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Bread Making

Role of Ingredients Flour It acts as a binding agents as an absorbing agents It gives better volume, softness, texture and flavour. It affects the keeping quality. It builds structure of the products. It holds other ingredients together. It is the backbone of yeast Products.

Yeast It takes sugar and releases CO2 and lcohol. It improves the flavour, grain and texture. !or conditioning the dough, so that it attains sufficient pressure of CO2 gas and form the structure or the product. Salt It gives saltish tastes and enhances the s"eet taste. It gives flavour. It controls the yeast activity. It is a tougher "ithout salt the dough is "et. It keeps the product moist and fresh for a long time. #ore salt in the bread formula "ill make the top crust dark in colour. It gives strengthening effect to the protein, "hich improves the gas retention Po"er. It improves the flavour, texture and grain. It enhances the natural flavour of other ingredients. It helps to prevent the formation and gro"th of undesirable bacteria at a certain level in the yeast raised dough It improvers the $ P and self life.

Water It gives moisture to the products It helps to distribute the dry ingredients evenly in to the dough. It helps to build the structure. It controls the dough temperature. It controls the dough consistency "hich may affect the volume and texture. It helps to form the gluten "hen mixed "ith flour and kneaded. It "ets and s"ells starch and renders it digestible. It keeps the product palatable longer.

Fat Sugar

It improves the self life. It converts into vapour during baking, "hich requires more space and thus leavens the products. It improves the nutritional value. It helps to retain the moisture and it improvers its slice ability. It should be added in the last stage of mixing, other"ise it controls the $ P. It makes the product tender and more palatable. It improvers the eating quality, self life and texture quality. It gives a characteristic flavour. It improvers the crumb structure and crust. It gives softness and taste. It keeps the flour gluten. It provides extensibility to the dough.

It gives s"eet taste It is a food for yeast It produces CO2 that raises the dough fabric %structure& It improves the flavour and taste It retains moisture for a longer time and improves the self life. It helps to get crust colour It helps to give a smooth, soft, "hite texture grain and crumbs. It improves the toasting quality, improves the colour and flavour of the toast by caramelisation.

Milk It improves the nutritional value It improves the gas retention po"er of dough and it helps in producing soft and silky structure. It improves the crust colour and "ater retention po"er of bread by the presence of lactose. It improves the texture quality. It keeps the product moist and improves that self life. It contains butterfat, "hich adds unique flavour to the products It helps to bind the flour protein It has a buffering action on dough but exercise fermentation may produce undesirable quality of lactic acid, "hich may break do"n the gluten resulting in bread having a very coarse and dark crumb and unpleasant sour taste and flavour. Improvers It improves the gluten strength and gives soft and shines texture.

It improves the leavening activity and the dough extensibility It controls the mold gro"th It improves the product external and internal qualities. %'.g. (olume, Crust Colour, structure, texture, moisture, aroma, grain, taste, etc& It improves the natural value and the slicing quality. It increase the product self life It helps to increase the fermentation tolerance

Bread Making Methods

Straight dough Method In this method mix all the ingredients in one stage and knead it until the flour protein is "ell developed. )hen the dough to ferment for a predetermined time. )his fermentation period depends on the quality and quantity of yeast, "ater, salt, strength of flour, temperature, etc. If the fermentation time is up to * hours, that is short process methods. If it is more than *hours that is long process method. Salt Delayed Method In this method, mix all the ingredients except salt + fat. ,ecause salt has a controlling effect on en-ymatic action of yeast. .ue to absence of salt, the speed of fermentation is enhanced and gluten is matured in a reasonably short time. !or this method three fourth of mixing should be given initially and one fourth of mixing at the time of adding salt. )he salt is added at the knock back stage. )he method of adding salt is applied as per the convenience of individual baker. No dough time Method In this method, the dough is not fermented in the usual manner. It is /ust allo"ed to rest for 01 minutes. ,ecause of this less fermented time, yeast quantity should be increased to achieved the production of gas and conditioning of gluten and by making the dough little slacker and "armer Sponge and Dough Method In this method the ingredients are mixed in t"o stages. In the first stage a part of flour %213&, proportionate amount of "ater, all the yeast and yeast foods are mixed together. 4onger fermentation sponges may contain some amount of salt also. #ixing operation is carried out /ust sufficiently to incorporate all the ingredients evenly. )his sponge is fermented for a predetermined time.

5ponge fermentation time depends on the quality and quantity of flour.

Fermented Dough Method )his is a variation of sponge and dough method. (ery often a bread formula contains milk, milk po"der, egg substantial quantity of fat and sugar as in the case of s"eet bread, .anish pastry and other fermented products. In all these formulas, ingredients "ill have retarding effect on yeast activity. If all the formula yeast, part of flour, yeast foods and sufficient "ater are mixed together /ust like flying ferment, the yeast gets initially an environment, "hich is conducive for vigorous activity and at the end of fermentation time it is in a fit condition to take the extra load of fermentation. $hen ferment is ready, it is mixed into the dough along "ith the remaining ingredients and allo"ed to ferment for the second stage of fermentation. E ternal Bread faults and their !auses "a!k of volume $rong quality of !lour, $ater %alkaline "ater& $rong quality + quantity of yeast. )oo much salt, fat, sugar milk or milk po"der, improvers and chemicals. 6igh bran content of flour Improper #ixing, ,aking temperature %too hot oven&, 6umidity in proofing room and Improper proofing %under proofing& 7nder fermentation dough and insufficient dough "eight for pan si-e )oo chilled dough and tight dough #oo mu!h volume )oo little salt, too lo" oven temperature and too slack dough. Over fermentation and lose moulding )oo much of yeast, of proofing and dough "eight for the pan $rust $olour #oo %ale )oo little sugar or milk and salt and slack dough )oo much of yeast, temperature for fermentation and dusting flour used. 7nder mixing and baking, Over proofing and hot proofing room 4o" diastatic capacity in the flour and too lo" oven temperature and time. $rust $olour #oo Dark )oo much sugar or milk, egg, fat and salt, and diastatic activity in the dough )oo lo" dough temperature and young dough %under fermented or over mixed&

)oo high oven temperature and too long baking time and lack of humidity in the oven

$rust $ra!king .ough skinning before baking and over proofed dough 5hort process of bread preparation 7neven baking temperature $rust #oo #hi!k Poor quality or too strong flour and less diastatic activity in the flour )oo little sugar or fat and too lo" oven temperature Over fermented dough %old dough& and over baked %baked too long& 4o" humidity in oven and the proofing area $rust #oo &ard ' &ardness in the Bread )oo strong flour, too tight dough, and too much improvers or bleaching agents. 'xcess "ater in the formula and excess flour "hile rolling and holding before baking 4o" fat in the formula and insufficient fermentation Over mixing after "ater has been added $rust Blister )oo much liquid and 8oung dough %under ferment dough& Improper mixing, loose moulding and excess top heat in oven "eathery $rust )oo strong flour used, and too slack dough Insufficient cooling before packing and insufficient kneading 7neven fermentation and excessive humidity during proofing or baking Irregularity of Shape )oo strong or "eak flour and too slack or stiff dough Over ripened dough and over loading in oven Improper #ixing %over or under& and improper fermentation or proofing 9ough handling the dough and bread 4ess bread improvers and "rong quality of "ater %alkaline "ater& 'xcess dough ad compared to bread pan si-e and loose moulding "a!k of $leanliness :o sieving or cleaning of flour and other ra" materials Carelessness "hile "orking, use of unclean "orking table, machinery, mould and equipments

'xcessive fat used for greasing and handling bread "ith dirty hands %before and after baking&

Internal Bread Faults and #heir $auses &oles and #unnels )oo "eak flour or too strong flour )oo much of yeast, Chemicals and 9a" !lour )oo slack dough and too hard and granular fat )oo little salt, too hot oven and 7neven mixing of ra" materials Improver processing %knock back, dividing, moulding&, etc. %oor #aste and Flavour Poor quality of ra" materials and flour )oo much ; lo" salt, too much yeast and too much pan ; tray greasing )oo lo" sugar and too lo" baking temperature and time Over fermented dough or under fermented and dough temperature too high ,urned crust, unclean trays or pans and poor stale yeast $oarse (rain )oo much yeast, liquid and too lo" dough temperature. 7neven mixing of ra" materials and under mixing of dough Improper fermentation and make up %dividing, moulding and panning& Over proofed, dough "eight too much for pan. (ray $rum) 'xcess fat and improvers, excess or less salt. 4ess moisture content, too high temperature 7nder and Over !ermentation, and slack ; tight dough Streaky $rum) Insufficient "ater )oo much dusting flour used Improper #ixing + poor make up %#oulding, Panning& %oor keeping *uality Poor quality of flour and storage condition. )oo much improvers and dusting flour, and too stiff flour and slacky dough. )oo high dough temperature, too lo" baking time and temperature Insufficient salt, sugar, and fat. Insufficient fermentation. Improper moulding and over proofed + cooling. $rong quality of ra" materials and "ithout "rapping bread

%oor #e ture )oo "eak flour, little salt and slack dough. )oo much improver, dusting flour and pan grease. Improper mixing, moulding and processing %not given knock back& Over proofed or under proofed, excess fat ; "ater Insufficient quantity of yeast and too long or short fermentation time )oo lo" oven temperature 5licing of hot bread $rong quality of "ater %alkaline "ater&

Pastry means the "ay fat is introduced into the flour. Pastry is made out of flour, fat, sugar, egg and "ater. )here are different types of pastries, they are <. 5hort Crust Pastry 2. Puff Pastry 0. !laky Pastry =. Philo ; !ilo Pastry *. Choux Pastry 2. .anish Pastry Short $rust %astry 5hort crust pastry is basic pie dough. It is a type of biscuit. It is a friable and easily broken biscuit. It is made out of flour, 5ugar, fat ; butter, salt chemical and little quantity of egg or cold "ater )he basic ratio of short crust pastry is < part of sugar, 2 parts of fat, and 0 parts of flour. )he fat content is generally =1>?13. If the fat content is lo", small quantity of baking po"der should be used to impart tender eating quality. %uff %asty It is a mixture of flour, salt, sugar, chilled "ater and some food acid %like lemon /uice, vinegar and tartaric acid& nd this dough is sheeted and laminated "ith fat to get the flakiness Flaky %astry )his dough is made "ith flour, fat or lard and chilled "ater. .ough is relaxed fro half and hour and it is rolled into rectangular shape and mark it into a 0 equal parts. !at is divided into 0 and apply one portion on 2;0 of the sheeted dough

!old <;0 of the dough %"ith out fat area& over the middle <;0 and remaining <;0 is folded over it. @ive rest for 01 minutes and repeat the same process t"ice. fter that give one blind fold. @ive rest and cut into desired shapes

%hilo ' Filo %astry plain paper A thin pastry made "ith flour, "ater and melted butte. )his dough is sheeted and sprinkled "ith fruits and nuts. 9oll like 5"iss roll and cut into desired sixes. Place it on a cleaned tray. @ive egg "ash and bake it at correct temperature. It can be baked and also deep fried. $hou %astry hollo" shell "hich is crisp "hile eating. It can be piped in different shapes and filled "ith cream, custard ad coated "ith melted chocolate. @lace or fondant icing and also decorated "ith nuts. Danish %astry 5"eet yeast dough laminated "ith fat and cut into different shapes and use chocolate, cheese or any s"eet filling. $are to )e taken +hile preparing pastry ' reasons for failure Short Crust Pastry Soggy )oo much !at + $ater Over pressure "hile rubbing the fat "ith flour (ery cold oven Soft $rum)ly 4ess quantity of flour )oo much fat + leavening material )oo little "ater &ard )oo 5trong flour and )oo little fat )oo much liquid, dusting flour and pressure during sheeting )oo high ; lo" baking temperature Insufficient mixing

Blister )oo much "ater 7neven mixing of fat into flour Insufficient mixing #oo light $olour )oo lo" baking )emperature Shrinkage )oo strong flour )oo much liquid + pressure during sheeting Over mixing Insufficient quantity of fat $rust Sti!king #o %ans $et mould used ,oiling over of filling 4o" bottom heat Improper greased pans $rust Soaked #o Bottom )oo much fat and sugar 4o" baking )emperature !illing contains excess moisture 6ot !illing used ,oiling over of filling ,n)aked !rust )ottom !illing contains excess moisture )oo lo" baking temperature )oo much of oil greased in pans Puff, Flak, Filo / Philo Pastries &ard )oo much of "ater + dusting flour 4o" baking )emperature Over handling and too many turns 7nder cooked Fat $ome -ut During Sheeting !at too soft and door too hard 'dges not sealed properly )oo much of dough temperature 7neven rolling and folding

"ess Flaky 5oft flour used .ough too tight and rolled very thin 7neven mixing !at too even and cool oven Shrinkage .ough too tight Insufficient rest period Over stretching )oo much liquid ,neven Rise )oo soft; hard fat 7neven lamination of fat and temperature Insufficient mixing and dough too stiff 5ides and corners not straight Choux Pastry Soggy )oo much of egg Improper heating "ater 4o" baking temperature 4ess quantity of flour &eavy )oo much of fat + too strong flour Over heating of "ater 4ess quantity of egg :ot enough beating 'gg added "hen mixture "as too hot )oo lo" baking temperature Not $risp )oo much liquid Improper Cooking + 7neven baking time 4o" baking temperature Shrinkage )oo strong flour and batter too loose )oo much "ater and egg used 5hake the tray or oven during baking )oo high temperature

Danish Pastry Fat !omes out during sheeting !at too soft .ough too hard 'dges not sealed properly )oo much of dough temperature )oo high fermentation temperature 7neven rolling and folding Fat runs out of dough +hile )aking 4ess turns )oo high baking temperature "ess Flaky )oo thin rolled out "hile 7neven mixing Rough and Dry )oo light dough )oo less fat )oo cool oven temperature #oo small . too soft )oo many turns has been given 7neven cutting 7nder proofed for too small Over proofed to too soft