Anda di halaman 1dari 28

EVIDENCE BASED

CLINICAL PRACTICE
Rizaldy Pinzon
Clinical Epidemiology Unit
Gadjah mada University School of Medicine
Hospital is not a safe place
Why do we need it ?

383
!"#$"% '()$*+"
!"#$%&'% )*+%$ ,%$#'#&%
-$.#/*0# 1
2
3 4.0%+5.* 4
6
3 -&+*0# 7
8
1
ChieI oI Paediatric Services,
2
Consultant Paediatrician,
3
Senior Registrar, Department oI Paediatrics, Patan
Hospital, Kathmandu


alI oI what you are taught as medical
students will have been shown in ten years to
be wrong. And the trouble is none oI your teachers
know which halI, said Dr. Sydney Burwell, Dean oI
Harvard Medical school, to his students.

New medical knowledge evolves very quickly. It is
very important to keep up to date with current
knowledge Ior care oI our patients. Evidence-based
medicine (EBM) changes routine reading and
reviewing the journals Ior interesting articles into
more practical process oI using the literature to
beneIit the patient, while simultaneously expanding
the knowledge base oI the clinician.
(1)



Evidence-based medicine has been deIined as 'the
process of svstemicallv finding, appraising and using
contemporaneous research findings as the basis for
clinical decision or more simply as 'the fudicious
use of current best evidence in making decisions
about the care of an individual patient.`
(2, 3)


Origin oI evidence- based medicine was in McMaster
University, Ontario, Canada; in the 1980s; where a
group oI researchers wanted to bring about a change
in approach oI medical practice Irom one that had its
Ioundation in personal experience to one based on
scientiIic evidence. Methods to critically appraise
clinical inIormation and classiIying it to the strength
oI evidence were presented in Canadian Medical
Association Journal.
(3)


In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Journal oI
American Medical association published a similar
series on how to critically appraise literature.
Concepts emerging Irom the literature on 'critical
appraisal promoted what has become known as
Evidence-based medicine, suggesting that clinicians
should use critically appraised inIormation in clinical
practice Ior optimal care oI their patients.

Sackett and colleagues have long argued that the
clinical examination should be studied vigorously;
best available evidence must be Iound and applied to
the patient. They deIined evidence based medicine
as 'Integration oI best research evidence with clinical
expertise and our patient values.
(4)


Research evidence is oIten Irom the basic sciences,
but especially Irom patient oriented clinical research.
Clinical expertise is our ability to use our clinical
skills and past experience. Patient values are unique
preIerences, concerns and expectations each oI our
patient brings.

The intersecting part between the three circles, as
shown in the evidence triad
(4)
below, is the medical
evidence Ior a particular patient to be applied to him.











9:00%+;:&$%&'%
Dr. Neelam Adhikari
ChieI oI Paediatric services, Patan Hospital
PO Box 252, Kathmandu, Nepal
Email: neelamadhikarigmail.com





'H
Kathmandu University Medical Journal (2006), Vol. 4, No. 3, Issue 15, 383-389
Why do we need it ?
Denition

383
!"#$"% '()$*+"
!"#$%&'% )*+%$ ,%$#'#&%
-$.#/*0# 1
2
3 4.0%+5.* 4
6
3 -&+*0# 7
8
1
ChieI oI Paediatric Services,
2
Consultant Paediatrician,
3
Senior Registrar, Department oI Paediatrics, Patan
Hospital, Kathmandu


alI oI what you are taught as medical
students will have been shown in ten years to
be wrong. And the trouble is none oI your teachers
know which halI, said Dr. Sydney Burwell, Dean oI
Harvard Medical school, to his students.

New medical knowledge evolves very quickly. It is
very important to keep up to date with current
knowledge Ior care oI our patients. Evidence-based
medicine (EBM) changes routine reading and
reviewing the journals Ior interesting articles into
more practical process oI using the literature to
beneIit the patient, while simultaneously expanding
the knowledge base oI the clinician.
(1)



Evidence-based medicine has been deIined as 'the
process of svstemicallv finding, appraising and using
contemporaneous research findings as the basis for
clinical decision or more simply as 'the fudicious
use of current best evidence in making decisions
about the care of an individual patient.`
(2, 3)


Origin oI evidence- based medicine was in McMaster
University, Ontario, Canada; in the 1980s; where a
group oI researchers wanted to bring about a change
in approach oI medical practice Irom one that had its
Ioundation in personal experience to one based on
scientiIic evidence. Methods to critically appraise
clinical inIormation and classiIying it to the strength
oI evidence were presented in Canadian Medical
Association Journal.
(3)


In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Journal oI
American Medical association published a similar
series on how to critically appraise literature.
Concepts emerging Irom the literature on 'critical
appraisal promoted what has become known as
Evidence-based medicine, suggesting that clinicians
should use critically appraised inIormation in clinical
practice Ior optimal care oI their patients.

Sackett and colleagues have long argued that the
clinical examination should be studied vigorously;
best available evidence must be Iound and applied to
the patient. They deIined evidence based medicine
as 'Integration oI best research evidence with clinical
expertise and our patient values.
(4)


Research evidence is oIten Irom the basic sciences,
but especially Irom patient oriented clinical research.
Clinical expertise is our ability to use our clinical
skills and past experience. Patient values are unique
preIerences, concerns and expectations each oI our
patient brings.

The intersecting part between the three circles, as
shown in the evidence triad
(4)
below, is the medical
evidence Ior a particular patient to be applied to him.











9:00%+;:&$%&'%
Dr. Neelam Adhikari
ChieI oI Paediatric services, Patan Hospital
PO Box 252, Kathmandu, Nepal
Email: neelamadhikarigmail.com





'H
Kathmandu University Medical Journal (2006), Vol. 4, No. 3, Issue 15, 383-389
Evidence based medicine
Untuk patient safety dan
clinical governance
Apakah peresepan elektronik menurunkan medication
error ?
Apakah skrining pasien jatuh bermanfaat untuk
menurunkan insidensi jatuh ?
Apakah "time out" mengurangi insidensi salah operasi ?
Evidence Based Medicine
EBM is not
Cost cutting method
Cook book of medicine
How to practice it ?
How to practice it ?
The steps
Natural history and clinical course
Asking
question
Asking question
Searching

387
!"#$%& "()*("+
Search engines search through various websites and
give out results. The most popular one is Google
(www.google.com). The advantage oI search engines
is that unlisted 'grey literature, conIerence
proceedings and meeting reports that are not indexed
can be located. They widen the scope oI the search
and provide better evidence. Some oI the other
popular search engines are AltaVista, a general
search engine; OMNI and Oncolinc that are medicine
and oncology speciIic search engines respectively.
,"-*%#. ("/+ +"$0*%"+
These are websites that provide the latest
developments in the Iield oI medicine online. The
common medical news services are Medscape,
Reuters Health, Doctor`s guide, Intellihealth and
Amadeus. Subscription to most is Iree.


Sources of Information

Information Source Address / URL
Databases
MEDLINE/ AIDSLINE/ TOXLINE www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Ovid www.ovid.com
Silverplatter www.silverplatter.com
COCHRANE Library www.cochrane.org
EMBASE (Biomedical and pharmacological www.embase.com
Database)
SEARCH ENGINES
Google www.google.com
OMNI www.omni.ac.uk
Oncolink http.//cancer.rhed.upenn.edu
Altavista www.altavista.com
Medical Portals
Amadeus www.amaedeo.com
Intelihealth www.medscape.com
Medscape www.medscape.com
Reuters Health www.reutershealth.com
Biomednet www.bmn.com


4. Appraisal of Evidence and evidence-based
literature
Once a scientiIic article is identiIied, there is a need
to critically appraise it. Appraisal oI an article is a
three-step process as described by William F Misor.
The steps are listed here-
(14)

1. Initial assessment regarding the source oI article-
Is the journal peer reviewed? Will the conclusion
beneIit patient care?
2. Can the clinical questions answered by the article
be applied to aetiology, diagnosis, treatment or
prognosis?
3. Assessment oI validity.

Following are useIul resources in helping us in appraising the evidence-

Appraising evidence
Cochrane Collaboration http://www.cochrane.org/cochrane/hbook.htm
Handbook
CASP Appraisal Checklists http://www.phru.org.uk/~casp/resources/index.htm
EBM toolbox http:// www.med.ualberta.ca/ebm/ebm.htm

Boolean logic
Boolean
logic
Boolean logic
A large numbers of trials
Mission impossible ?
The 4 S
Appraise the evidence
V : validity, the method of the study
I : important, the result of the study
A : applicable, the result of the study is applicable to
our daily patients
How to practice it ?
At the end, you must always
update