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ThreeColours:Blue MusicEssayPartII Analysing the narrative roles ofmusicandsoundinasceneThreeColours:Blue.

Youranalysis must consist of a graphic score detailing audio events against narrative time and a 1,000 word analyticalcommentary. The music in this extract seems to be a simultaneousblendofdiegeticandnondiegetic function, a quasidiegesis. Juliecanhearthemusicinher mind,andtheaudienceispresumably hearing Julies manifestation of the completed elements of the score.In which case Julie is not physically experiencing the sounds of an orchestra, thus making the music at this point nondiegetic. However, the scene also implies that Olivier, the other character on screen is playing the melody on the piano at the congruent point in time where Julie is hearing the full orchestra. The sound of the piano playing, if heard by the onscreen characters, is absolutely diegeticinnature. In this scene Julie is reorchestrating the instruments used in the Song for the Unification of Europe. The particular alterations made to instrumentation in the score could indicateashiftof personal dedication. There is shift to a lighter style of composition, without percussion and without trumpets, and the addition of a flute in their place. The changes to the score mark a virtually mandatory response to the music being presented. As the score is played for Julie, variousstyletopics aremarkedby particularinstrumentation,andgeneralcharacteristicsofthemusic.Thefirstpart of the score, the alto part indicates that the music is in the key of b minor. Minor keys have intimations of sadness and mourning, an appropriate emotional response to Julies feelings for the work, yet not necessarily too celebratory ideas of European unification. The following percussive elements of the score, after the initial violin phrase, evoke the style topic notions of themasculineandthemilitaristic . The elective musical response here is created by the association ofdrums with marchesand other military musical forms, which emphasise an imperialistic element to a piece for the unification of europe. Percussion also elicits an element of surprise and stark contrastto the precedingmelodyofmourning,asthepercussionsignalsinevitabilityandmovement , echoing theinescapablenatureofthe deathofJuliesfamily.Thetrumpetisthenextinstrument we hear with the orchestra, it also evokes similar masculine style topics tothepercussion.The offbeat nature of both instruments is characteristically male, as is the short phrase length, contrasting with the stingsatthispointwhichflowlyricallywitharegularrhythm,andhavelonger phrase lengths, which are more commonly associated with feminine descriptive attributes. These changes mark a divergence from masculine instrumentation towards more feminine instrumentation brass and percussion giving way to strings and woodwind. This amendment couldsignifyapersonalrepresentationofJuliesdaughter , and to a greaterextent Julies longing memories for her family as it was. This notion could be evidenced by the image of Julie at1:19:45,asshecanbeseentobesubtlysmilingatthesound of the music in hermind,perhapsreminiscingabouttheoriginsofthecompositionortheperson

whomthemusicisdescribing. Other diegetic elements to the scene are the spoken elements of discourse. The discourse punctuates the musical material heard in the soundtrack, and have the effect of drawing the participants of the audioviewing back from thefantasticalelementofthemusictotherealismof dialogue.Thisisevidencedbysimultaneousvisualeffectsoccurringwithtransitionfromdialogue to music, at 1: 18:59 the camera moves to a wideshot and then blurs, denoting a separation from completely real events into a more surreal perception. When Julie is smiling at 1:19:45, she is hearing themusicinheremindandclearlyenjoying it,itis onlytherealityofOliviersvoice that removes the smile from her face removes her reminiscence, intimating Julies dissatisfaction with the reality of the present.Theactualsoundofthevoicesmakesthemabrupt to the perceiver, as the contrastingnatureofpitchandtimbremakethemdistinctfromthelyrical andpassionatedisplaysinthemusic. The theme shown is also important, the motivic themehasbeenusedasaconsistentreminder of Julies memory of herlife before the accident, so its use again and itsalteration to become more Julies work thanherlatehusbandsshowsJulieconfrontingherpastandadaptingtowards the future. In this way the musicalmotive has been used as aleitmotiftosignifyrecollectionsof life and family, and therefore the subsequent changes in instrumentation and timbre make the piece more identifiable with Julie in the present, rather than in the past. The theme is quite romantically, and exotically chromatic and makes use of small trills to add definition to the phrases. The theme, and the score could can be seen to heavily influence the audiences interpretation of the mood at this point, but it is certainly not an unheard melody that is manipulatingaudienceemotion . In this instance the audience is actively thinking about themusic, as it is attheforefrontofthe films soundscape, in an interesting rolereversal the dialogue can be seen as an accompanimenttothemusic,ratherthantheconverse. Additionalelementsofthesoundscapearethe diegeticsoundswhicharenotmusicordialogue. In this extract they include Julies footsteps and a rustle of manuscript paper, these elements simply add depth and realism to scene, and the acceptance of realismfromtheaudience,asa negationofthesedetailswoulddetractfromauthenticityofthesequence. This scene exemplifies the ability of music to describe thought andideas,characters, but also the past and the future. The music also narrates the story more so than the dialogue in the sequencethescoresnuanceandsubtlyspeakmorefluentlythananyscript.

Bibliography Buhler, J., Neuymeyer, D. 'Analytical and Interpetative Approaches to Film Music (I & II), K. J. Donelly,ed.,FilmMusic. Gorbman, C. 1987, Unheard Melodies. Narrative Film Music, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. McMaster,G.,Paulus,I.Jun.,1999,'MusicinKrzysztofKieslowski'sFilm "ThreeColors: Blue".A Rhapsody in Shades of Blue: The Reflections of a Musician', International Review of the AestheticsandSociologyofMusic,Vol.30,No.1,pp.6591 Smith, J. 1996, Unheard Melodies? A Critique of Psycholanalytic Theories of Film Music, BordwellandCarroll,UniversityofWisconsinPress,Madison. Tagg, P. 1999, Music, moving image, semioticsandthedemocratic righttoknow[online],Music and Manipulation, Available from: [Accessed: 10.5.2008].