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Inclusion &

Identity
Group Dynamics
Psyc 38
C. Sagarbarria
How do people go from a
me to a we?
Inclusion
When the individual becomes an insider - a member of the
group
Collectivism
When members think and act for the good of the group, and
not for themselves and what they can get out of the group
Identity
When an individuals sense of identity changes and includes
qualities of the group as well
FROM ISOLATION TO
INCLUSION
The Need to Belong
The dispositional tendency to seek out
and join with other humans
Humans have a pervasive drive to form at
least a minimum quantity of lasting,
positive, and impactful interpersonal
relationships
The Pain of Exclusion
Belonging to a group satises our need
to belong
BUT when we are isolated from
people or excluded from a group - it
can be upsetting

Maximum
Exclusion
Active
Exclusion
Passive
Exclusion
Ambivalence
Passive
Inclusion
Active
Inclusion
Maximum
Inclusion

Group rejects
or ostracizes
person
Group avoids
person

Group
ignores
person
Group neither
accepts nor
rejects
individual
Group
allows
member to
join

Group
welcomes
member
Group
actively
recruits
member

Rejection Acceptance

The Inclusion/Exclusion
Continuum
Ostracism
Excluding one or
more individuals from
a group by reducing
or eliminating contact
with the person,
usually by ignoring,
shunning, or
explicitly banishing
them.
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Emotional effects of being ostracised include:
Frustration, anxiousness, nervousness,
loneliness
Physiological effects include:
Elevated blood pressure and heart rate, and
erratic breathing
http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/social-psychology-principles/section_04/d71acaa48cd342f37bce4740c48239b6.jpg
CyberOstracism
Banishment or
exclusion in a virtual
environment such as
the Internet.
http://www.unc.edu/courses/2010spring/law/357c/001/Cyberbully/uploads/4/1/1/3/4113394/8244.jpg
5 Characteristic Stress
Responses
Freeze
Fight or Flight
Tend or Befriend
Freeze
A general shutdown in
behavioral and emotional
reactivity
http://www.myshrink.com/images/caveman4.jpg
Fight or Flight
The instinctive
physiological
response to a
threatening situation,
which readies one
either to resist forcibly
or to run away.
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_GRGtkxPJnlU/TU7Dvd_VUBI/AAAAAAAABMg/YoJ5X2EIq70/s1600/FightOrFlight.jpg
Tend and Befriend
(Tend) support and care for others, help the
group in any way they can and become
cooperative
(Befriend) make new friends or strengthen
friendships
SocioMeter Theory
A theory of self-esteem from an evolutionary
psychological perspective that proposes self-esteem
is a gauge (or sociometer) for interpersonal
relationships
Self-esteem is not the evaluation of your worthit
is an indicator of how well you are accepted into
social groups
The Herd Instinct
Humans are instinctively drawn to gather with other
humans
FROM INDIVIDUALISM TO
COLLECTIVISM
Individualism
A tradition, ideology, or personal outlook that
emphasizes the primacy of the individual and his or
her rights, independence, and relationships with
other individuals
Collectivism
A tradition, ideology, or personal orientation that
emphasizes the primacy of the group or community
rather than each individual
Individualism and Collectivism
have different emphasis when it
comes to:
social relations,
social obligations,
and the social self
Social Relations
Exchange and Communal Relations
Reciprocity - Equity Norm, Equality
Norm
Social Obligations - social contract
Social Self
Personal vs. Social Identity
Optimal Distinctiveness Theory
Need for afliation
Need for intimacy
Need for power
FROM PERSONAL IDENTITY
TO SOCIAL IDENTITY
Social Identity Theory
Simply states that a person will always favor
the group he or she belongs to as opposed to
other groups
based on 2 cognitive processes:
Social categorization
Social identication
Categorization (Stereotypes) - a socially
shared set of cognitive generalizations
about characteristics of the typical
member of a particular group or social
category
Self-stereotyping
Social Identication - Involves the bonding
with and taking on the identity of the group
Evaluating the Self in the
Group
Collective Self-Esteem
Identity and self-worth is tied to the
group
A persons self-concept that is based
on their relationships with other and
membership in social groups
Protecting the Collective Self
In-group Out-group Bias
exaggerating the differences between groups - extolling the
virtue of their groups and antagonizing other groups
Basking in Reected Glory (BIRG)
stressing association with successful groups.
Social Creativity
People restrict comparisons to areas where the group is
strong and avoid areas where the group is weak
Protecting the Personal Self
Stereotype Threat
Individuals will refuse to become connected and be
seen as a stereotype of the group stereotype threat
Individual Mobility
Individuals try to reduce connection to the group to
minimize stereotype threat