may explain its use in hyperactive states as in colic and diarrhea. Antidiarrheal: Study results indicate that in the absence of antimicrobial action, Z officinale exhibits its antidiarrheal activity by affecting bacterial and host cell metabolism. Antibacterial: (1) Antibacterial Activity Of Allium cepa (Onions) And Zingiber officinale (Ginger) On Staphylococcus aureus And Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Isolated From High Vaginal Swab: The study showed both plants had antibacterial activity on the test organisms, ginger having more inhibitory effect, and confirming their folkloric use. (2) In a study on the comparative effect of ginger and some antibiotics on two pathogenic bacteria, results showed the ginger extract of both plant and root showed the highest antibacterial activity against S. aureus and Strep pyogenes while three antibiotics showed less extent of activity compared to the ginger extract. Antiinflammtory / Anti-thrombotic: The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential antiinflammatory and antithrombotic agent: Study suggests ginger can be used as a cholesterol-lowering, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory agent. Antioxidant / Anticancer: Study showed Zingiber officinale may exert its anticancer effect by replacing the action of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in removing superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide causing oxidative damage to cells. Antibacterial (Garlic/Ginger) Synergism: Study investigated the therapeutic effects of ginger and garlic against Klebsiella pneumonia, whether the combined extract could be synergistic or antagonistic in rats. Study showed a synergistic relationship, garlic ameliorating the efficacy of giner only against Klebsiella infection. Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Arthritis / Prostaglandin Inhibition: Study suggests one of the mechanisms by which ginger shows ameliorative effects could be through inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotrine biosynthesis as a dual inhibitor of eicosanoid biosynthesis. Gastroprotective: Study results suggest cytoprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects with significant protection against ethanol-, HCl-, NaOH-induced gastric lesions and prevention of the occurrence of gastric ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hypothermic restrain stress. Decreased Sperm Motility: Study results conclude that ginger can induce toxic effects on sperm parameters, ie, a lower percentage of motility and grading when methanolic ginger is added to semen fluid. Hepatoprotective: Study of the ethanol extract of Z officinale showed protective effect against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity with better protective effect at higher dose levels. Anti-Aging: Study in mice showed ginger extract significantly reduced the development of atherosclerotic lesions and lowered LDL-cholesterol. Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of rhizome extract in Swiss mice showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties with significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and reduction of writhing induced by acetic acid. Pregnancy-Related Nausea: Reasonable evidence suggests that ginger roots is effective in reducing pregnancy-related nausea. However, there is conflicting data on its efficacy for preventing motion sickness or post-operative nausea. Anti-Inflammatory / Antibacterial / Hypoglycemic / Analgesic: Study of ethanol extract showed (1) reduction of carrageenan-induced paw swelling and yeast-induced fever (2) blood glucose lowering (3) inhibition of gramand gram+ bacteria (4) dose-dependent prostaglandin release inhibition. Analgesic: Study demonstrated the daily consumption of raw and heat-treated ginger resulted in moderate to large reduction in muscle pain followoing exercise-induced muscle injury. The findings agree with findings of ginger's hypoalgesic effects in osteoarthritic patients. Antiarthritic: Study of the alcoholic extract of ZO can ameliorate inflammatory processes in rat collagen-induced arthritis, together with reduction of serum levels of interleukins, TNF, and anti-CII antibodies. It also showed to be superior to indomethacin 2 mg/kg/d at most measured parameters. The extract presents an alternative to NSAID use in RA. Hypoalgesic Effect on Exercise-Induced Muscle Pain: Study on healthy volunteers showed daily consumption of raw and heat-treated ginger resulted in moderate to larg reductions in muscle pain following exercise-induced muscle injury. Anticancer / Anti-Inflammatory: Ginger extract significantly reduced the expression of NFkB and TNF-a in rats with liver cancer. It may act as an anticancer and anti-inflammatory by inactivating NFkB through suppression of proinflammatory TNF-a. Delayed Diabetic Cataract Progression: Results showed ginger was effective against the development of diabetic cataracts in rats, mainly through its antiglycating potention, and also, through an inhibition of the polyol pathway. As such, dietary sources, such as ginger, can be explored for its potential in preventing or delaying diabetic complications. Neuroprotective / Memory Benefits: Study showed cognitive function and neurons density in rat hippocampus receiving ginger rhizome extract were improved white the brain infarct volume decreased. The effect may be through antioxidant activity of the extract. Results demonstrate the beneficial effect of ginger rhizome in protecting against focal cerebral ischemia. Anti-Ulcerogenic Effect: Study in a model of acute colitis showed ginger hydroalcoholic extract was effective in

protecting against experimental colitis. Antidiabetic / Amylase and Glucosidase Enzyme Inhibitory Effect: Studies have targeted digestive enzymes as targets for modulation of glucose concentration through inhibition of enzymatic breakdown of complex carbohydrates. In this study, glucosidase and amylase activities on rice were inhibited by the addition of ginger with consequent significant reduction in glucose percentages. Results were comparable to Acarbose on glucosidase activity. Antimicrobial / Anticancer: Study has showed many diarylheptanoids and gingerol-related compounds from the rhizome of ZO possess significant antiproliferation activity on HL-60 cells, probably through induction of cell apoptosis. Another study has shown ginger extract and 6-gingerol to both directly interfere with colon cancer proliferation. Results show ginger's phytochemical potential for chemoprevention and therapy. In this study, the ethanol and chloroform extracts were found to possess antibacterial properties against 8 microorganisms. Side effects No known side effects or drug interactions. The German Commission E recommends that it be avoided during pregnancy due to possible inhibition of testosterone binding in the fetus. The use in pregnancy for hyperemesis gravidarum is controversial. Use for nausea during pregnancy is not recommended. Should not be used by pregnant women with a history of bleeding disorders and miscarriages. Anticogulang precaution Decreases platelet adhesiveness; therefore, should be used with caution by patients on anticoagulant therapy. Availability Wild-crafted. Popular condiment and perennial market produce. Candied ginger and lozenges. Dried powdered gingeroot. Tinctures, tablets, capsules, syrups and teas in the cybermarket.

How to Make Ginger Tea (Salabat)

Here are two products that you can do with your abundant harvest ginger. Instant Ginger Tea or Salabat Simply follow the following procedure: 1. Select good quality young ginger rhizomes. Clean and remove bruised and spoiled particles, then, wash the weigh. 2. Scrape off the peels. Cut or slice into thin strips and chop. Add water (Approximately one cup for every kilo of ginger of enough to cover chopped ginger. 3. Grind chopped ginger in osterizer or beat chopped ginger if osterizer is not available. strain and measure. To the extract from a kilo of rhizomes add 2-3 kilos mixture of white and brown sugar. 4. Stir and boil. Reduce fire if ginger syrup is already thick. Cook and stir continuously until granules are formed and become dry. Pound granules and sift to obtain a uniform product. Pack in small plastic bags and seal. To make a piping hot ginger brew or salabat, add one tsp instant ginger tea to every cup of hot water. Dried Ginger Simply follow the following procedure: 1. Wash and soak ginger in water. Scrape off the outer skin. Lightly do this so that the cells immediately below the skin will not be destroyed, since these cells contain much of the oil from which ginger gets its aroma.

2. Wash peeled rhizomes in water and place in a bamboo slat tray or tray lined with abaca gauze. Dry under the sun (whole, split or sliced) and separately turn over by hand at least once on the first day. Complete drying may take 6-8 days. When dehydrator is used faster drying and more uniform product is achieved at a temperature range of 45-50C. Drying is complete when the ginger snaps are broken.

Orange Juice
Orange juice is defined in the United States Code of Federal Regulations as the "unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensisor of the citrus hybrid commonly called Ambersweet." True fresh squeezed juice is difficult to market commercially because it requires special processing to preserve it. Orange juice is commonly marketed in three forms: as a frozen concentrate, which is diluted with water after purchase; as a reconstituted liquid, which has been concentrated and then diluted prior to sale; or as a single strength, unconcentrated beverage called NFC or Not From Concentrate. The latter two types are also known as Ready To Drink (RTD) juices. Citrus fruits, like oranges, have been cultivated for the last 4,000 years in southern China and Southeast Asia. One variety, the citron, was carried to the Middle East some-time between 400 and 600 B.C. Arab traders transported oranges to eastern Africa and the Middle East sometime between 100 and 700 A.D. , and during the Arab occupation of Spain, citrus fruits first arrived in southern Europe. From there, they were carried to the New World by explorers where they spread to Florida and Brazil by the sixteenth century. By the 1800s, citrus fruits achieved worldwide distribution. In the 1890s, the demand for them greatly increased because physicians discovered that drinking the juice of oranges or other citrus fruits could prevent scurvy, a vitamin deficiency disease. The popularity of orange juice dramatically increased again with the development of the commercial orange juice industry in the late 1920s. In its early days, the juice industry primarily relied on salvaged fruit, which was unsuitable for regular consumption because it was misshapen, badly colored or blemished. In the 1930s, development of porcelain-lined cans and advances in pasteurization techniques led to improved juice quality and the industry expanded significantly. Then, in 1944, scientists found a way to concentrate fruit juice in a vacuum and freeze it without destroying the flavor or vitamin content. Frozen concentrated juices were first sold in the United States during 1945-46, and they became widely available and popular. After World War II, most Americans stopped squeezing their own juice and concentrated juice became the predominant form. With the increase in home refrigerators, frozen concentrate became even more popular. The demand for frozen juices had a profound impact on the citrus industry and spurred the growth of the Florida citrus groves. Frozen concentrates remained the most popular form until 1985 when reconstituted and NFC juices first out-sold the frozen type. In 1995, NFC juices were responsible for 37% of the North American market. This is in comparison to reconstituted juice, which held about 39% of the market. Today, commercial aseptic packaging allows RTD juices to be marketed without refrigerated storage. The current worldwide market for orange juice is more than $2.3 billion with the biggest area being the United States followed by Canada, Western Europe, and Japan. Raw Materials Fruit The primary ingredient in orange juice is, of course, oranges. Oranges are members of the rue family (Rutaceae), and citrus trees belong to the genus Citrus.Oranges, along with all citrus fruits, are a special type of berry botanists refer to as a hesperidium. Popular types of oranges include navel, Mandarin, and Valencia. A blend of different types of oranges is generally used to provide a specific flavor and to ensure freedom from bitterness. Selection of oranges for juice is made on the basis of a number of factors such as variety and maturity of the fruit. The fruit contains a number of natural materials that contribute to the overall flavor and

consistency of the juice including water, sugars (primarily sucrose, fructose, and glucose), organic acids (primarily citric, malic, and tartaric), and flavor compounds (including various esters, alcohols, ketones, lactones, and hydrocarbons.) Other additives Preservatives such as sulfur dioxide or sodium benzoate are allowed by federal regulation in orange juice although the amounts are strictly controlled. Similarly, ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, EDTA, BHA, or BHT are used as antioxidants. Sweeteners may be added in the form of corn syrup, dextrose, honey, or even artificial sweeteners. More often, though, citric acid is added to provide tartness. Manufacturers may also fortify juices with extra vitamins or supplemental nutrients such as vitamin C, and less commonly, vitamins A and E, and beta carotene. (Beta carotene is naturally present in oranges, but only to a small degree.) There is some concern about the stability of these added vitamins because they do not survive the heating process very well. Calcium in the form of tricalcium phosphate, is also frequently added to orange juice. The Manufacturing Process Harvesting/collection

1 Oranges are harvested from large groves. Some citrus growers are members of cooperative packing and marketing associations, while others are independent growers. When the mature fruit is ready to pick, a crew of pickers is sent in to pull the fruit off the trees. The collected fruit is sent to packing centers where it is boxed for sale as whole fruit, or sent to plants for juice processing. The oranges are generally shipped via truck to juice extraction facilities, where they are unloaded by a gravity feed onto a conveyor belt that transports the fruit to a storage bin.


2 The fruit must be inspected and graded before it can be used. An inspector takes a 39.7 lb (18 kg) sample to analyze in order to make sure the fruit meets maturity requirements for processing. The certified fruit is then transported along a conveyor belt where it is washed with a detergent as it passes over roller brushes. This process removes debris and dirt and reduces the number of microbes. The fruit is rinsed and dried. Graders remove bad fruit as it passes over the rollers and the remaining quality pieces are automatically segregated by size prior to extraction. Proper size is critical for the extraction process.


3 Proper juice extraction is important to optimize the efficiency of the juice production process as well as the quality of the finished drink. The latter is true because oranges have thick peels, which contain bitter resins that must be carefully separated to avoid tainting the sweeter juice. There are two automated extraction methods commonly used by the industry. The first places the fruit between two metal cups with sharpened metal tubes at their base. The upper cup descends and the fingers on each cup mesh to express the juice as the tubes cut holes in the top and bottom of the fruit. The fruit solids are compressed into the bottom tube between the two plugs of peel while the juice is forced out through perforations in the tube wall. At the same time, a water spray washes away the oil from the peel. This oil is reclaimed for later use.

The second type of extraction has the oranges cut in half before the juice is removed. The fruits are sliced as they pass by a stationary knife and the halves are then picked up by rubber suction cups and moved against plastic serrated reamers. The rotating reamers express the juice as the orange halves travel around the conveyor line.

When the mature fruit is ready to pick, a crew of pickers pull the fruit off the trees. Once collected, the fruit is sent to plants for juice processing. Before extraction, the fruit is cleaned and graded. Some of the peel oil may be removed prior to extraction by needles which prick the skin, thereby releasing the oil which is washed away. Modern extraction equipment of this type can slice, ream, and eject a peel in about 3 seconds.

4 The extracted juice is filtered through a stainless steel screen before it is ready for the next stage. At this point, the juice can be chilled or concentrated if it is intended for a reconstituted beverage. If a NFC type, it may be pasteurized.


5 Concentrated juice extract is approximately five times more concentrated than squeezed juice. Diluted with water, it is used to make frozen juice and many RTD beverages. Concentration is useful because it extends the shelf life of the juice and makes storage and shipping more economical. Juice is commonly concentrated with a piece of equipment known as a Thermally Accelerated Short-Time Evaporator, or TASTE for short. TASTE uses steam to heat the juice under vacuum and force water to be evaporated. Concentrated juice is discharged to a vacuum flash cooler, which reduces the product temperature to about 55.4 F (13 C). A newer concentration process requires minimal heat treatment and is used commercially in Japan. The pulp is separated from the juice by ultra-filtration and pasteurized. The clarified juice containing the volatile flavorings is concentrated at 50 F (10 C) by reverse osmosis and the concentrate and the pulp are recombined to produce the appropriate juice concentration. The flavor of this concentrate has been judged to be superior to what is commercially available in the United States and is close to fresh juice. Juice concentrate is then stored in refrigerated stainless steel bulk tanks until is ready to be packaged or reconstituted.


6 When the juice processor is ready to prepare a commercial package for retail sale, concentrate is pulled from several storage batches and blended with water to achieve the desired sugar to acid ratio, color, and flavor. This step must be carefully controlled because during the concentration process much of the juice's flavor may be lost. Proper blending of juice concentrate and other flavor fractions is necessary to ensure the final juice product achieves a high quality flavor.


7 Thanks to its low pH (about 4), orange juice has some natural protection from

In an automated process, the juice is extracted from the orange while the peel is removed in one step. bacteria, yeast, and mold growth. However, pasteurization is still required to further retard spoilage. Pasteurization also inactivates certain enzymes which cause the pulp to separate from the juice, resulting in an aesthetically undesirably beverage. This enzyme related clarification is one of the reasons why fresh squeezed juice has a shelf life of only a few hours. Flash pasteurization minimizes flavor changes from heat treatment and is recommended for premium quality products. Several pasteurization methods are commercially used. One common method passes juice through a tube next to a plate heat exchanger, so the juice is heated without direct contact with the heating surface. Another method uses hot, pasteurized juice to preheat incoming unpasteurized juice. The preheated juice is further heated with steam or hot water to the pasteurization temperature. Typically, reaching a temperature of 185-201.2 F (85-94 C) for about 30 seconds is adequate to reduce the microbe count and prepare the juice for filling. Packaging/filling

8 To ensure sterility, the pasteurized juice should be filled while still hot. Where possible, metal or glass bottles and cans can be preheated. Packaging which can not withstand high temperatures (e.g., aseptic, multilayer plastic juice boxes which don't require refrigeration) must be filled in a sterile environment. Instead of heat, hydrogen peroxide or another approved sterilizing agent may be used prior to filling. In any case, the empty packages are fed down a conveyor belt to liquid filling machinery, which is fed juice from bulk storage tanks. The filling head meters the precise amount of product into the container, and depending on the design of the package, it may immediately invert to sterilize the lid. After filling, the containers are cooled as fast as possible. Orange juice packaged in this manner has a shelf life of 6-8 months at room temperature.

Byproducts/Waste Byproducts from orange juice production come from the rind and pulp that is created as waste. Products made with these materials include dehydrated feed for livestock, pectin for use in making jellies, citric acid, essential oils, molasses, and candied peel. Certain fractions of orange oil (known as d-limonene), have excellent solvent properties and are sold for use in industrial cleaners.

Quality Control Quality is checked throughout the production process. Inspectors grade the fruit before the juice is extracted. After extraction and concentration, the product is checked to ensure it meets a number of USDA quality control standards. The most important measurement in orange juice production is the sugar level, which is measured in degrees Brix (percentages by weight of sugar in a solution). The types of oranges used and the climate in which they were grown effect the sugar level. Manufacturers blend juices with different sugar levels together to achieve a desired sugar balance. The final juice product is evaluated for a number of key parameters include acidity, citrus oil level, pulp level, pulp cell integrity, color, viscosity, microbiological contamination, mouth feel, and taste. A sensory panel is used to evaluate subjective qualities like flavor and texture. Lastly during the filling process, units are inspected to make sure they are filled and sealed appropriately. The Future Future processing improvements are likely to come from the use of computer controlled sizing and grading of fruit. Orange juice formulations will see changes as the trend toward adding more nutrition-oriented ingredients, such as antioxidants, continues. In addition, future formulas are likely to be blends of orange juice with other, more exotic, fruit flavors, like kiwi, or even vegetable juices, like carrot.