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This designer/architect created many pioneer buildings in France throughout the early 21st century.

A current biography for oral or writtens ubmission is what this piece contains! Good luck

e !orbusier "iography# $nterior %esigner and Architect

e !orbusier was born in 1&&' in the (wiss watchmaking town of a !hau) de Fonds. *is father was a highly skilled watch enameler+ his mother was a pianist and music teacher. The family was ,rotestant+ At the age of fifteen# !orbusier enrolled at the local trade school# -.cole d-Art# in order to learn the craft of watch case engra/ing. !orbusier-s mentor at the school was !harles -.plattenier. -.plattenier-s personal mission at -.cole was to find the most promising students alternate careers in the fine arts. *e knew that e/entually the craft works at a !hau) de Fonds would be replicated by machine at a cheaper price# thus destroying the local economy -.plattenier saw promise in the young !orbusier. $n fact# he decreed that the young man should become an architect. !orbusier was at first ambi/alent# preferring a career as a painter# but later he came to embrace the architecture profession. 0ther early influences were .dward (chure-s es Grand $nities and 0wen 1ones-s Grammar of 0rnament. ,lato# (chure# and 1ones# appear to be the most influential on !orbusier-s de/eloping world/iew. From ,lato# !orbusier e)tracted the seemingly uni/ersal ideas of "eauty# Truth# and *armony. The forms were out there# i.e. not of this world+ one only had to get beneath e/eryday and one-s own body.

"auhaus (chool in 2ienna and his association with Auguste ,erret# a ,arisian .ngineer. 3nder ,erret-s guidance# !orbusier learned the aesthetics of functionalism 4the beauty of a carefully calculated structure sans ornament5 and the positi/ism of the modern age. !orbusier shared ,erret-s confidence and enthusiasm for the modern age. *e en/isaged a new and uni6ue role for the artist/architect and the city planner that closely adhered to the capitalist spirit. ,ut simply# !orbusier-s initial encounter with the large comple) city of ,aris con/inced him of the need for modern housing and a modern city. he created the %om7ino housing concept# which was a rectangular structure with only four load bearing reinforced concrete members. The walls# then# could be opened up to sunlight /ia wrap around glass windows. The housing was purported# by !orbusier# to be a cheap# efficient way to The plan had much in common with the !ontemporary !ity 7 clearance of the historic cityscape and rebuilding utili8ing modern methods of production. $n the 9adiant !ity# howe/er# the pre7fabricated apartment houses# les unites# were at the center of :urban: life. es unites were a/ailable to e/eryone 4not ;ust the elite5 based upon the si8e and needs of each particular family. (unlight and recirculating air were pro/ided as part of the design. The scale of the apartment houses was fifty meters high# which would accommodate# according to !orbusier# 2#'<< inhabitants with fourteen s6uare meters of space per person. The building would be placed upon pilotus# fi/e meters off the ground# so that more land could be gi/en o/er to nature. (etback from other unites would be achie/ed by les redents# patterns that !orbusier created to lessen the effect of uniformity. !orbusier spends a great deal of the 9adiant !ity manifesto elaborating on ser/ices a/ailable to the residents. .ach apartment block was e6uipped with a catering section in the basement# which would prepare daily meals 4if wanted5 for e/ery family and would complete each families- laundry chores. The

time sa/ed would enable the indi/idual to think# write# or utili8e the play and sports grounds which co/ered much of the city-s land. %irectly on top of the apartment houses were the roof top gardens and beaches# where residents sun themsel/es in Anatural: surroundings 7 fifty meters in the air. !hildren were to be dropped off at les unites- day care center and raised by scientifically trained professionals. The workday# so as to a/oid the crisis of o/erproduction# was lowered to fi/e hours a day. =omen were en;oined to stay at home and perform household chores# if necessary# for fi/e hours daily. Transportation systems were also formulated to sa/e the indi/idual time. !orbusier bitterly reproaches ad/ocates of the hori8ontal garden city 4suburbs5 for the time wasted commuting to the city. "ecause of its compact and separated nature# transportation in the 9adiant !ity was to mo/e 6uickly and efficiently. !orbusier called it the /ertical garden city.

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