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M.I.

Vuskovic

Operating Systems

Introduction

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Table of Contents:

1.1 WHAT IS OPERATING SYSTEM? 1.1.1 I/O Management 1.1.2 Processor(s) Management 1.1.3 Memory Management 1.1.4 Virtual Memory 1.1.5 Synchronization and Communication 1.1.6 File management 1.1.7 Network management 1.1.8 Security 1.1.9 Graphical User Interface 1.1.10 What is Operating System? 1-2 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 1-9 1-9 1-11 1-12

Copyright 1998-2002 by Marko Vuskovic

M.I. Vuskovic

Operating Systems

Introduction

Hard Drive CPU RAM

Floppy

Monitor& Keyboard

POINTING DEVICE

CD ROM

PRINTER

I/O Management

SPOOL - Simultaneous Peripheral Opeartion On Line


Copyright 1998-2002 by Marko Vuskovic

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M.I. Vuskovic

Operating Systems

Introduction

Processing of a key stroke (Average CPU time < 2 sec)

Averrage time between two key strokes (>0.2 sec = 200,000 sec)

CPU utilization: 0.001%

time

Copyright 1998-2002 by Marko Vuskovic

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M.I. Vuskovic

Operating Systems
Hard Drive CPU RAM Floppy

Introduction

CD ROM

PRINTER

Monitor & Keyboard

Hard Drive CPU CPU RAM

Floppy

Monitor& Keyboard

Monitor& Keyboard

Monitor& Keyboard

CD ROM

PRINTER

Processor(s) Management

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M.I. Vuskovic

Operating Systems

Introduction

MEMORY
User 1 Program 1

User 2

Program 2

User 3 Program 3

Protection

Memory Management

Copyright 1998-2002 by Marko Vuskovic 1-5

M.I. Vuskovic

Operating Systems

Introduction

PRIMARY MEMORY

Program 8 MB

2 MB

PRIMARY MEMORY

SECONDARY MEMORY

2 MB

2 GB

Virtual Memory

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M.I. Vuskovic

Operating Systems

Introduction

Cooperative Programs

Program 1

put

get

BUFFER

Program 2

Data Access

put wait

SHARED MEMORY
get wait Data Access

BUFFER

Program 4 Program 3
wait

Synchronization and Communication

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M.I. Vuskovic

Operating Systems

Introduction

directory directory file directory file file directory file directory file directory file file

directory directory file directory file file directory file directory file directory file file

File Management

The file is a central element for most of the applications Data integrity (dates, access rights) Separating logical from the physical file organization Data recovery Naming (accessing files by their symbolic name)

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M.I. Vuskovic
Hard Drive CPU RAM

Operating Systems

Introduction

Floppy

Monitor& Keyboard

POINTING DEVICE

NETWORK INTERFACE CD ROM PRINTER

e-mail TELNET FTP RLOGIN NFS RPC .........

NETWORK

Hard Drive NETWORK INTERFACE CPU RAM

Floppy

Monitor& Keyboard

POINTING DEVICE

CD ROM

PRINTER

Hard Drive NETWORK INTERFACE CPU RAM

Floppy

Monitor& Keyboard

POINTING DEVICE

CD ROM

PRINTER

Network Management

Security

Copyright 1998-2002 by Marko Vuskovic

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M.I. Vuskovic

Operating Systems

Introduction

DISKLESS WORKSTATIONS
CPU RAM NETWORK INTERFACE

Monitor& Keyboard

POINTING DEVICE

Floppy

CPU

RAM

NETWORK INTERFACE

NETWORK
POINTING DEVICE

Floppy

Monitor& Keyboard

CPU

RAM

NETWORK INTERFACE

FILE SERVER
Monitor& Keyboard POINTING DEVICE Floppy Hard Drive NETWORK INTERFACE CPU RAM Hard Drive Hard Drive Hard Drive

Floppy Monitor& Keyboard CD ROM PRINTER PRINTER PRINTER

Network Management

Security

Copyright 1998-2002 by Marko Vuskovic

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M.I. Vuskovic

Operating Systems

Introduction

Hard Drive CPU RAM Video Card

Floppy

CD ROM

PRINTER

Graphics support Event queues Message loops

Graphical User Interface (GUI)

Copyright 1998-2002 by Marko Vuskovic

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M.I. Vuskovic

Operating Systems

Introduction

What is operating system?

USER PROGRAM

USER PROGRAM

USER PROGRAM

SYSTEM SERVICES (SYSTEM CALL INTERFACE)

COMMAND LANGUAGE INTERPRETER, GUI

FILE MANAGER

OPERATING SYSTEM

VIRTUAL MEMORY MANAGER

SECURITY MANAGER

NETWORK MANAGER

I/O MANAGER PROCESSOR MANAGER (w SYNCHRONIZATION and COMMUNICATION) other MANAGERS and UTILITIES

HARDWARE

ANSI X3.172, 1995: Software that controls the execution of programs and that provides services such as resource allocation, scheduling, input/output control, and data management. Anderson1: An operating system implements a virtual machine that is (hopefully) easier to program than the raw hardware... An operating system is a program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware.

Silberschatz 2:

___________________
1) T. Anderson, Lecture Notes, http://http.cs.berkeley.edu/~tea/cs162sp96 2) A. Silberschatz and P.B. Galvin, "Operating Systems Concepts," AW 1997

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