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The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the

views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Panel Discussion on issues, emerging trends and promising practices for addressing gender issues in ADB Priority Sectors: Urban Development

Training Program on Capturing Gender Equality Results and Implementing Impact Evaluation in ADB operations October 09, 2013

The objective of this presentation is

To present to you key elements for mainstreaming gender in the implementation of your projects according to the policies, strategies, schemes and program of Government of India and ADB. Thus ensuring gender equality results as a consequence of closer attention to planning, implementation, monitoring, tracking and reporting with the GE lenses.

Presentation structure is
Keys GE issues in the Urban Development Sector Policies and Program Environment for GE Initiatives in the Sector Experiences of ADB in Supporting GE in Urban Development Investment Strengthening the ADB approach: Challenges and Opportunities Examples from ADB documents & other success stories.

Setting for Urban Development

Size o f the Urban Population

31% urban population, 377 million citizens of India live in urban areas; Census 2011 by 2030 40% in India will live in Urban areas, 50% in 5 states (TN, Guj, Maha, Ktk, and Pun). Most of 70% urban population (70%) live in towns or urban agglomerations of 100,000 or > and this category has grown fastest & least infrastructure, amenities & services growth.

Demographic Bulge
India- 76% of the population is under 32

Classification of Households by Sex of the Head of the Households

Indicator Census 2011 Number of Households (in lakh) Total Rural Urban

Total Male Headed Female Headed Number of Households (in %)

2,467 2,198 269

1,678 1,504 174

789 694 94

Availability of Amenities Source of Drinking Water, India

Source of Drinking Water Source: Tap water Well Hand-pump Tube well/ Bore hole Other sources Location: Within premises

Female Headed HH%

Male Headed HH%

48.5 12.6 27.7 7.7 3.6

42.9 10.8 34.2 8.6 3.5


Sanitation facilities : Census 2011

51.7% HH have no latrines in the premises 59.4 % HH have bathing facilities in their premises.

Story of the Fox & Stork

The fox and the stork - Small stories for kids video - Aesops fables.flv What does this story tell us? What do you think the Stork and Fox may have done after this ending?


Scope for Gender Mainstreaming in :

Urban Infrastructure Development Urban Slum Development - Community development Urban Governance
- Support to municipal reforms - Capacity development - Improved service delivery


A. Key GE issues : Urban Development Sector 1

Wat San infrastructure and services Cities Safe for women Vulnerable women Property Rights, limited housing options, need support, Land value & costs of services rise Inclusion of voices , opinions & interests not guaranteed in participatory processes Gaps in capacities - Gender Sensitive analysis, planning, monitoring & service delivery in agencies at all levels

Key GE issues : Urban Development Sector 2

Women need Economic Opportunities & Livelihoods options Biases limit options for wages & incomes Unskilled and Manual Tasks in Construction sites. Limited opportunities for skills training Financial inclusion far for poor women in urban areas. Not enough attention to developing models & products compared to poor rural women.

B. Policies and Program Environment for GE Initiatives in the Sector -1

The potential contribution of urbanization to inclusive growth includes actions: to support more effective decentralization of urban local bodies, to improve governance at the local level, to provide the necessary infrastructure for urban residents and for industry and to improve livelihood & employment opportunities for the poor.

B. Policies and Program Environment for GE Initiatives in the Sector -2

High priority given to womens participation in local decision making by both central & state governments. Community participation identified as essential for infrastructure development, including in the publicprivate partnership (PPP) mode- PPPP. Antipoverty & resettlement programs have a role in strengthening womens property rights. The need to address gender biases in the construction industry has been recognized.

B. Policies and Program Environment for GE Initiatives in the Sector -3

Census 2011 & the SECC 2011 (urban) show awareness of the constraints on women within households as well as on women-headed households, & strengthen their access to programs for the poor. SHGs are being assigned increasingly important functions in livelihood programs in urban as well as rural areas. Measures to increase access by women to skill training for employment recognized.

Experiences of ADB in Supporting GE in Urban Development Investment

A major focus of the gender equality approaches in ADBs urban sector projects has been to ensure representation of women in participatory processes.


Strengthening the ADB approach: Challenges and Opportunities

Representation of gender equality issues in ADB sectoral analyses and reports and in the overall strategy for the urban sector.
analytic studies and assessments provide an opportunity to strengthen the integration of gender analyses into the sectoral approach and to identify relevant objectives and effective strategies.


Strengthening the ADB approach: Challenges and Opportunities- 2

Capacity of partners at state and municipal levels to reach women and support gender equality. capacity to consult effectively with both women & men is important, the capacity of state & local bodies to serve women equitably includes other elements and skills. One major issue is awareness of how women & men are affected differently by decisions Capacity to use sex disaggregated data Awareness at different levels of issues that affect women- right to property, right to life with dignity and free of violence


Strengthening the ADB approach: Challenges and Opportunities- 3

Extent to which publicprivate partnerships lead to positive gender equality outcomes. Capacity needed by its government partners to manage PPP projects to achieve these gender equality outcomes capacities to develop PPP contracts & agreements that are clear on the obligations of all parties to the objective of equitable & inclusive service delivery.


Strengthening the ADB approach: Challenges and Opportunities- 4

Potential ADB contribution through infrastructure to achieving Safe cities for women. Safe access to services like water & sanitation, well lit roads, combination of small business establishments along roads, safe well lit stops and safe transport system which takes off the passenger load.


Strengthening the ADB approach: Challenges and Opportunities- 5

Potential to incorporate awareness-raising on womens rights as citizens into community development activities. Right to property, right to livelihood, right to harassment free workplace, right to life and dignity, right to access to services, right to participate in good governance


Strengthening the ADB approach: Challenges & Opportunities- 6

Livelihood opportunities related to infrastructure services.
functioning SHGs be assisted through training & other support to advance to less conventional & more remunerative business strategies.

Livelihood opportunities related to tourism development.

training & certification of women as regional tourist guides, taxi drivers included basic self-defense, languages and tourist handling. Other courses covered the hotel sector, airlines, & small restaurants.

Project Design and Management Challenges

Strengthen gender analysis in project preparation. Mainstream the gender analysis into project documents. Clarify the strategic rationale for the gender action plan in the plan and in the main project document. Take a more strategic and evidence-based approach to target setting. Ensure that monitoring approaches provide feedback to managers about the progress of implementation and to ADB about results achieved

Project Design and Management Challenges

To validate the results achieved and to strengthen the evidence base of the results it will be useful to conduct a comprehensive Gender Assessment at the closure of the project. This methodology and process ideally includes an audit of all policies, systems, processes, structures, resource mobilization,allocation as well as absorption, staff capacities and so on.

Examples from ADB documents & other stories.

Proposed Multitranche Financing Facility India: Infrastructure Development Investment Program for Tourism PROJECT 2 GENDER ACTION PLAN Investment Program for Tourism (RRP IND 40648) GENDER ACTION PLAN Why 33% ? Why not more?