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3-Phase Power Factor Correction, Using Vienna Rectifier Approach and Modular Construction for Impro ed !

erall Performance, "fficienc# and Relia$ilit#


Mr.Abhijit D. Pathak, Senior Applications En!ineer, #$%S "orp., Santa "lara, "A '.S.A. Mr. Ralph E. Locher, Director, Applications En!ineerin!, #$%S "orp., Santa "lara, "A '.S.A. Prof. Himanshu S. Mazum ar, Hea , "omputer Science Lab., Ph&sical Research Laborator&, Ahme aba ()*+++,, #-D#A

%&' A$stract( .hile applications for /(Phase P0" are no1 familiar an pre2alent, the same is not the case 1ith )(Phase P0". Man& e3uipments usin! kilo1atts of po1er from )(Phase mains shoul be can i ates of )(Phase po1er factor correction, because se2eral a 2anta!es ensue, both to the user of the e3uipment an to the utilit&. 4he 5ienna Rectifier approach to achie2e )(Phase po1er factor correction offers man& a 2anta!es an con2enient, user(frien l& features as compare to the t1o(le2el, si6(s1itch boost P.M Rectifier. Amon!st them are7 continuous sinusoi al input currents 1ith unit& po1er factor an e6tremel& lo1 istortion8 no nee for a neutral 1ire8 re uction in 2olta!e stress an s1itchin! losses of po1er semicon uctors b& almost 9+:8 immunit& to1ar s 2ariation or unbalance in mains )(Phase 2olta!es or absence of one of the phases8 1i e mains 2olta!e ran!e7 );+5A" to <=< 5A"8 2er& lo1 con ucte common(mo e EM#>R0#8 2er& hi!h efficienc& of the or er of ,=.<:, sa&, for po1er le2els of /+ ?. an input line 2olta!e of 9++ 5A" an short circuit immunit& to failure of control circuit. 4he paper escribes the 5ienna Rectifier@s po1er sta!e an control techni3ues, 1ith particular emphasis on mo ular construction. .hat is propose in this paper is a ne1 approach of emplo&in! 0uzz& Lo!ic for buil in! controller for 5ienna Rectifier D"A Mo ules for )( Phase A" to D" po1er con2ersion. )&' ! er iew #n the past eca e, there is !ro1in! a1areness about line pollution an eterioratin! po1er factor ue to all per2a in! in ucti2e an non(linear loa s. 'tilities are as much concerne as the users. Passi2e po1er factor correction techni3ues are neither con2enient nor economical8 the& nee bulk& components an are not a apti2e to chan!in! nee s. Althou!h man& solutions 1ere offere for /(Phase po1er factor correction, )(Phase acti2e po1er factor correction 1as sel om consi ere . As all hi!h po1er e3uipments eri2e electrical po1er from )(Phase mains, incorporatin! an acti2e )( Phase P0" front en can contribute si!nificantl& in impro2in! o2erall po1er factor an re ucin! line pollution. #n a ition to lo1erin! po1er bill to the consumers, impro2e po1er factor also contributes to1ar s conser2ation of ener!& an helps in re ucin! air pollution, b& 2irtue of less fossil fuel re3uire for !eneratin! same amount of electrical po1er. Bther resultant effects are lo1er #;R losses, stea ier terminal 5olta!es, release s&stem capacit& an re uce cable C s1itch!ear sizes. Acti2e P0" front en s also help meet the #EEE </,(

,;, #E"(<<< an European E- D/+++()(; stan ar s for allo1able harmonic contents of mains. )&% Ad antages Althou!h there are some passi2e an acti2e )(Phase P0" solutions, 5ienna Rectifier is uni3ue b& 2irtue of its embo iment of se2eral a 2anta!es7 /. #t is a )(Phase, three le2el P.M rectifier, utilizin! three MBS0E4S, 1ith controlle output 5olta!e8 three 1ire input, not re3uirin! an& connection to -eutral. ;. #t is a ual boost t&pe P0" 1ith continuous sinusoi al input current an uni irectional po1er flo1 ). #t nee s onl& three acti2e s1itches, i.e. MBS0E4S 9. #t is Bperational e2en in presence of unbalance mains or onl& t1o phases. <. 4otal s1itchin! losses are re uce b& a factor of si6, assumin! s1itchin! fre3uenc& belo1 <+ ?Hz. D. An& malfunction in control circuit oes not manifest itself in short circuit of output or P0" front en . =. Sinusoi al input currents 1ith Po1er 0actor E +.,,=, 4HDF<: an o2erall efficienc& G ,=: are obtainable 1ith current esi!ns. As can be seen, 5ienna Rectifier is the )(Phase P0" solution that nee s to be full& e6ploite . Rea &ma e 5ienna Po1er Semicon uctor mo ules, embo &in! MBS0E4SH 0REDS to make a stan alone Direct "opper Aon e Po1er "ircuit, make it 3uite con2enient an user(frien l&. Po1erful, &et ine6pensi2e, microcomputers an DSPs make it attracti2e to esi!n compact controllers for the 5ienna Rectifiers. A ne1 approach of emplo&in! 0uzz& Lo!ic for buil in! embe e controller for 5ienna rectifier for )(Phase A" to D" po1er con2ersion is propose here. 3&' Applications A lar!e number of in ustrial, telecom an computin! e3uipments no1 use )(Phase mains po1er. Salient amon!st them are7 /. ;. ). 9. <. D. A.". an D." Dri2es 4elecommunication Po1er Supplies 'ninterruptible Po1er Supplies Air "on itionin! 'nits Lar!e "omputer #nstallations Po1er supplies for all in ustrial uses such as 1el in!, surface treatin!, motion control, lar!e appliances an process control =. R.0. 4ransmitters an Ra ar 4ransmitters an repeater stations *. Re!ulate an trackin! H)<+5 an I)<+5D", for hi!h po1er bi irectional ser2o amplifiers for ri2in! hea2&( ut& critical loa s such as Antenna 4rackin! an Positionin! s&stems.

All the abo2e an man& more such s&stems are !oo can i ates for usin! 5ienna Rectifiers for achie2in! performance impro2ements as per the a 2anta!es liste in ;./. *&' Vienna Rectifier *&% Modus !perandi 5ienna Rectifier as sho1n in 0i!ure /, 1as ori!inall& e2elope at the 4echnical 'ni2ersit& 5ienna. #t comprises a semicon uctor s1itch, sa&, a MBS0E4 in each phase le! of a )(Phase io e bri !e. A& a justin! the 1i th of the pulse that turns B- the MBS0E4, correspon in! line current is force to be sinusoi al an in phase 1ith the 5olta!e. .hen the MBS0E4 is turne B- the correspon in! phase is connecte , 2ia the line in uctor, to the center point bet1een the t1o output capacitors. 4he phase current rises, throu!h the MBS0E4, urin! that pulse perio , char!in! the capacitor. .hen the MBS0E4 is turne off, current tapers throu!h the io e half bri !e Jupper or lo1er epen in! on irection of the current flo1K. *&) !$+ecti e of Vienna Rectifier #t is a hi!hl& efficient metho of hi!h current, )(Phase A" to D" con2ersion an is particularl& attracti2e for achie2in! unit& po1er factor operation. #n fi!ure(/ A"R, A"% an A"A are 99+5, <+Hz, )(Phase sinusoi al line 5olta!es. (5 c an H5 c are the D" outputs connecte to loa . 4here are three semicon uctor s1itches, correspon in! to each phase 4/, 4; an 4). 4hese are s1itche continuousl& at aroun ;< ?Hz. 4he ut&

Figure % )(Phase 5ienna Rectifier "onfi!uration

"&cle of the p1m s1itchin! is so pro!ramme that the current ra1n from each phase is sinusoi al an in phase 1ith the correspon in! line 5olta!e, thus ensurin! near unit& po1er factor an minimum total harmonic istortion. *&3 ,escription #n 5ienna Rectifier confi!uration, as sho1n in fi!ure(/, the output capacitor is split in t1o parts as t1o e3ual 2alue capacitors, "/ an ";, connecte in series. Across the output capacitors the I5 c an H5 c are e2elope as )(Phase peak etecte outputs. A s1itch for each phase is connecte , such that 1hen LB-M, it connects the line phase to the center no e of "/ an "; throu!h a series in uctance. 0or a short s1itchin! perio , Jassumin! /+ microsecon sK, the capacitors char!e linearl&. 4his offsets (5 c an H5 c. 4he offset epen s on the correspon in! phase 2olta!e an the s1itch LB-M time uration. 4he common no e of "/ an "; 1ill ha2e 5olta!e 1ith trian!ular 1a2e shape, ha2in! three times the mains fre3uenc& an its amplitu e 1ill be one 3uarter of the phase 2olta!e.

Figure ) )(Phase line 2olta!es re , &ello1 an blue 1ith /; time se!ments 0rom + throu!h // *&* Vienna Rectifier Modules Lookin! at 0i!ure /, it becomes apparent that if one 1ere to assemble the entire )(Phase 5ienna Rectifier P0" circuit usin! iscrete components, man& ifferent po1er semicon uctors ha2e to be connecte to!ether. 4his is not onl& incon2enient an costl&, but also in2ol2es a e!ree of 2ariation in performance from unit to unit. 4he lea in uctances an parasitic capacitance ma& ten to oscillate, makin! its operation at hi!h enou!h s1itchin! fre3uenc& a task b& itself.

0ortunatel&, rea &ma e 5ienna Rectifier po1er mo ules are a2ailable in D"A JDirect "opper Aon in!K ceramic base plate. 4hese ha2e a number of useful attributes7 /. 4hese mo ules ha2e isolation 2olta!e of )D++ 5olts A", ensurin! personal an e3uipment safet& an are '>L reco!nize . 4here is no nee for e6ternal isolation. ;. E6tremel& lo1 packa!e in uctance, facilitatin! hi!h spee s1itchin! ). Eas& to mount on a printe circuit boar for either 1a2e sol erin! or manual sol erin! 9. ?el2in source for reliable ri2er connections for the MBS0E4S <. 4he MBS0E4, built usin! HDMBS process has lo1 R DSJonK an RNint an lo1 RthOS an lo1 input an output capacitances an lo1 !ate char!e an rise fall times for lo1 con uction an s1itchin! losses D. 0REDS J0ast Reco2er& Epita6ial Dio esK ha2e lo1 5 0 an e6tremel& lo1 trr =. "onsistent an pre ictable performance from unit to unit *&- Ad antages of ,C. 4he Direct "opper Aon e substrates ha2e a number of 2er& attracti2e features as !i2en belo17 /. 4he& ha2e 2er& !oo mechanical stren!th, hol stable shape 1ith !oo a hesion an are corrosion resistant ;. 4he& ha2e 2er& !oo thermal con ucti2it&, enhancin! heat issipation to heat sink. 4his allo1s 2er& close packa!in! of chips, further re ucin! lea in uctances an translatin! more po1er per unit 2olume. ). 5er& !oo thermal c&clin! capabilit&, !i2in! reliable performance o2er man& &ears 9. 4he thermal e6pansion coefficient is close to that of silicon so no interface la&ers are re3uire <. 4he& feature !oo heat sprea in! thus lea2in! no hot spots urin! actual operation D. 4he& can be structure just like printe circuit boar s or L#MS SubstratesM =. 4hese are en2ironmentall& clean *. D"A ceramic is the basis for the Lchip(on(boar M technolo!&, 1hich represents the present an future packa!in! tren s. -&' Vienna Rectifier Controller -&% ,ri ing /cheme for M!/F"0/ Lookin! at the main 5ienna Rectifier circuit in 0i!ure /, tells us that the MBS0E4@s !ate an Source terminals 1ill ha2e to be ri2en usin! isolate !ate ri2e scheme. 4herefore, the outputs from 0uzz& "ontroller 1ill re3uire MBS0E4 Dri2ers as 1ell as some form of isolation. 41o options are a2ailable7 /. 'se Nate Dri2e 4ransformers7 Rea &ma e Nate Dri2e 4ransformers 1ith turns ratios /7/ or /7/.< for operation for fs1E/+ ?Hz to /++ ?Hz are a2ailable.

;. 'se opto(couplers7 4his option necessitates ha2in! isolate po1er supplies for the output si e of the opto(couplers. ). 0or a 5ienna Rectifier Mo ule 1ith MBS0E4 rate at 5 DSS E <++ 5 an #DE)< A, it is possible to ha2e /+ to /D ?. of A" to D" po1er con2ersion an a 9.+ Amp peak MBS0E4 Dri2er is recommen e , consi erin! hi!hest s1itchin! fre3uenc& of <+ ?Hz. 9. Like1ise for a 5ienna Rectifier Mo ule 1ith MBS0E4 rate at 5 DSS E <++ 5 an >or D++ 5, #DE/)+ A, it is possible to ha2e up to 9+ ?. of A" to D" po1er con2ersion an a /9.+ Amp peak MBS0E4 Dri2er is recommen e , consi erin! hi!hest s1itchin! fre3uenc& of <+ ?Hz. #t is important to note that althou!h it is possible to ha2e a hi!her s1itchin! fre3uenc&, in the interest of ha2in! hi!h con2ersion efficienc& an to keep the D"A 5ienna Rectifier Mo ule@s case temperature 1ithin reasonable limits, an arbitraril& chosen f s1E <+ ?Hz is assume .

Figure 3 A simplifie

ia!ram of )(Phase 5ienna Rectifier

-&) Control Characteristics of Vienna Rectifier /witches "ontrol si!nal S/, S; an S) are sho1n in fi!ure(/ is !enerate usin! a 0uzz& controller. A simplifie 5ienna Rectifier s1itchin! ia!ram is sho1n in fi!ure(). 5p, 5c an 5m are output c 2olta!es. A 5ienna simulator as sho1n in fi!ure(9 is esi!ne to 2erif& the control characteristics. 4he line 2olta!e as seen 1ith respect to the common c 2olta!e 5c is sho1n in simulation of fi!ure(9 in re , &ello1 an blue. Simulate s1itchin! si!nals S/, S; an S) are sho1n in lo1er 1in o1. Dut& ratio of s1itchin! pulse 1i th is a comple6 function of line an loa 2olta!es an currents. 4o simplif& the control the s1itchin! function is se!mente in /; zones correspon in! to + to )D+ e!rees phase an!le of po1er fre3uenc& as sho1n in 0i!ure(;.

A rule base control strate!& is implemente usin! fuzz& lo!ic. 4his a2oi s tri!onometric or floatin!(point computations an is suitable for lo1 cost embe e controllers 1orkin! 1ith hi!h reliabilit&. 4he normalize pulse 1i ths for linear phase chan!e are store in a ifferent tables correspon in! to the ;< input output 2olta!e ran!es that are normalize 1ith respect to esire set point.

Figure * Simulation of )(Phase 5ienna Rectifier control operation. #n upper 1in o1 three(phase line 2olta!es re , &ello1 an blue are plotte 1ith respect to the output c 2olta!e 5c of fi!ure(). 4op Joran!eK an bottom Jsk&(blueK trace in icates output D" 2olta!e in loa e state. 4he lo1er 1in o1 sho1s the ma!nifie P.M control si!nals !enerate at cursor position of upper 1in o1. 0a$le-% 0uzz& "ontrol matri6 of P.M tables, $ in icates the acti2e control state. Load Voltage V.Hi Hi Set Pt. Low V.Low L V V.Hi i o Hi X n l Nominal e t Low V.Low 4able(/ sho1s the fuzz& control matri6 of ;< states. Each states represents a P.M look( up table for si!nals S/, S; an S). 0uzz& rules are use to i entif& the state from 7

measure 2alue of input an output 2olta!es an select the appropriate pulse 1i th table to !enerate P.M si!nals. Safet& measures are implemente usin! hi!her priorit& fuzz& rules. 'sin! similar approach it is possible to implement esire output 2olta!e an current profile for col start, shut o1n or fault con itions.

Figure -7"urrents ra1n from each phase, 1hile fee in! non(linear loa s. -eutral con uctor carries summation of currents from all the three phases

Figure 1 Mains fun amental 1ith o harmonics from ) r throu!h /)th 1ith their relati2e amplitu es ue to presence of non(linear loa s

Figure 2 Phase 5olta!es an Phase "urrents, sho1in! near unit& Po1er 0actor an 2er& lo1 4HD, .hen 5ienna Rectifier is use for A" to D" po1er "on2ersion

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1&' Fu33# 4ogic Controller for Vienna Rectifier

Figure 5 Simulator output sho1s )(Phase line 2olta!es in re , &ello1, an blue colors. 4he !ra& trian!ular 1a2e is the output c 2olta!e 5c of fi!ure(), appearin! at the junction of output capacitors, an is measure 1ith respect to neutral of line 2olta!e. 1&' 6or7ing of pwm3p- A computer simulation of the Fu33# Controller for the Vienna Rectifier( LP1m)pM is a simulation tool for e6plainin! 1orkin! of 5ienna Rectifier un er the control of 0uzz& Lo!ic "ontroller. Here is ho1 the tool 1orks7 Please refer to 0i!ure 9 for un erstan in! the e6planation belo1 /. A& epressin! L"urrentM button, one can see the currents ;. 4he P.M 5ie1 has si6 1in o1s. 8A9 :ormal;<oom7 As the names su!!est, this option allo1s on to see the P.M 1a2e forms in normal or Poome con ition 8.9 Auto;,rag7 4his option allo1s one to see the chan!es in p1m pulse patterns either automaticall& from to left to ri!ht or one can ra! the cursor from left to ri!ht to see these chan!es manuall& 8C9 /low;Fast7 4his selection helps see the P.M pulse patterns either slo1l& mo2in! from left to ri!ht or fast. 8,9 4oad7 4his 1in o1 allo1s one to see the chan!e in D" Aus 5olta!e 1hen loa is connecte . 11

8"9 Reset7 As the name applies this allo1s one to reset the simulation 8F9 /tep7 this option allo1s one to stu & e2er& thin! in a step b& step manner 8=9 Voltage 8R,>,.97 4hese 1in o1s sho1 each 2olta!e ma!nitu e 8?9 Pwm 8R,>,.9( 4hese 1in o1s sho1 the le2el of p1m mo ulation

References7 Q/R ?olar, O. .., an Ertl, H.7 Status of the Techniques of Three-Phase Rectifier Systems with Low Effects on the Mains. 21st INTELEC !une "-# 1### Co$enha%en &enmar' Q;R ?olar, O. .., Ertl, H., Pach, 0.".7 L &esi%n an( e)$erimenta* in+esti%ation of a three$hase hi%h $ower (ensity hi%h efficiency unity $ower factor P,M -.ienna/ rectifier em$*oyin% a no+e* inte%rate( $ower semicon(uctor mo(u*e0. APE" @,D, San Oose, "A. #EEE, /,,D, P.</9(<;), 2ol.;. Q)R Siao, ". an Sme le&, ?.M.7 1 2enera* Three Phase P3C Contro**er for Rectifiers with series-connecte( &ua*-4oost To$o*o%y Part -II/. Recor( of the 56 th IEEE In(ustry 1$$*ications Conference Phoeni) 7ct.5-8 .o*.6 $$.2912-291# -1###/. Q9R Sto!erer, 0., Miniblock, O., an ?olar, O...7 1 No+e* Contro* Conce$t for Re*ia:*e 7$eration of a .IENN1 Rectifier un(er ;ea+i*y un:a*ance( Mains .o*ta%e Con(itions. Procee(in%s of the &ri+es an( Contro*s an( Power E*ectronics Conference Lon(on March 15-19 Session 9 $$.5#-6" -2<<1/ Q<R Pathak, Abhijit D.an Locher Ralph E.7 MHo1 to Dri2e MBS0E4s an #NA4s into the ;/st "entur&M, Bfficial Procee in!s of the #nternational Po1er Electronics 4echnolo!& ;++; "onference, Bct ;,()/, ;++;, pp.;9;(;D,.

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Mr. Abhijit D. Pathak recei2e his A. E. JElectrical En!ineerin!K from M. S. 'ni2ersit&, Aaro a, #n ia in /,DD. He obtaine his MS JEEK e!ree from 'ni2ersit& of Rho e #slan , ?in!ston, R. #., 'SA in /,=/. 0rom /,D* to /,=) he 1orke in 'SA in the areas of De2elopment of D.". Dri2es, Hi!h 0re3uenc& Hi!h 5olta!e #n2erters, Precision instrumentation an measurement s&stems an their applications in in ustr&. #n /,=), he returne to #n ia an joine #n ian Space Research Br!anization as a Senior Scientist>En!ineer. At #.S.R.B., he project en!ineere e2elopment of a number of lar!e electronic s&stems for the first time in the countr& un er sponsorship of Dept. of Electronics, No2t. of #n ia. He 1rote a number of technical papers, 1hile at #.S.R.B. Subse3uentl&, in /,*/, he starte 1orkin! in pri2ate sector an e2elope a number of in ustrial s&stems, inclu in! A" 5ariable 0re3uenc& Dri2es, 'PS S&stems, #n2erters, 4emperature "ontrollers, #>P J"urrent to PressureK "on2erters an 0loat(cum(boost char!ers. He also tau!ht 0inal %ear De!ree pro!ram at the 'ni2ersit& le2el for four &ears as a 5isitin! Professor in the Department of #nstrumentation C "ontrols in #n ia. Since Ma& ;+++ he has been 1ith #$%S "orporation as a Senior Applications En!ineer. He has 1ritten a number of Application Reports on the subject of Po1er Electronics. a&patha7@iA#s&net

Mr. Ralph E. Locher earne his AS JPh&sicsK from Rensselaer, 4ro&, -% in /,D/ an his MS JEEK from "ase(.estern Reser2e 'ni2ersit&, "le2elan , Bhio in /,D<. He 1orke for Neneral Electric for man& &ears an 1as a contributin! author of NE LS"R ManualM. He has publishe man& papers, 1hile 1orkin! for 0airchil Electronics, -ational Semicon uctor, Po1er #nte!ration, an #$%S "orporation. He is currentl& the Director of Applications En!ineerin! at #$%S "orporation, Santa "lara, "A. ,<+<9, 'SA. Email7 r.locherTi6&s.net

Prof. Himanshu S. Mazum ar earne his AE JEEK from Oa a2pur 'ni2ersit&, "alcutta, #n ia in /,D* an has submitte his Ph.D. s&nopsis on LApplication of -eural -et1ork for Problem Sol2in!M an 1ill be shortl& submittin! his Ph.D. 4hesis on the same subject. He has ;+ &ears e6perience 1ith ", "HH, Pascal, 5"HHJM0"K, 4AP#, DBS an .in o1s. He is an e6pert in -eural -et1ork, 0uzz& Lo!ic, !eneric Al!orithm, an Assembl& Lan!ua!e Pro!rammin! of microcomputers C DSPs. He is Hea of the "omputer Science Laborator& at the Ph&sical Research Laborator&, Ahme aba ()*+++,, #n ia an Hea , RCD "enter Jhon.K, DD#4, Deeme 'ni2ersit&, -a ia ()*=++/,#n ia. Email7 hsmibmTprl.ernet.in

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