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IJOSAT Vol.

4, Issue 3, Sept - Dec 2013

A FAST IMAGE SHARPNESS ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION FOR SHARPNESS ENHANCEMENT IN DIGITAL IMAGES
Krishna Koppolu1,K.S.N.V. Someswara Rao2,Vamsidhar Anagani3
M.tech Student, Department of ECE, DIET Anakapalli, Visakhapatnam, AP, INDIA. Assistant Professor, Department of ECE, DIET , Anakapalli, Visakhapatnam, AP,INDIA. 3 Associate Professor & H.O.D, Department of ECE, DIET, Anakapalli, Visakhapatnam, AP, INDIA Email: 1koppolukrisha@gmail.com Email 2someshkambampati@gmail.com Email:vamsidhar@dietakp.com
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AbstractThe application of modern IT-based systems that are developed to support the clinical management of diseases in home healthcare provide an opportunity to reduce medication and diagnostic errors, increase efficiency, and support healthcare professionals. Information Technology (IT) can be defined as the use of electronic machines and programs for the processing, storage, transfer and presentation of information. This paper focuses on the development of an objective, automated method to extract clinically useful information from sustained vowel phonations in the context of Parkinsons disease (PD). The aim is twofold: (a) differentiate PD subjects from healthy controls, and (b) replicate the Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) metric which provides a clinical impression of PD symptom severity. The proposed system is tested and verified using Matlab and the results are analyzed. Key Words : IT, Parkinsons Disease, Matlab, Sustained Vowel phonations I.Introduction
Historical overview of Parkinsons disease1

The Four Vedas. Other possible references to parkinsonian indications include descriptions in the Bible and Iliad of Homer, and later descriptions can be found in the works of Leonardo DaVinci and the plays of William Shakespeare during the 16th century. However, it was the milestone work of James Parkinson in 1817 reported in An essay on the shaking palsy, which provided an overview of the disease in its medical context based on anecdotal observations (Parkinson, 1817). Parkinson himself referred to it as paralysis agitans and the term Parkinsons Disease (PD) was coined later by Jean-Martin Charcot in 1876. Charcot was a highly influential PD researcher, adapting the sphygmograph (originally designed for recording arterial pulse) to record tremor at the wrist, prescribing early drugs, This study addresses the pertinent problem of monitoring neurological disorders and in particular Parkinsons disease (PD). Using speech signals as a measurement, we develop clinically useful tools for (a) differentiating healthy controls from people with Parkinsons (PWP), and (b) monitoring accurately, and remotely, average PD symptom severity as defined by the clinical metric Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). rate worldwide, with PD being the second most common neurodegenerative disorder

The oldest description of parkinsonism symptoms goes as far back as 5,000 B.C. in India allegedly described in Neurological disorders affect people profoundly and claim lives at an epidemic
International Journal of Computer Science And Technology

IJOSAT Vol. 4, Issue 3, Sept - Dec 2013

after Alzheimers (de Rijk et al., 2000). Incidence rates and prevalence rates2 of PD in different studies vary, with a large recent study reporting incident rates of 20/100,000 (Rajput et al., 2007). It is believed that there are more than one million PWP in North America alone (Lang and Lozano, 1998), whilst a large meta-analysis study in Europe reported prevalence rates approximately 108-257/100,000 and incidence rates 1119/100,000 (Campenhausen et al., 2005). Furthermore, Schrag et al. (2002) report that an estimated 20% of PWP go undiagnosed. Most sources claim greater PD prevalence in men than women (Baldereschi et al., 2000; Haaxma et al., 2007) and the lifetime risk, considering current global average life expectancy, is estimated to be 4.4% (men) and 3.7% (women) (Elbaz et al., 2002). Aging is associated with a number of detrimental effects on a persons health impinging on, amongst others, the nervous system. Thus, the aforementioned statistics are bound to increase due to worldwide population aging. In fact, all studies suggest that age is the single most important risk factor for PD onset, which increases steeply after age 50 (Elbaz et al., 2002). The disease is progressive, where symptoms get worse with time and PD progression cannot be stopped; however pharmaceutical and surgical intervention can mitigate the effect of some of the symptoms and prolong the patients life. Clinicians have devised a number of methods to quantify PD symptom severity, and the most widely used metric is the Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (Ramaker et al., 2002), which reflects the presence and severity of symptoms (but does not measure their underlying causes). Monitoring PD progression is critical because this enables improved patient-directed treatment. At present, PD monitoring has many shortcomings:

1)It requires the patients frequent physical presence in the clinic, which may be logistically and financially difficult both for the patients and their careers, especially in the later stages of the disease. 2) It requires the availability of expert clinical staff to do the tests and assess the patients symptoms in order to determine the UPDRS score. 3) The UPDRS assessment is subjective and different expert clinical raters often do not agree on the reported scores (inter-rater variability) ( Rajput et al., 1991; Hughes et al., 1993; Ramaker et al., 2002; Post et al., 2005). 4) It is costly for national health systems, which need to provide facilities to accommodate patients and allocate expensive human resources. 5) It is time-consuming, since the UPDRS examination normally lasts more than two hours (when assessing PD severity both off and on medication) For all these reasons, currently, most PWP will only have UPDRS assessed once every three to six months, if at all, because of the scarcity of resources available to patient, carers, and clinical staff. Therefore, frequent, remote monitoring emerges as a compelling solution to accurately and efficiently follow PD progression at more frequent intervals with less cost and minimal waste of resources. Noninvasive telemonitoring is an emerging option in general medical care, potentially affording reliable, cost-effective screening of PWP, and potentially alleviating the burden of frequent, and often inconvenient, visits to the clinic. This also relieves national health systems from excessive additional workload, decreasing

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IJOSAT Vol. 4, Issue 3, Sept - Dec 2013

the cost and increasing the accuracy of clinical evaluation of the subjects condition. Speech disorders have been linked to PD (Darley et al., 1969a; Gamboa et al., 1997; Ho et al., 2008), and there is strong supporting evidence of degrading performance in voice with PD progression (Harel et al., 2004; Skodda et al., 2009). Speech signals fit ideally the purpose of telemonitoring, because they are noninvasive, can be self-recorded, and are easy to obtain from a subject who is not expected to perform any special kinds of actions in order to record his voice. Differentiating PWP from healthy controls using speech has attracted interest in the research community (Harel et al., 2004; Sapir et al., 2010; Cnockaert et al., 2008; Little et al., 2009); in this study we also extend this concept to map the severity of voice-based PD symptoms to UPDRS. We also wanted to determine the feasibility of remote PD clinical trials on large scale voice data recorded in typical home acoustic environments, where previous studies have been limited to controlled acoustic environments and relatively small numbers of recordings (Little et al., 2009). Recent studies have raised the important topic of finding a statistical mapping between speech properties and UPDRS as an issue worthy of further investigation, but had not addressed it explicitly (Skodda et al., 2009; Goetz et al., 2009). In this study, we will focus on both discriminating PWP from healthy controls, and also determining UPDRS using speech signals alone. II.First-principles models versus datadriven models Approaches to the mathematical modeling of data can be roughly divided into two categories: first-principles and data-driven (Little et al., 2006). Other terms
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have been introduced which essentially amount to the same thing: system model and signal model in the context of speech synthesis (Sinder, 1999), as well as whitebox and black-box (common terminology in control applications)3. In all these cases, the first category employs physical principles that are believed to govern the modelled system, whereas the second develops some mathematical relationship, whose only constraint is that it must approximate as well as possible the measured data, without reference to any physical principles. Mathematical models have been used in practically all disciplines and there is vast literature for both categories; see for example Howison (2005) and Hastie et al. (2009). First-principle models are increasingly popular in biology and medicine. Modelling specific organs and their interactions has attracted enormous interest aiming to discover the underlying mechanisms of certain physiological functions of the human body. Standard reference works for mathematical modelling in biology and physiology include Keener and Sneyd (1998), Ottesen et al. (2004), and Hoppensteadt and Peskin (2002). In the words of Ottesen: Statistical analysis may discover correlations but may fail to provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for these correlations. However, when it is combined with mathematical modelling of the dynamics, new insights into physiological mechanisms may be revealed (Ottesen et al., 2004). Most importantly, the results of first-principle models can be more easily interpreted and understood by specialists who are not necessarily mathematically oriented and thus provides the means for multi-disciplinary interaction. Nevertheless, the data-driven approach has its own importance and complements the firstprinciples approach. Data-driven models do not usually reveal insights into biological causes and functions with quite the same

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transparency as first-principles modelling, but often, it is the only practical thing that can be done, given the typical level of noise and other unknown sources of physiological and environmental variability that affect data recorded in real-world clinical experiments. Data-driven modelling can infer interesting structure in the data, which can sometimes have a meaningful tentative physiological interpretation. The discipline of data-driven inference is more widely known as statistical machine learning, and has led to many exciting discoveries. Stark and Hardy (2003) in their paper in Science conclude: By combining the best features of these two approaches in models that incorporate the main mechanisms underlying specific applications, todays researchers can make far more progress with practical problems than was hitherto possible. III. Proposed Method: This study is an investigation of signal processing and machine learning techniques for the extraction of clinically useful information from speech signals. The aim is both to differentiate PWP from healthy controls, and also to map average PD symptom severity to the standard reference clinical metric UPDRS. We aim to infer properties of the speech signals, extracting useful distinguishing features which are altered as the orchestrated muscle movements involved in voice production become hindered due to the deterioration of neurological control

attributed to dopaminergic neuron loss in the basal ganglia. The means by which we achieve this include: (a) developing novel speech signal processing algorithms, (b) the investigation of robust feature selection algorithms to identify the most useful feature subset, and (c) the subsequent exploitation of the feature subset to estimate UPDRS. a..Typical sustained vowel /a/ phonation. The overall amplitude decays over the duration of the phonation (usually 10-30 seconds). (b) Magnified version of the same sustained vowel /a/ phonation to illustrate the signal amplitude and the signal period. IV. Recurring mathematical concepts Data discretization

Most signals in nature are continuous time-varying quantities, and can be represented as s(t),t R . In order to process such a signal on a computer we need to discretise it, a process known as sampling. This is achieved with an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) which samples the signal at (small, positive) t intervals, and produces the discrete time signal S=s(nt) where n Z denotes the time index in samples. The sampling time interval IV .a. Linear signal processing tools: autocorrelation and cross-correlation Many classical signal processing methods are largely based on techniques such as short-time autocorrelation, which for a signal at lag is defined as:

International Journal of Computer Science And Technology

IJOSAT Vol. 4, Issue 3, Sept - Dec 2013

This paper is designed by taking different sample of data of persons of both who are having Parkinsons disease and not. The database is collected from Physio.org. where (.)* denotes the complex conjugate. The above equation refers to autocovariance, and reserve the term autocorrelation for the case where is normalized to its z-score (i.e. zero mean, standard deviation equal to 1). The autocorrelation is a tool to find repeating patterns in a signal which may be embedded in noise, and expresses the similarity between samples as a function of the difference of their indices. It has a global maximum at Frequency analysis An important tool used extensively in signal processing is frequency analysis: The accuracy results are better when compared to the previous models. The database and the features extracted can be extended depending upon the database availability and complexity of code is simple when compare to previous proposed Models. In this paper the parameters like mean , median ,Fast Fourier transform are considered to calculate and for comparison. The algorithm will be more efficient if tried with non linear controllers like fuzzy or neural Network but the complexity of the program increases drastically. Results:

The original time domain signal is represented in the frequency achieved using the discrete time Fourier transform X, which is defined as:

a. Input Signal The algorithm is as follows 1. Create a database of Signals possessing Parkinsons disease. 2. Read an Input signal to be tested 3. Perform preprocessing 4. Calculate features of the signal 5. Compare the percentage of matching with the Database features 6. Classifying the signal V. Conclusion and future scope
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b. Input Signal Matching with Database

IJOSAT Vol. 4, Issue 3, Sept - Dec 2013

c. Input Signal Not matching with database

References:
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Parkinsons disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999;67:492-6. [11]. Miyasaki JM, Shannon K, Voon V, et al. Practice Parameter: evaluation and treatment of depression, psychosis, and dementia in Parkinson disease (an evidencebased review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2006;66:9961002. [12]. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. (text revision). Washington: American Psychiatric Association; 2001. [13]. Schiffer RB, Kurlan R, Rubin A, et al. Evidence for atypical depression in Parkinsons disease. Am J Psychiatry 1988;145:1020-2. [14]. Rickards H. Depression in neurological disorders: Parkinsons disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005;76(Suppl 1):i48-52. [15]. Leentjens AF, Verhey FR, Luijckx GJ, et al. The validity of the Beck Depression Inventory as a screening and diagnostic instrument for depression in patients with Parkinsons disease. Mov Disord 2000;15:1221-4. [16]. Leentjens AF, Verhey FR, Lousberg R, et al. The validity of the Hamilton and Montgomery Asberg depression rating scales as screening and diagnostic tools for depression in Parkinsons disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2000;15:644-9. [17]. Mossner R, Henneberg A, Schmitt A, et al. Allelic variation of serotonin transporter expression is associated with depression in Parkinsons disease. Mol Psychiatry 2001;6:350-2. [18]. Maricle RA, Nutt JG, Valentine RJ, et al. Doseresponse relationship of levodopa with mood and anxiety in fluctuating Parkinsons disease: a doubleblind, placebocontrolled study. Neurology 1995;45:1757-60. [19]. Cole K, Vaughan FL. The feasibility of using cognitive behaviour therapy for depression associated with Parkinsons disease: a literature review. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2005;11:269-76.

International Journal of Computer Science And Technology