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1. INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1.

Background:
There are so many forms of calamiti ! in natur . Severe calamity may also be caused by direction of the invisible hand, that is called natur ". So, if one is not careful, the civilization will be ruined in no time. As for example the cyclone of Orissa & Tsunami !ec. "##$% had caused vast losses. &arth'ua(e is a sha(in), tremblin), or concussion of the surface of earth, due to subterranean causes, often accompanied by a rumblin) noise. *t is basically a )round sha(in) ori)inatin) from part of the earth+s crust, )enerally alon) crac(s or fractures (nown as faults,. The wave of shoc( sometimes traverses, destroyin) cities and many thousand lives- .. called also art#din$ art#%uak $ and art#!#ock.

&arth'ua(es may result in lac( of basic necessities, loss of life, )eneral property dama)e, road and brid)e dama)e, and collapse of buildin)s or destabilization of the base of buildin)s which may lead to collapse in future earth'ua(es. *f a structure has not been desi)ned and constructed to absorb this swayin) )round motion then ma/or structural dama)e or outri)ht collapse can result, with )rave ris( to human life. To fi)ht a)ainst this challen)e of nature, the structural en)ineers are supposed to su))est various approaches to retrofit or restren)then the existin) structures and innovate desi)n techni'ues for new constructions. Over the past decades, earth'ua(e resistance desi)n of buildin) structures has been lar)ely based on a ductility desi)n concept worldwide. The performance of the intended ductile structures durin) ma/or earth'ua(es e). 0orthrid)e 1223, 4obe 122$, chi. chi 12225 etc.% didn+t prove to be satisfactory & indeed far below expectations.

6i)h uncertainty of the ductility desi)n strate)y is primarily attributed to7 Source7 8undamental of seismic base isolation, by 9an), :en.;o, Taiwan% The desired stron) column wea( beam, mechanism may not form due to existence of walls. Shear failure of columns due to inappropriate )eometrical proportion or short column effect. <onstruction difficulty in )routin), especially at beam.column /oint, because of complexity of steel reinforcement in ductility desi)n., !ifferent methods for seismic retrofittin) of buildin)s can be )rouped under two main strate)ies. Structural =ehabilitation by stiffness stren)thenin) & >ase *solation, by Sachin ;andit, **T !elhi, "##$%

a.& ' i!mic r tro(itting )'tructural !tr ngt# ning& *.& A! i!mic r tro(itting )+orc r duction& 1.1.1 ' i!mic r tro(itting )'tructural 'tr ngt# ning&
This method is consistent with conventional seismic desi)n concept of structural stren)thenin). *t involves stren)thenin) of the structure such that it can resist the lateral loads. The stren)thenin) in the buildin)s can be achieved by additional bracin)s, shear walls, wall panels, foundations etc. to the buildin) such that the lateral stiffness of the structure is increased. *n the field of structural stren)thenin) the improvement in shear stren)th of the structural elements is of prime importance, One ma/or )roup ,-ILTI" $ is there in the field of shear connectors which are extensively bein) used in structural stren)thenin).

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8i). 1.1a% Additional foundations.

8i).1.1b% Additional shear walls. Source 8i). 1.1a & 1.1b%7 ?ethods of seismic retrofittin) of structures, web.mit.edu@ist)roup@ist@documents@earth'ua(e@;art$.pdf , *ST )roup "##3%

8i). 1.1c% Bac(etin) of column.

8i).1.1d% Additional column.

8i). 1.1 c & d% 7 <onventional =etrofittin) techni'ues% Source77 ?ethods of seismic retrofittin) of structures, web.mit.edu@ist)roup@ist@documents@earth'ua(e@;art$.pdf , *ST )roup "##3% <ommon conventional techni'ues for stren)thenin) reinforced cement concrete elements include concrete /ac(etin), addition of columns, shotcretin)@)unitin) and steel plate bondin) and stren)thenin) of beams and columns usin) new advanced composite materials.

1.1.. A! i!mic r tro(itting )+orc r duction&


This method is consistent with the aseismic desi)n philosophy. 6ere the ade'uacy of the structure for lateral resistance is not important because it is aided by additional devices which ta(e care of the expected seismic forces. This strate)y is classified under passive and active control of response of the structure. C>ase isolators+, CDisco.elastic dampers+, Cfriction dampers+, Ctuned mass dampers+ are examples of passive control. Supplemented dampin) systems are mechanical devices that can be incorporated in the framed structure and dissipate ener)y at discrete locations throu)hout the structure. These devices include either one of the yieldin) of mild steel, slidin) friction, motion of pistons within fluids, orificin) of fluid or viscoelastic action of elastomeric materials. !ampin) devices can provide also supplemental stiffenin) and stren)th to structures that lac( such properties, in most cases without alterin) the existin) components. All the above techni'ues have the flexibility to provide either more dampin), or stiffness, or both, to better control the interaction with existin) components and reduce the seismic demands without modification of the existin) structural components. Active control can be achieved by usin) Caccentuated tunes mass dampers+, Cactuators+ and Cactive tendons+. The principle of the active systems is to provide external corrective forces at strate)ic points in the structure, to constrain the response within predetermined performance limits. Active bracin) systems and active variable stiffness systems are systems built of conventional structural components of structures enhanced with external forces that modify either the effective dampin) , or the natural fre'uency of the system to produce more efficient vibration suppression. An active control system is a dynamic system that comprises sensors, controllers, control al)orithm and active control force )enerator which acts as an inte)ral system.

1.. Ba! I!olation


One of the most widely implemented and accepted seismic protection systems is base isolation. Seismic base isolation is a techni'ue that miti)ates the effects of an earth'ua(e by essentially isolating the structure and its contents from potentially dan)erous )round motion, especially in the fre'uency ran)e where the buildin) is most affected . *n recent years base isolation has become an increasin)ly applied structural desi)n techni'ue for buildin)s and brid)es and especially for structures that must remain fully functional durin) a ma/or earth'ua(e e.)., hospitals, fire stations, and emer)ency command centers. ?any types of structures have been built usin) this approach, and many others are in desi)n phase or in construction. *n *ndia we have >hu/ hospital buildin) which is the only existin) seismically isolated buildin). Two more are in construction phase 7 i% A new ward bloc( at ET> Euru Te) >ahadur% hospital Shadara !elhi, ii% Shimla hospital buildin) which is done with desi)ns by faculty of **T 4anpur. The ob/ective of base isolation systems is to decouple the buildin) structure from the dama)in) components of the earth'ua(e input motion, i.e. to prevent the superstructure of the buildin) from absorbin) the earth'ua(e ener)y. The entire superstructure must be supported on discrete isolators whose dynamic characteristics are chosen to uncouple the )round motion. Some isolators are also desi)ned to add substantial dampin). 8or e). F=> i.e. Faminated =ubber >earin) with lead core provides substantial amount of dampin) by virtue of ener)y dissipation in lead core. !isplacement and yieldin) are concentrated at the level of the isolation devices, and the superstructure behaves very much li(e a ri)id body. as shown in followin) fi)ures. 1." a & b%%

8i). 1."a% !eformation before base isolation

8i).1."b% !eformation after base isolation. Source7 ?ethods of seismic retrofittin) of structures, web.mit.edu@ist)roup@ist@documents@earth'ua(e@;art$.pdf , *ST )roup "##3%

1...1 'uita*ilit/ o( *a! i!olation


&arth'ua(e protection of structures usin) base isolation techni'ue is )enerally suitable if the followin) conditions are fulfilled. as stated in a paper by Sa/al (anti deb **TE% seismic isolation 7 An overview,% I The subsoil does not produce a predominance of lon) period )round motion. I The structure is fairly s'uat with sufficiently hi)h column load. I The site permits horizontal displacements at the base of the order of "## mm or more. I Fateral loads due to wind are less than approximately 1#J of the wei)ht of the structure., >ase isolation systems use a flexible layer at the base of the structure, which allows relative displacements between the foundation and the superstructure. !ue to the addition of an isolation layer, the fundamental time period of the structure len)thens so as to move away from the dominant time periods of )round motions, thereby reducin) the acceleration induced in the structure.

Strate)ies to achieve seismic isolation includes7 ;eriod shiftin) of structure. fi).1.A% <uttin) off the load transmission path. The isolation bearin)s with considerable lateral flexibility help in reducin) the earth'ua(e forces by chan)in) the structure+s fundamental time period to avoid resonance with the predominant fre'uency contents of the earth'ua(es. 9hereas the slidin) type isolation bearin)s filter out the earth'ua(e forces via the discontinuous slidin) interface, between which the forces transmitted to the superstructure are limited by the maximum friction forces, re)ardless of earth'ua(e intensity.

8i). 1.A % ;eriod shiftin) in case of base isolation. source 7 !esi)n of seismic isolated structures , by 0aeim & 4elly% .

1.0 T/1 ! o( I!olation '/!t m!


There are two basic types of isolation systems. They are A. &lastometric >earin)s > .Slidin) System

1.0.1 Ela!tom tric B aring!


The system that has been adopted most widely in recent years is typified by the use of elastomeric bearin)s, the elastomer is of either natural rubber or neoprene. *n this approach, the buildin) or structure is decoupled from the horizontal components of the earth'ua(e )round motion by interposin) a layer with low horizontal stiffness between the structure and the foundation. This layer )ives the structure a fundamental fre'uency that is much lower than its fixed.base fre'uency and also much lower than the predominant fre'uencies of the )round motion. The first dynamic mode of the isolated structure involves deformation only in the isolation system, the structure above bein) to all intents and purposes ri)id. The hi)her modes that will produce deformation in the structure are ortho)onal to the first mode and conse'uently also to the )round motion. These hi)her modes do not participate in the motion, so that if there is hi)h ener)y in the )round motion at these hi)her fre'uencies, this ener)y cannot be transmitted into the structure. The isolation system does not absorb the earth'ua(e ener)y, but rather deflects it throu)h the dynamics of the system. This type of isolation wor(s when the system is linear and even when undamped- however, some dampin) is beneficial to

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suppress any possible resonance at the isolation fre'uency. Some examples of this system are Faminated =ubber >earin) F=>%, 0ew Lealand isolation system 0L%.

1.0.1.1 Laminat d Ru** r B aring


An F=> is made of alternatin) layers of rubber and steel with the rubber bein) vulcanized to the steel plates. Therefore, the bearin) is rather flexible in the horizontal direction but 'uite stiff in the vertical direction. 9ith its horizontal flexibility, the F=> provides protection a)ainst earth'ua(es by shiftin) the fundamental fre'uency of vibration to a much lower value and away from the ener)y containin) ran)e of the earth'ua(e )round motion. The horizontal stiffness of the bearin) is also desi)ned in such a way that it can resist the wind forces with little or no deformation. This base.isolation system has been used in a number of buildin)s in &urope, Bapan and 0ew Lealand.

8i).1.3%. A tipical elastomeric bearin). source7 *S&T Bournal, paper no.$3$,"##$ by Oliveto & ?arletta, university of <atania, *taly %

1.0.1.. N 2 3 aland )N3& '/!t m


A laminated rubber.bearin) system in which a central lead core is used to reduce the base relative displacement and to provide an additional mean of ener)y dissipation has been used widely in 0ew Lealand. This system is referred to as the 0ew Lealand 0L% base.isolation system. The rubber provides the flexibility for the lateral displacement of the 11

isolator while the yieldin) property of the lead core serves as a mechanism for dissipatin) ener)y and hence reducin) the lateral displacement of the isolator.

8i). 1.$ % Schematic dia)ram of a%F=> b% 0L System. Source7 ?ulti.story base.isolated buildin)s under a harmonic )round motion . ;art *7 A comparison of performances of various systems, by 8a.Eun) 8an and Eoodarz Ahmadi %

1.0.. 'liding '/!t m


The second basic type of isolation system is typified by the slidin) system. This wor(s by limitin) the transfer of shear across the isolation interface. ?any slidin) systems have been proposed and some have been used. *n <hina there are at least three buildin)s on slidin) systems that use a specially selected sand at the slidin) interface. >ase isolators in which the only isolation mechanism is slidin) friction are classified as ;ure. 8riction ;.8% or Slidin).Boint base.isolation systems. *n this class of isolators, the horizontal friction force offers resistance to motion and dissipates ener)y. These isolation devices have no restorin) force and residual slip displacement between the structure and the foundation will remain after each earth'ua(e. The examples of isolation devices in this system are ;ure. 8riction ;.8% or Slidin).Boint base.isolation system, =esilient.8riction >ase.*solation =. 8>*% system, 8riction ;endulum system 8;S%.

1.0...1 4ur +riction '/!t m! )45+&


>ase isolators in which the only isolation mechanism is slidin) friction are classified as ;ure. 8riction ;.8% or Slidin).Boint base.isolation systems. *n this class of isolators, the horizontal 1"

friction force offers resistance to motion and dissipates ener)y. These isolation devices have no restorin) force and residual slip displacement between the structure and the foundation will remain after each earth'ua(e.

8i).1.G% Fow friction bearin) device Source7 *S&T Bournal, paper no.$3$,"##$ by Oliveto & ?arletta, university of <atania, *taly %

1.0.... R !ili nt5 +riction Ba! 5I!olation )R5+BI&


This isolator is composed of several layers of teflon.coated friction plates with a central core of rubber. The rubber provides the resilient force for the system while ener)y is dissipated by the friction forces.

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8i). 1.H schematic dia)ram of a% ;.8 & b% =.8>* system. Source 7 ,?ulti.story base.isolated buildin)s under a harmonic )round motion .;art *7 A comparison of performances of various systems, by 8a.Eun) 8an and Eoodarz Ahmadi%

1.0...0 +riction 4 ndulum '/!t m )+4'&


8riction pendulum 8;% isolators are special type of slidin) isolator that combines the ener)y dissipation characteristics provided by friction with the restorin) force capability provided by the spherical concave slidin) surface. The isolator assembly consists of a polished stainless steel concave slidin) surface and an articulated slider that is coated with a low friction composite material. The radius of curvature of the spherical surface and the desired coefficient of friction between the slider and slidin) surface are the properties of the 8; isolator that are specified by the desi)n en)ineer. !urin) an earth'ua(e, the articulated slider moves within the spherical surface followin) the curvature of the surface which results in pendulum motions for the supported superstructure. As such, the period of the isolation system can be calculated based on dynamics of a simple pendulum. An interestin) feature of the 8; isolator system is that the isolation system period depends only on the radius of the slidin) surface and unli(e rubber isolators, is independent of the buildin) wei)ht. !ue to the curvature of the slidin) surface, as the slider moves up the surface durin) an earth'ua(e, a restorin) force is )enerated that depends on the lateral displacement of the isolator.

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8i). 1.K dia)ram depictin) mechanism of 8riction ;endulum System Source7 fundamentals of seismic base isolation, I 9an), :en.;o%

1.0...6 El ctricid d +ranc )ED+&


An &!8 base.isolator unit consists of a laminated steel.reinforced% neoprene pad topped by a lead.bronze plate which is in frictional contact with a steel plate anchored to the base raft of the structure. 9henever there is no slidin) in the friction plate, the &!8 system behaves as an F=>. *n this case, the flexibility of the neoprene pad provides isolation for the structure. The presence of the friction plate serves as an additional safety feature for the system. 9henever the )round acceleration becomes very lar)e, slidin) occurs which dissipates ener)y and limits the acceleration transmitted to the superstructure.

1.0...7 'liding R !ili nt5+riction )'R5+&


The main feature of this system is the two frictional elements. 9henever there is no slidin) in the upper friction plate, the S=.8 base isolator behaves as an =.8>* unit. 8or hi)h intensity earth'ua(e )round accelerations, slidin) in the upper friction plate occurs which provides an additional mechanism for ener)y dissipation and increases the effectiveness of the isolation system.

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8i). 1.2 schematic dia)ram of a% &!8 & b% S=.8 system Source 7 ,?ulti.story base.isolated buildin)s under a harmonic )round motion .;art *7 A comparison of performances of various systems, by 8a.Eun) 8an and Eoodarz Ahmadi%

1.6 4rinci1l o( Ba! I!olation


The basic concept of base isolation is to reduce the fundamental fre'uency of structural vibration to a value lower than the predominant ener)y containin) fre'uencies of earth'ua(e )round motions. The other purpose of an isolation system is to provide means of ener)y dissipation with which to reduce the transmitted acceleration to the superstructure. Accordin)ly, by usin) base isolation devices in the foundations, the structure is essentially uncoupled from the )round motion durin) earth'ua(es. Since a base isolator has a fundamental fre'uency lower than both its fixed base fre'uency and the predominant fre'uencies of )round motions, the first mode of isolated structure involves deformation only in the isolation systems - the structure above remainin) almost ri)id. Thus, the hi)h ener)y in the )round motion at the hi)her fre'uencies are deflected. *n this way, the isolation becomes a very attractive approach where protection of expensive e'uipments and internal non. structural components is needed.

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Alon) with the elon)ation of time period of the structure, the forces in the structure are also reduced due to the dampin) if present% of the base isolator. !urin) the earth'ua(e , the base isolators )o into the inelastic zone and show hysteretic stress strain curve. The absorption of the seismic ener)y is proportional to the area under the stress strain curve of the base isolators. The first desi)n )uide on base isolated structures was published by the Structural &n)ineers Association of <alifornia S&AO<% in 122#.This also appeared in 1221 in Mniform >uildin) <ode M><%. Ban)id =.S. and !atta T.4. have presented a =eview of the seismic behaviour of base isolated >uildin)s., They have reviewed Darious types of base isolators and their performance under seismic loads.,

8a.Eun) 8an and Eoodarz Ahmadi have performed a ;erformance analysis and sensitivity analysis of various isolation systems for a multi storeyed base isolated buildin) under harmonic )round motion., E. 8alsone and E. 8erro have studied the >est performin) parameters of linear and non. linear seismic base.isolator systems obtained by the power flow analysis., ?urat !icleli and of freedom systems., Sa/al 4anti !eb has )iven An overview of seismic isolation, and also a Three dimensional nonlinear analysis procedure., She has also discussed &ffects of soft soil and near faults on performance of base isolated buildin)s., Sri(anth >uddharam have done a <omprehensive evaluation of

e'uivalent linear analysis method for seismic.isolated structures represented by sin)le de)ree

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Bames S. >ailey and &dmund 9. Allen have discussed The seismic isolation retrofittin) of Salt Fa(e <ity and <ounty >uildin)., Dasant ?atsa)ar and =.S. Ban)id has studied the &ffect of isolator characteristics on response of isolated structures., &n)ineerin) Structures ,"##3% , they also have wor(ed on >ase.isolated >uildin) with Asymmetries due to the *solator ;arameters, Advances in Structural &n)ineerin) Dol. K, no. G , !ec. "##$ %, Discoelastic dampers connected to ad/acent structures involvin) seismic isolation, Bournal of civil &n)). & ?ana)ement , Dol. 11, no. 3 , Ban. "##$% & Seismic response of base.isolated structures durin) impact with ad/acent structures, &n)ineerin) structures, "##A%

1.7. A11lication! o( *a! a! i!mic r tro(itting:

i!olation t c#ni%u

2orld2id

(or

Ba! I!olation in 8a1an: The techni'ue is bein) extensively used in 8a1an and )ained momentum at the most rapid rate there, coz of the lavish expenditures on research in the field of base isolation. The lar)est base isolation retrofit wor( was that of Building! 1 t#roug# 6 o( 9it!u*i!#i Logi!tic! Cor1oration:! Tok/o DIA Building$; a complex housin) a computer center and data stora)e facilities, completed in around one year by Ta(ena(a corporation Osa(a,. The retrofittin) wor( was carried out while the computers inside the buildin) were operatin) for "3 hours a day. *n that pro/ect "G3 rubber bearin)s and "K wall type viscous dampers were bein) used over an area of about GK,### s'uare meters. Darious other applications were there in Bapan7 9est Bapan postal center, Sanda,, ?atsumura.Eumi Technical =esearch *nstitute 4obe earth'ua(e%, etc.

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U' a11lication! : Nuite a )ood number of base isolation wor(s r bein) done in Mnited states 7 8oothill communities law and /ustice centre 8<FB<%, =ancho <ucamon)a, <alifornia,, 8ire <ommand & <ontrol 8acility 8<<8%, Fos An)eles , <alifornia,, &mer)ency Operations <enter, Fos An)eles, <alifornia,, 4in), !rew !ia)nostics Trauma <enter, 9illowbroo(,, Oa(land <ity 6all,, San 8rancisco <ity 6all,, ?ac(ay School Of ?ines, =eno, 0evada, ,M.S. <ourt of Appeals, 8;S *solators%, San 8rancisco, <alifornia,, Fos An)eles <ity 6all,, ?arina Apartments, San 8rancisco, <alifornia, and several others are there. Ba! i!olation in N 2 3 aland : The first ever base isolated buildin) usin) lead rubber bearin)s was 9illiam <layton >uildin) *n 9ellin)ton, 12K1%, other base isolated buildin) are Mnion 6ouse Auc(land, and <entral ;olice Station, 9ellin)ton,.

The structures retrofitted usin) base isolation are 7 0ational ?useum of 0ew Lealand, , 0ew Lealand ;arliament 6ouse, and ;rintin) press >uildin) , ;enton., &tc. Other than above several examples of base isolation wor( done are there in &urope *taly, <alaberia, fri)ento etc.% and other parts of the world across the )lobe.

1.< Ba! I!olation : E= cution o( R tro(itting Work


Mse of base isolation in seismic retrofittin) is a very useful option when the structures are of post.earth'ua(e importance i.e. when structures are supposed to perform well /ust after the earth'ua(e or even durin) the earth'ua(e such as hospital buildin)s or fire stations etc. And to achieve the desired performance level for a structure isolated% in case of an earth'ua(e as expected from desi)n & analysis, the one aspect of paramount importance is the installation of isolators,. After )oin) throu)h some of the case studies available for seismic retrofittin) usin) base isolation a se'uence for installation and construction is bein) )iven here in the followin) sub.sections.

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=etrofittin) wor( usin) the approach of Ba! i!olation, when carried out in the field should follow the installation and construction se'uence )iven below 7

1.<.1 T#

in!tallation ! %u nc

(or a t/1ical LRB into a

r in(orc d concr t column:


<etin :ilmaz, &dmund >ooth & <hris S(etchley =etrofit of Antalya Airport *nternational terminal buildin), Tur(ey usin) Seismic *solation,. ;aper no.1"$2, 8irst &uropean conference on &arth'ua(e &n)ineerin) & Seismolo)y. % Temporary steel columns on suitable foundations are to be installed to either side of the column into which the bearin) is to be installed 8i)ure 1.1#%. 6ydraulic /ac(s are to be placed at the heads of the temporary columns, bearin) onto the soffit of the beams at first floor level, and stressed to a predetermined level, calculated as the )ravity load in the permanent column from the analysis usin) appropriate software 7 SA; or &TA>S%. The hydraulic fluid in the /ac(s is to be loc(ed off.

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8i). 1.1# *nstallation of temporary steel props.

>ench mar(s are to be introduced onto the column /ust above and below the final position of the bearin), and measurements are to be ta(en, to enable subse'uent chec(s to be performed of possible movements of the column. Two horizontal cuts are to be made in the column usin) a diamond chain saw 8i)ure 1.11%. The bloc( of concrete in between is to be removed 8i)ure 1.1"%. The

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movements of the column above and below the cuts is then to be measured- in most cases this is )enerally small, but can reach as much as Gmm. This is considered acceptable. A bed of epoxy mortar is placed on the low half of the cut surface, and the F=> is then rolled into place on steel ball bearin)s. The )ap above the bearin) is then filled with epoxy mortar. The hydraulic /ac(s in the steel props are released and the props are removed after curin) of the epoxy mortar

8i) 1.117 Saw cut throu)h the concrete column

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8i) 1.1"7 =emoval of concrete bloc(

Steel /ac(ets are welded into place above and below the bearin), and )routed to the column, to accommodate the stress concentrations at the cut surfaces of the column arisin) from the bearin) and to replace the reinforcement that has been cut 8i)ure 1.1A%

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8i) 1.1A 7 Steel /ac(ets replacin) the discontinued reinforcin) bars.

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The bearin)s are wrapped in fire insulation, and brac(ets introduced to support architectural finishes 8i)ure 1.13%. 8inal finishes are then applied.

8i) 1.137 8ireproofin) insulation

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1.<.. 8acking and R 5'u11ort o( E=i!ting Column! (or !t l !tructur :


)9alters ?ason, S.&., ;rincipal T# ! i!mic r tro(it o( t# Oakland Cit/ -all" , ;aper no. 1#, 8orell@&lsesser &n)ineers, *nc., San 8rancisco, <alifornia% Seismic isolation of an existin) steel structure such as Oa(land <ity 6all% typically involves the complicated tas( of shorin) the existin) columns so that they may be cut free from the foundation allowin) installation of the new isolator bearin)s. &xtensive se'uencin) notes are supposed to be developed as part of the shorin) desi)n to )uide the contractor durin) the biddin) and construction phases. The se'uence notes are supposed to be intended to help preserve the local and )lobal structural inte)rity of the buildin) to the extent practicable durin) construction. To achieve this )oal, detail re'uirements for the followin) topics should be included7 Temporary lateral bracin) are re'uired for the basement level durin) the period of time between structural demolition and final release of the isolator system. &ven partial demolition of the perimeter walls durin) isolator installation may cause a very wea( story condition and put the buildin) basement at ris( of bein) dama)ed durin) a moderate or ma/or earth'ua(e if no temporary bracin) is bein) provided. A symmetric wor( se'uence is re'uired to reduce the possibility of an undesirable torsional response of the structure to an earth'ua(e durin) the construction period. .

The ma)nitude of /ac(in) loads and load application points are provided on the
drawin)s. Typically, the /ac(in) points are located on new steel framin) and corbels welded to the existin) columns. The new corbels also serve as permanent column bases after removal of the existin) base plates.

Dertical column displacement durin) /ac(in) is limited in the contract documents to


prevent dama)e to the superstructure finishes. This displacement is measured durin) /ac(in) operations usin) sensitive instrumentation.

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Submittal and review of the contractor+s detailed construction se'uence is re'uired


to ensure proper interpretation of the desi)n intent.

.. OB8ECTIVE O+ 4RE'ENT WOR> :


To understand the effects of >ase isolation by analysis of fixed and isolated
buildin)s under consideration.

To study the effect of isolator stiffness asymmetry on a plan asymmetric F.shaped H storey , A bay , A! frame. To study the effect of non.uniformity in isolator stiffness, on shear in columns of different location at )round storey & torsional couplin) of superstructure, for 3 different cases viz 7 fixed, uniform isolated , with different isolator stiffness & isolator stiffness in proportion of the mass ratio load comin) on each column%

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0. BA'E I'OLATION : 0.1 Ba! I!olator


>ase isolators are structural members that , li(e steel beams and columns , are part of a lateral force resistin) system that enables a buildin) to respond acceptably to earth'ua(e )round motion. A base isolator has a force versus lateral deflection curve as shown in fi)ure7 A.1-

Fig. 3.1) Idealized Force Deflection behaviour of an Isolator

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Source fi).A.1%7 A mathematical hysteretic model for elastomeric isolation bearin)s, by 6wan),9u,;an,:an) "##"%7 Taiwan%

Two structural desi)n variables are obtained from this force versus deflection curve. The first desi)n variable is the base isolator stiffness ( b%, which is defined as

kb =

F+ F +

The second desi)n variable is the base isolator viscous dampin) O b%, which is

b =

1 area of loop " Fmax max

*n this e'uation , 8max and Pmax are the maximum absolute values of 8Q,8.% and PQ,P.%, respectively. *f the dampin) of the isolator is very small , then the area of the loop is also very small. The chemical composition of the inner rubber layers used in base isolator determine the lateral force versus lateral deflection characteristics of the base isolator. >ase isolator can be cate)orized into two main cate)ories on the basis of the force deflection curve, ie linear and 0on Finear .A base isolator which is desi)ned such that the line connectin) the maximum force point in each cycle is linear is called as a Linear Base Isolator.

"2

Fig. 3.2)Force Deflection curve for a Linear Base Isolator Source fi).A."% 7 >ase *solation,, chapter K, !.E. 6art.%

>ase *solators can also be desi)ned to have envelope force versus deflection curve that are not strai)ht lines but exhibit a non linear behavior. >ase isolators desi)ned to exhibit this (ind of behavior are called Non Linear Base Isolators.

Fig. 3.3.)Force Deflection curve for non linear Isolator

A#

Source 7 CC>ase *solation,, chapter K, !.E. 6art.%

0.. +i= d *a! !tructur


!esi)n starts with the specification of a $ J damped response spectrum for a desi)n basis earth'ua(e. A Cfixed base+ structure is the structure that would exist if base isolators were not used with the structure and elastic desi)n of this structure is performed for the desi)n basis earth'ua(e where inelastic response parameters are reduced by a reduction factor. This factor includes the ductility effect and the overstren)th of the structure. The seismic forces on Cfixed base+ structure are calculated for desi)n response spectrum curve correspondin) to $J dampin)%usin) response spectrum analysis. The stiffness (% and the mass m% of the Cfixed base structure+ is (nown after the desi)n of the structure. The natural fre'uency, period of vibration and critical dampin) ratio for the fundamental mode can be calculated for the Cfixed base+ structure.

0.0 Trial D !ign o( I!olator


A structural dynamic analysis of a base isolated structure re'uires the properties of the base isolator to be specified. 6ence, a trial desi)n of the base isolator is performed. Two approaches can be used to develop a trial desi)n of isolator. >ase isolation, , <hapter Kth , !.E. 6art %

9 t#od 1:
One method for desi)nin) the base isolator is to define the desi)n basis earth'ua(e and then set a value for the period of vibration of the base isolated structure. Selectin) a desired natural period of vibration for the base isolated structure is )uided by the desire to have in effect, a ri)id structure sittin) on base isolators. 6ence the natural fre'uency of the base isolated structure can be )iven as

nb =

kb m

A1

9here (b is the stiffness of the isolators under the column and Cm+ is the mass of the structure. The period of vibration is selected to provide a good separation between fixed base period of vibration, T n and base isolated period of vibration, Tnb. Hence we consider a relation T nb= n Tn where n is 3 or greater. Using the value of T nb, the value of kb can be calculated. Alternativel the structural engineer can first set a value of k b and then use the e!uation to calculate the base isolated period of vibration.

nb =

kb m

"t is important to recall that a positive benefit of using a base isolator is the significant increase in damping of the structure. The damping of a rigid structure sitting on base isolators is effectivel the damping of base isolators. Therefore, a starting value of damping #$%&'()* can be assumed for the base isolator, hence the base isolated structure.

+ow using the estimated time period of base isolated structure and the respective design response spectrum for assumed damping, the response acceleration #,a* and the response displacement #,d* of the structure can be calculated. The response parameters would be much lower than that of the Cfixed base+ structure, mainl damping. due to higher time period and higher

A"

0.7 0.6 Spectral Acceleration 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 2 4 6 Tim e (sec) 8 10 12

5% damping 20% damping

Fig. 3. ) !pectral "lot for different da#ping ratios$according to I! 1%&3'2((2)

9 t#od .:
"n method $. the intent was for the base isolated structure to have a target natural period of vibration. As a result of this target natural period of vibration selection, the magnitude of displacement of the base isolator and the value of all desired structure response variables follow, using the design basis earth!uake and method of structural anal sis. An alternative method can be used, which emphasi-es a desired response parameter of base isolator displacement. The desired amplitude of base isolator displacement ma be controlled b the open space called gap or moat, around the base isolated building for architectural, mechanical, electrical, or plumbing considerations. Also a variation in this method is to set a value of absolute acceleration of the structure. This criterion is )enerally re'uired for buildin)s, which house sensitive e'uipments and machineries re'uirin) strin)ent control on the floor acceleration. Some times, acceleration control may be re'uired for human comfort as well. After the parameter is decided upon, the respective spectrum curve for an assumed high damping

AA

#$%&'()* is considered for calculating the time period of the base isolated structure.

0.6 Ba! I!olator ' l ction


After initial trial desi)n of the base isolator, one needs to select a base isolator for the structure. One can choose from the base isolators available, the one that exhibits similar effective stiffness and assumed dampin), for the desi)n pseudo displacement, as considered earlier. *t would not be possible to find an isolator that matches the exact re'uirement, but the one that has closest parameters can be chosen for the structure.

0.7 4r liminar/ D !ign o( Ba! I!olat d 'tructur


>efore performin) a detailed analysis of the base isolated structure, a preliminary desi)n of the base isolated structure is performed to modify the member size from those of the Cfixed base+ structure, as the lateral seismic loads on the structure are expected to reduce considerably. The base isolated structure is desi)ned for the desi)n basis earth'ua(e reduced by the response reduction factor. The response reduction factor is to include the effect of ductility and overstren)th of the structure. *t is important to note that this response reduction factor is different from the factor used in the desi)n of the fixed base structure. This is due to the fact that the expected inelastic response of the Cfixed base+ structure and Cbase isolated+ structure would be different.

A3

Since, a preliminary calculation of time period and the dampin) of the base isolated structure have been performed, an approximate value of the time period and the dampin) of the base isolated structure is (nown. 6ence desi)n spectral acceleration can be found out for the base isolated structure. The base shear of the base isolated structure can be calculated by multiplyin) the spectral acceleration by the total mass of the structure. The fundamental mode of the base isolated structure would be that of ri)id superstructure sittin) on flexible base isolator, therefore, the base shear can be e'ually divided into all floors. 6ence the structure can be analyzed with fixed base and the lateral load applied e'ually at each floor as calculated above. A preliminary sizin) of the sections of the structure can be performed with this analysis.

0.< Anal/!i! o( t# Ba! I!olat d 'tructur


After selectin) the base isolator to be used in the structure, a detailed analysis of the base isolated structure is performed to verify that the base isolators selected in the preliminary phase are sufficient. *n other words, if the structure is not simplified to a ri)id box sittin) on top of the base isolators, it will respond with the base isolators in a way that is within the desi)n limit. 9e can perform a response spectrum analysis or a time history analysis to study the behavior of the base isolated structure.

0.<.1 R !1on! '1 ctrum Anal/!i!


*n this analysis, the base isolators are considered to be elastic elements with stiffness e'ual to the effective stiffness of the provided base isolator. *n case of a non linear base isolator, the effective stiffness of the base isolator depends upon the lateral displacement of the isolator. 6ence, the startin) effective stiffness is considered as the effective stiffness for the displacement calculated in the trial desi)n of the base isolator.

A$

Since the dampin) of the non linear isolator also depends upon the displacement of the base isolator, the effective dampin) for the displacement calculated in the trial desi)n of the base isolator is considered. 8or the detailed analysis it can not be assumed that the dampin) of the structure is same as the dampin) of the base isolator. Therefore dampin) of the structure has to be calculated. The effective dampin) for the different modes is calculated by formin) a complete dampin) matrix <% of size CnQm+ where Cn+ is the de)ree of freedom of the structure and Cm+ is the de)ree of freedom related to base isolators. The dia)onals of the R T <R )ive the measure of e'uivalent modal dampin) for the analysis. >ecause the dampin) in the base isolated buildin) is not classical , the non dia)onal terms in the matrix shall not be zero, but they are ne)lected in the classical modal analysis of the base isolated structure. <hopra Anil 4., !ynamics of Structures7 Theory & Application To earth'ua(e &n)ineerin)., "nd edition, ;rentice 6all Of *ndia.% 6ence a desi)n response spectra correspondin) to the effective dampin) fundamental mode% as calculated above is used for the first iteration of the response spectrum analysis. SA; "### is used for the response spectrum analysis in this pro/ect. *n case of non linear isolators, iterations have to be performed to conver)e to the final solution. As explained earlier, the effective stiffness and dampin) were considered for the displacement calculated in the trial desi)n of the base isolator. 8or the next iteration, the effective stiffness and dampin) of the base isolated structure shall be considered for the displacement calculated in the previous iteration of the response spectrum analysis. This is re'uired because the effective stiffness and dampin) are not constant for non linear base isolator but a function of the displacement of the base isolator. The final solution is achieved when the displacements from successive iterations conver)e.

AG

0.<.. Tim -i!tor/ Anal/!i!


A base isolated structure has non linear base isolators at the base and non proportional dampin). Therefore the actual response of the base isolated structure under earth'ua(e can be studied only by a non linear time history analysis. A non linear time history analysis would show the exact behavior of the base isolated structure under seismic loads. The non linear time history analysis is performed usin) SA; "###. Time history analysis is used to determine the dynamic response of a structure to arbitrary loadin). The dynamic e'uilibrium e'uations to be solved are )iven by 7 ?S, t%Q <S+ t%Q4 t% T .?U*Va t% .here / is the diagonal mass matrix, 0 is the damping matrix, 1 is the stiffness matrix, 2++, 2+ 3 2 are the accelerations ,velocities and displacements of the structure relative to +a+ which is the ground acceleration due to the earth!uake.

3.7 SAP 2000


The anal sis and design of the Cfixed base+ and Cbase isolated+ structure s have been performed using ,A4 '(((.The various anal sis and design features of ,A4 '((( used in this pro5ect are6 ,tatic linear anal sis 7esponse ,pectrum anal sis 700 design #according to U80 9:* #minor* +on ;inear Time histor Anal sis

AH

The base isolators are modeled throu)h 0FFin( elements of SA; "###.A 0FFin( element is a two./oint connectin) lin(. &ach element is assumed to be composed of six separate sprin)s,, one for each of six deformational de)rees.of freedom. All Finear@0onlinear property sets contain linear properties that are used by the element for linear analyses, and for other types of analyses if no other properties are defined. Finear@0on linear property sets may have non linear properties that will be used for all non linear analyses, and for linear analyses that continue from nonlinear analyses. 0on linear behavior is only exhibited durin) time history analysis. 8or all other analysis, the lin( element behaves linearly. The non lin ar 1ro1 rti ! for each 0FFin( ;roperty must be of one of the various types described below. The type determines which de)rees of freedom may be non linear and the (inds of non linear force. deformation relationships available for those de)rees of freedom . 8or each non linear type of 0FFin( ;roperty, there are six uncoupled linear effective. stiffness coefficients, > , one for each of the internal sprin)s. The lin ar (( cti? !ti((n !!
represents the total elastic stiffness for the 0FFin( element that is used for all linear analyses that start from zero initial conditions.

8or each non linear.type of 0FFin( ;roperty, there are six uncoupled linear effective. dampin) coefficients, C , one for each of the internal sprin)s. >y default, each coefficient C is e'ual to zero. The lin ar (( cti? dam1ing represents the total viscous dampin) for the 0FFin( element that is used for response.spectrum analyses, for linear and periodic time. history analysis. &ffective dampin) can be used to represent ener)y dissipation due to non linear dampin), plasticity, or friction.

AK

8or the non linear analysis, the plasticity property used for non linear analysis of the lin( element is based on hysteretic behavior proposed by 9en 12HG%. 8i).A.$%

Fig.3.)) *Nonlinear Behaviour of NLlin+ ele#ent in !," 2((( Source7 SA; Analysis reference manual, pa)e no. "3", <S*, >er(eley, Banuary "##H%

The non linear force.deformation relationship is )iven by7 f = ratio k d + 1 ratio% /i ld z where k is the elastic sprin) constant, Cd+ is deformation, /i ld is the yield force, ratio is the specified ratio of post. yield stiffness to elastic stiffness k%, and z is an internal hysteretic variable. This variable has a ran)e of W z W 1, with the yield surface represented by W z W =1. The initial value of z is zero, and it evolves accordin) to the differential e'uation7

9here Cexp+ is an exponent )reater than or e'ual to unity. Far)er values of this exponent increases the sharpness of yieldin). The practical limit of exp is about "#.

A2

0.@ UBC AB C Ba! I!olation D !ign '1 ci(ication!


One of the few codes which provide the )uidelines for desi)n of base isolated structure is Mniform >uildin) <ode )iven below. The code recommends that the base isolated structure and the base isolator may be desi)ned for the desi)n basis earth'ua(e, where the desi)n basis earth'ua(e is defined as that )round motion that has a 1#J chance of bein) exceeded in $# years. 9hereas the stability of the base isolator may be chec(ed for ?aximum <apable earth'ua(e , where the ?aximum <apable earth'ua(e is defined as that )round motion that has a 1#J chance of bein) exceeded in 1## years. As per the code , the desi)n basis earth'ua(e shall be used to calculate the total desi)n displacement of the isolation system and the lateral forces and the displacements of the isolated structure. The maximum capable earth'ua(e shall be used to calculate the total maximum displacement of the isolation system. The fixed base structure is desi)ned to withstand the lateral displacements induced by the desi)n basis earth'ua(e, considerin) the inelastic response of the structure, inherent redundancy, overstren)th and ductility of the lateral force resistin) system. The lateral forces are reduced by a response reduction factor C=+ for the elastic desi)n of the structure and by modified response reduction factor C R X + for the desi)n of base isolated structure. 6owever, the base isolator and the structure below the base isolation system shall be desi)ned for the desi)n basis earth'ua(e without any reduction in the lateral forces. M><% 122H.A summary of the re)ulations )iven in the M>< is

3#

6. NU9ERICAL 'TUDD : 6.1 E n ral !tud/ 1aram t r! :


The effect of non.uniformity in isolator stiffness on the torsional couplin) of superstructure is bein) studied in this dissertation wor(. 8or that purpose an F.shape multistory frame is bein) considered. Two parameters are bein) used as the measure of the torsional couplin) that are namely the difference between the shear force values for )round storey columns of particular location, & the ratio of torsional fre'uency % to that of lateral fre'uency

?atsa)ar Dasant & Ban)id =.S. >ase.isolated >uildin) with Asymmetries due to % .,
the *solator ;arameters, Advances in Structural &n)ineerin) Dol. K, no. G , !ec. "##$%% *f there is lar)e difference between the shear force values for the different )round storey columns then this indicates hi)her torsional effects in the superstructure i.e. structure will be more torsionally coupled. Or it will vibrate in torsional directions. These shear force values are bein) compared to have an idea about torsional couplin) in the structure considered. The fre'uency ratio Y% i.e. the ratio of the torsional fre'uency

% and the lateral

fre'uency % or Yy% )ives an idea as to what extent that structure is torsionally coupled. 8or example7 *f the torsional fre'uency is very low then the fre'uency ratio would be lower, i.e. Ome)a is less. This shows us that the structure is torsionally very flexible, i.e. first fundamental% mode of vibration itself could be in torsional direction. *n simple words, it will essentially vibrate in its torsional direction . And if the torsional fre'uency is very hi)h then the fre'uency ratio would be hi)her, i.e. Ome)a is more. This shows us that the structure is torsionally very ri)id, i.e. vibration mode in torsional direction may appear 'uite late almost absent%. *n simple words, it will not vibrate at all in the torsional direction . &ccentricity i.e. the distance between the centre of )ravity <E% & centre of ri)idity <=% % values are also bein) calculated for each case isolated frame% .

31

8or carryin) out of above analysis , an F. shape H storey , A bay, A! frame is bein) modeled and analyzed. Structural members modeled are 7 beams , columns & slab. Then load on each node is bein) calculated manually. Then co.ordinates for centre of )ravity @ centre of mass are bein) calculated. 8or the isolated case the stiffness of isolators with is (nown. 0ow considerin) the superstructure as ri)id body, the centre of stiffness is located for all the three cases for isolated frame viz7 for uniform isolator stiffness , for different isolator stiffness , for isolator stiffness in proportion of load comin) on individual column. *n this way the locations of <E & <= for all the 3 cases is determined. 0ow the fre'uency ratio @ x is bein) calculated usin) followin) relations 7 4x T 4y T

K K

bx

by

x = K x @ m

4 T

{K

bxi

Z Yi " + K byi Z X i" }

= K @ mr "

= @ x

9here 7 4x T &ffective Stiffness in S Idirection 4y T &ffective Stiffness in : I direction


K bx K by % T Stiffness of base isolator in S :% direction.

4 T Torsional stiffness.

T Torsional fre'uency of the structure.

x T Fateral fre'uency of the structure.


r T =adius of )yration for the structure r T
I @m

, where C*+ is mass moment of inertia

& Cm+ is mass of the structure. % Si T !istance of ith isolator alon) S.axis from centre of ri)idity. as shown in fi). 3.1%

3"

:i T !istance of ith isolator alon) :.axis from centre of ri)idity. as shown in fi). 3.1%

8i). 3.1 7 ;lan of the F.shaped frame showin) Si & :i . Thus the fre'uency ratios are bein) calculated & then the fre'uency ratio values for various cases are bein) compared, to have an idea of the extent of torsional couplin) in the structure.

6.. Num rical E=am1l :


3A

6...1 Dim n!ion! o( 0D (ram :


*sometric view, Top view & &levation of reinforced cement concrete three bay, F.shape, H storey frame are as shown in the 8i). 3." & 8i). 3.A & 8i). 3.3 respectively. storey hei)htT Am is bein) modeled in SA;."###. Sizes of the structural members are as follows7 >eam size 7 $## mm x A$# mm. Eround storey column size K## mm x K## mm. =est all of the columns of G## x G## mm. =oof slab 7 1$# mm thic(. =est all floor slabs 7 "## mm thic( . The beam & column sizes are (ept same for both fixed and isolated frame. *sometric view, Top view & &levation of reinforced cement concrete three bay, F.shape, H storey frame are as shown in the fi)ures.

33

8i). 3." 7 *sometric view of F.shaped frame

3$

8i). 3.A Top view of the F.shaped frame. .

3G

8i). 3.3 7 &levation of the fixed F.shaped frame. At Erid 1%

3H

6.... I!olator 1ro1 rti ! :


Faminated rubber isolators of linear type are bein) used in this analysis. Selection of the isolators is on the basis of the factor by which the time period of the structure is expected to be reduced. 6ere the reduction factor for time period is ta(en as A to A.$. ;roperties of isolators are as follows7 as per the different cases considered% 1. 8or uniform isolator stiffness case7

&ffective stiffness in vertical direction T1HGK 40@mm &ffective stiffness in horizontal direction T #.GK$ 40@mm ".% 8or different randomly% isolator stiffness case 7 *solator 1 =M>1% 7 ;laced at the base of columns 1A,1!,"!,3A,3> 8i). 3.A% &ffective stiffness in vertical direction T 1GH$ 40@mm &ffective stiffness in horizontal direction T #."H$ 40@mm *solator " =M>"% 7 ;laced at the base of columns 1>,1<,"A,"<,AA,A> 8i). 3.A% &ffective stiffness in vertical direction T 1HG# 40@mm &ffective stiffness in horizontal direction T #.G$ 40@mm *solator A =M>A% 7 ;laced at the base of column ">. 8i). 3.A% &ffective stiffness in vertical direction T 1KG$ 40@mm &ffective stiffness in horizontal direction T #.2H$ 40@mm A.% 8or isolator stiffness in proportion of mass ratio 7 *solator 1 =M>1% 7 ;laced at the base of columns 1A,1!,"!,3A,3> 8i). 3.A% &ffective stiffness in vertical direction T 1H#K 40@mm &ffective stiffness in horizontal direction T #.3$ 40@mm *solator " =M>"% 7 ;laced at the base of columns 1>,1<,"A,"<,AA,A> 8i). 3.A% &ffective stiffness in vertical direction T 1HK$ 40@mm &ffective stiffness in horizontal direction T #.H1G 40@mm

3K

*solator A =M>A% 7 ;laced at the base of column ">. 8i). 3.A% &ffective stiffness in vertical direction T 1K#$ 40@mm &ffective stiffness in horizontal direction T #.2" 40@mm The elevation of isolated frame is as shown in fi). 3.$% , an enlar)ed view of isolator is also bein) shown.

8i). 3.$ 7 &levation of *solated frame At Erid !%

32

6...0 ' i!mic loading :


8or response spectrum analysis , the response spectrum )iven in *S 1K2A."##" for !elhi zone *D , LT #."3% and medium soil Type **% is bein) used for seismic loadin). !ampin) in analysis for both fixed base & base isolated structure is ta(en as $ J as the default value in *S 1K2A."##" response spectrum Finear isolator is bein) used so no additional dampin) will be there due to the dampin) of isolator. 8or time history analysis , the time history of 0S component of &l.<entro .123# earth'ua(e havin) pea( acceleration value as #.A1KK) at around tT".$ sec. is bein) used as excitin) )round motion. Eraphical plot of this time history data is as shown fi). 3.G%. 0o response reduction factors are bein) applied since here the purpose is /ust to compare the responses for different cases of isolated structure considered. Otherwise if response reduction factors are to be used then =TA.$ for fixed base and =T" modified% for isolated structure is to be used as per M>< 2H. Application of =, is prohibited in zone *D & D as per *S 1K2A. "##".

#.3 #.A #."

Acc in )

#.1 # .#.1 .#." .#.A .#.3 # $ 1# 1$ "# "$ A# A$

Time sec%
8i). 3.G 7 ;lot of &l.<entro time history 0S component .123# source7 www.csiber(eley.com %

$#

6.0 Num rical 'tud/: 't 1! (ollo2 d


The present study has been carried out to study the ,E(( ct o( non5uni(ormit/ in i!olator !ti((n !! on tor!ional cou1ling". A! Analysis of an F. shape, H storey, frame with dimensions as )iven in 3.".1, is bein) done in the present wor( for 3 different cases, to study the effect of isolator stiffness asymmetry on the torsional parameters of superstructure. 1 8ixed base frame with no isolators.

". *solated frame with all isolators of uniform stiffness. A. *solated frame with isolators of randomly different stiffness. 3. *solated frame with isolators of different stiffness, *solator stiffness mass ratio%. The analysis is carried out, Then results are compared for the above 3 cases, basically the base shear in the )round storey column of some particular locations are bein) compared to observe the difference in the ratio of those base shear values, which indirectly represent the extent of torsional couplin). Also the fre'uency ratio is bein) compared for all the A isolated cases. 8re'uency ratio is a direct measure of torsional couplin) in the structure. *solators used for isolation are laminated rubber isolators, & they are of linear type. ?odelin) and analysis of the frame is bein) done in SA;."### Dersion.11 Advanced% usin) both response spectrum *S 1K2A7"##"% and time history &F.<entro 0S component% . . The base isolators, are bein) chosen from the available isolators as per the re'uirement of the structure. And in response spectrum analysis 7 the dampin) of isolators are only assumed to be the dampin) of the structure, because there will not be any additional dampin), the isolator bein) linear. Darious steps involved are as follows 7 in proportion of the load comin) on the individual column or in proportion to

$1

Analysis of fixed base A.! =<< F .shape frame for dead and seismic loads. Analysis of above frame for7 1.% seismic loadin) as per *S 1K2A."##" response spectrum & ".% An arbitrarily chosen time history loadin) &F.<entro 123#%. ?odelin) of the above frame7 1.% 9ith isolators of uniform stiffness below each column ".% 8or isolators of randomly different stiffness.& A.%8or the stiffness of isolators in proportion to the load comin) on the individual column. =esponse spectrum analysis of above all three >ase isolated frames, for *S 1K2A. "##" response spectrum seismic loadin). 0onlinear time history analysis of above all three base isolated A.! frame, usin) &F.<entro .123# 0S component.

7. RE'ULT' F DI'CU''ION :
Analysis of the frame under consideration as described in numerical study is bein) done usin) SA; "### Der. 11 Advanced% for all the four cases 7 1.%8ixed base frame with no isolators. ".%*solated frame with all isolators of uniform stiffness. A.%*solated frame with isolators of randomly different stiffness. 3.%*solated frame with isolators of different stiffness , stiffness bein) in proportion of the load comin) on the individual column or in proportion to mass ratio%.

$"

As

analysis

results,

the

values

of

fundamental

time

period for 1st mode%

of the structure,

<olumn shear for particular )round storey

columns <olumns with extreme values of column shear%7 1A,1!,">,"!,3A,3> as shown in plan in fi). $.1% and base & top displacement i.e. absolute and relative displacements% are obtained for all four cases, 1,",A,3% usin) modal & both response spectrum and non.linear time history analysis. And after analysis the displacement time histories for top displacement are obtained. All above results are obtained directly from SA;.

8i). $.1 7 ;lan specifyin) location of columns 1A,1!,">,"!,3A,3>. Then <enter of Eravity <.E.% & <entre of =i)idity <.=.% are bein) located manually .Then eccentricities e% values i.e. distance between <E & <= is calculated for all of the three isolated cases, then the fre'uency ratio = @ x % is bein) calculated as described in methodolo)y . !urin) above all exercise, the superstructure is considered to be a perfectly ri)id body. These all are obtained manually. So followin) are the results obtained on A! analysis of the F.shape H storey A bay frame under consideration.

$A

7.1 R !ult! o( Anal/!i! carri d out :


E n ral:
The four structural models under consideration are analyzed in SA; "### Der. 11% for =esponse Spectrum *S 1K2A."##"% & Time 6istory &F.<entro, 0S.<omponent 123#% loadin), and analysis results are )iven in followin) tables Table $.1 to $.H%.

Table $.17 8undamental time period in sec.7 <ompares the fundamental time periods which is obtained from modal analysis, for the 3 cases under consideration. & )ives the ratio of the same with respect to the fixed base case.
Structure Model Time period (sec.) Fixed Isolated : uniform isolator stiffness Isolated : diff. isolator stiffness Isolated : isolator stiffness in proportion to t e load !oming on t e !olumn 0.78525 2.5681 2.873 2.868 1.0 3.27 3.66 3.65 Ratio w.r.t. fixed based

Table $." Total base shear values 40%7 The total base shear is )iven in table $." , for response spectrum *S 1K2A."##"% loadin). The table compares the base shear values for t
Ratio w.r.t. Fixed Base 1.0 0.1632 0.143 0.164

Structure Model Fixed Frame Isolated : uniform isolator stiffness Isolated : diff. isolator stiffness Isolated : stiffness in proportion to t e load !oming on t e !olumn

Base Shear Values 4"32.6 #$ 805 #$ 705.07 #$ 80".653 #$

$3

Table $.A 7<olumn shear 40% in )round storey columns 7 >ase shear values in columns 1A,1!,">,"!,3A,3> location shown in fi) $.1% for both response spectrum & time history is )iven in table $.A. And ratio of extreme base shear values i.e. maximum in ">% & minimum in 1!% value of shear in )round storey columns% & stiffness values for isolators used in each case are also )iven in the same table $.A% Ratio o( =tr m column !# ar ?alu ! ) .BG1D&
Time %istor& Res. Spec. Time %is.

olumn shear !alues ("#) ol. no. Response Spectrum ). Fixed !1 !2 !3 !4 !5 !6 372.856 372.343 4"7.075 365.266 365.81 363.802 *. +niform isolated !1 !2 !3 !4 !5 !6 46.133 46.03 114.6 41.0"8 42.05 41.683 10".51 10".275 26".11 "5.7 "8.35 374.44 374.313 51".45. 37".243 382.6

$solator stiffness ' ('#(mm)

1.37 378.12

1.374

2.75 "7.2

2.77 0.685 %ontd&&

$$

,. $solators with different stiffness

!1 !2 !3 !4 !5 !6

40.813 40.706 "".205 36.863 36." 37.414 -. $solators with Stiffness in mass ratio

"2.05 "1.82 223.8725 82."5 83.076 2.65 84.22 2.66 '2(0.65 '3(0."75 '1 ( 0.275

!1 !2 !3 !4 !5 !6

80.25 80.203 "2.16 5".45 6".513 62.58

178.53 178.65 204 131.685 154.104 1.47 138.553 1.476 '1 ( 0.45 '2(0.716 '3(0."20

Table $.3 7 8re'uency ratio & &ccentricity values7 <ompares the fre'uency ratio7 @ x calculated manually as described in chapter 3,sec 3.1% & eccentricity values calculated manually considerin) superstructure to be ri)id%
Structural Model +niforml& isolated $solators with different stiffness $solators with Stiffness in mass ratio

@ x
1.527 1.31" 1.413

eccentricit& (e) 0.276 m )*+ 0.46 m )*+ 0.362 m

$G

Table $.$ 7 >ase and top displacements in mm.%7 <ompares the base & top displacements, obtained from SA; for both response spectrum & time history loadin). 8or each case the nodal displacement values which )ives maximum top relative displacement are compared.
Response Spectrum Top Base (Abs.) 0 107.82 117.08 121.2 "1.35 122."5 130.52 133.2 Time %istor& Top (abs.) Top (rel.) "2."5 304.05 308.6 310." "2."5 3".47 31.75 2".1

Structural Model Fixed base +niforml& isolated $solators with .ifferent stiffness $solators with stiffness in mass ratio

Top (Rel.) "1.35 15.13 13.44 12

Base 0 264.58 276.85 281.8

Table $.G 7 ?aximum *nter storey !rift values mm%7 *nter storey drifts for each storey is calculated & the maximum value for each structure is compared for all 3 models in this table.
Structural Model Fixed Frame +niforml& isolated .iff. isolator stiffness .iff. stiffness in mass ratio Response Spectrum 16."24 2."7 2.5"4 2.08 Time %istor& 18.2"8 7.5 6.22 4."4

Table $.H 7 >endin) moment in <olumns in 40.m%7 The bendin) moment values for )round storey columns are ta(en from SA; analysis results & the maximum >endin) ?oments for each case are compared for al 3 cases in this table.
.ifferent isolator stiffness 26".8" 272.4 .ifferent stiffness in mass ratio 256.38 535.35

Fixed frame Response Spectrum Time %istor& 14"3."2 152".82

+niforml& isolated 1"3.27 382.23

$H

9ODE '-A4E' O+ +OUR +RA9E': 8irst mode shapes & deformed plan for fixed & all of three base isolated frames fi). $." a,b,c,d,e,f% and The top displacement time histories fi). $.A a,b,c,d% are obtained as shown in the followin) fi)ures 7

8i). $." a% 1st mode shape for fixed base frame 7 A! view

$K

8i). $." b% 1st mode shape for fixed base frame 7 top view

8i). $." c% 1st mode shape for uniform isolated frame 7 top view $2

8i). $." d% 1st mode shape for uniform isolated frame 7 A! view

G#

8i). $." e% 1st mode shape for different random% isolator stiffness frame 7 A! view G1

8i). $." f% 1st mode shape for isolator stiffness in mass ratio frame 7 A! view

G"

8i). $.A a% Top displacement mm% time history for frame restin) on fixed base

8i). $.A b% Top displacement mm% time history for frame restin) on isolators of uniform stiffness

GA

8i). $.A c% Top displacement mm% time history for frame restin) on isolators of randomly different stiffness.

8i). $.A d% Top displacement mm% time history for frame restin) on isolators of different stiffness in proportion to load comin) on the column.

G3

B nding mom nt ?ariation! for fixed frame is as shown in fi). $.3 a% & b% for response spectrum & time history analysis respectively. The values of maximum bendin) moments obtained from analysis results for the structure usin) SA;% are )iven in Table $.H pa)e $A%

G$

8i). $.3 a% >?! at Erid " for fixed frame sub/ected to response spectrum *S 1K2A7"##"% loadin).

GG

GH

8i). $.3 b% >?! at Erid " for fixed frame sub/ected to time history &l.<entro% loadin).

7.. Di!cu!!ion o( r !ult! :


E++ECT ON TI9E 4ERIOD : =esults obtained for the present study carried out usin) SA; "### for time period Table $.1%, & Table clearly shows that the time period is bein) ma)nified upto A." times while )oin) for uniformly isolated frame TT".$GK1 Sec.% from the fixed one TT#.HK$"$ Sec.% . The spectral acceleration & base shear will also correspondin)ly )et reduced, This shows the effectiveness of seismic isolation. <omin) to the isolated cases the maximum ma)nification in time period is bein) observed in the case when isolators of different stiffness are bein) used. E++ECT ON BA'E '-EAR : =esults shown in table $." for total base shear show that on introduction of isolators to the fixed base frame the value of base shear is reduce upto 1@Gth of the fixed one. 8or isolated cases the maximum reduction in base shear is observed in case A randomly different isolator stiffness .from 32A".G 40 for fixed case to H#$.#H 40 for case A % and almost e'ual reduction is there for both case ".uniform isolator stiffness & case 3.isolator stiffness in the ratio of load comin) on individual column, reduction is sli)htly for uniform stiffness case K#$ 40% as compared to case 3 K#2.G$A 40% E++ECT ON RATIO O+ EHTRE9E '-EAR VALUE' IN EROUND 'TORED COLU9N' ).BG1D&: 8rom the results obtained from the analysis it is bein) observed that the ratio of base shear in )round storey columns "> maximum shear 7 interior column% & 1! minimum shear 7 exterior column% 7 ">@1! table $.A% is minimum for the case 3 only base isolated cases considered% i.e. when the structure is restin) on the isolators of stiffness in proportion of the load comin) on

GK

individual column. This ratio is one measure of torsional couplin) in the superstructure , if the difference between these shear values is lar)e or in other words if ">@1! is hi)h then this implies more torsional effects in the structure.

E++ECT ON +REIUENCD RATIO F ECCENTRICITD : The most important


parameter to have an idea of extent of torsional couplin) in the superstructure is the fre'uency ratio

that is the ratio of torsional % & lateral fre'uencies

or other parameters li(e ">@1! x or y % . 8or the same value of eccentricity

here% , the torsional couplin) will be more if the fre'uency ratio is low i.e. superstructure will vibrate in torsional direction in earlier modes. 8re'uency ratios for each case is bein) displayed in Table $.3 , case "

is more for

T1.$"H% when the structure is restin) on isolators of uniform stiffness than that for the case 3 T1.31A% when structure is restin) on the isolators of stiffness in
proportion of the load comin) on individual column. As per this observation in case " the structure will be less torsionally flexible than in that of case 3% , this contradicts the above ">@1! lo)ic. >ut actually the )overnin) factor for torsion is the fre'uency ratio neither the ratio of shears nor the eccentricity values. Thus as far as torsion is concerned uniform case is performin) better. E++ECT ON RELATIVE TO4 DI'4LACE9ENT F INTER 'TORED DRI+T: The results show that relative top displacement & inter storey drifts are reduced upto 1@Gth times & 1@Hth times respectively while movin) from fixedto the isolated fram. *f top relative displacement table $.$% & maximum inter storey drift table $.G% is considered then that is 'uite low in case 3 i.e. when structure is restin) upon the isolators of stiffness in ratio of the mass comin) on the individual columns. >ut the top relative displacement in case of isolated frame is in order of few mm+s , inter storey drift 'uite low in isolated frames because of ma/or amount of displacement occurs at the isolation level itself.%. So more important parameter of concern is the fre'uency ratio as compared to this relative displacement & inter storey drift which

G2

are actually matter of few mm+s only in case of isolated frame, The reason bein)7 the ma/or amount of lateral drift is accommodated at the isolation level, hence there is substantial lateral deflection in isolators but the inter storey drifts are very low.

E++ECT ON 9AHI9U9 BENDINE 9O9ENT : 8urther when it comes to bendin) moment values table $.H% it is clearly observed that 8or isolated cases the maximum bendin) moment reduced upto 1@1# th of that of fixed case . The value of maximum bendin) moment is very hi)h $A$.A$ 40.m % in case when the structure is restin) on the isolators of stiffness in proportion of the load comin) on individual column compared to AK"."A% when the structure is restin) on the isolators of same stiffness. The values of bendin) moment shown here is when &F.<entro time history was the input motion as earth 'ua(e loadin). So considerin) bendin) moment also, the uniformly isolated frame is performin) better as compared to the one with isolator stiffness in ratio of load comin) on individual columns. E++ECT ON DE+OR9ED '-A4E OR TWI'TINE : *n fi). $." a & b% which shows the deformed shape of the superstructure in plan, the twistin) effect is conspicuously visible in case of fixed frame & the same in isolated frame is considerably reduced. This shows the effectiveness of base isolation as far as twistin) of superstructure is concerned. A)ain the reason bein) maximum displacement is ta(in) place at the isolation level only, so superstructure is not deformin) much. <omparin) the A isolated cases the difference is not 'uite visible because the difference in displacements values alon) x,y & z direction% for different isolated cases bein) very low in an orders of few mm+s only.

< . CONCLU'ION :

H#

On the basis of numerical study & discussions of results obtained after analysis, followin) conclusions were drawn 7 >ase isolation substantially increases the time period of structure & hence correspondin)ly reduces the base shear. As observed in the present study Table $.1 & $."% the time period is bein) increased upto A." times & base shear is reduced upto 1@Gth of that of fixed one. The deformed shape in plan for fixed & isolated uniform stiffness% 7 fi). $." a% & $." b% clearly indicates the reduced twistin) effect in case of isolated frame. This can be ensured by comparin) the values of displacements in other " normal directions than M1 i.e. M" & MA. Thus seismic isolation considerably reduces the twistin) effect. The study carried out here and results obtained su))ests the structure restin) on the isolators of uniform stiffness as a better option than that restin) on the isolators of stiffness in proportion of mass ratio as far as torsional couplin) because fre'uency ratio is observed to be hi)hestT1.$"H for uniformly isolated case amon)st the all 3 cases considered% & maximum bendin) moment is observed to be minimumT12A."H 40.m for response spectrum & AK".A 40.m for time history for uniformly isolated case amon)st the all 3 cases considered% is concerned. 9hich is 'uite contradictory from the eccentricity approach for torsional behavior.

As far as the relative top displacement & maximum inter storey drifts are concerned, *n this present study, the results obtained su))est that the case 3 i.e. the when the stiffness of isolators are in the ratio of the load comin) on individual column )ives lower relative top displacement & maximum inter storey drifts as compared to case " i.e. uniform isolator stiffness.

H1

The top displacement time histories for fixed & isolated cases conspicuously shows the reduction in fre'uency & hence ma)nified time period in case of isolated frame. And the base shear value will )et reduced correspondin) to the increased time period of the structure.

>ased on the study carried out & discussion of results it is observed that how effective seismic isolation is considerin) various aspects such as7 base shear, inter storey drifts, maximum bendin) moments & column shears etc. *n case of torsion7 Analysis results of the study su))est that isolators of uniform stiffness are better option as compared to isolators of stiffness in ratio of column load, when torsional couplin) is concerned. The reason bein) increase in fre'uency ratio in case of uniform isolation.

B. 'CO4E +OR +UTURE RE'EARC- :


There is much to explore in this flourishin) field of seismic isolation. Specially in our country a lot of research wor( can be done & needed to be done. *n this particular dissertation wor( the study is bein) carried out only for 1 st mode of vibration the effect of hi)her modes was not bein) considered , the effect of hi)her modes on torsional couplin) of superstructure can be a stuff to be explored . 8urther the superstructure was assumed to be perfectly ri)id for this study, so the effect of superstructure flexibility can also be investi)ated. 8urther the parametric studies can be conducted mi)ht be based on extent of eccentricity or superstructure stiffness variation etc.

H"

RE+ERENCE'
1% Analysis =eference ?anual 7 SA; "###, <S* <omputers & Structure, *nc.%, >er(eley, <alifornia, MSA, Banuary "##H. "% <etin :ilmaz, &dmund >ooth & <hris S(etchley =etrofit of Antalya Airport

*nternational terminal buildin), Tur(ey usin) Seismic *solation,. ;aper no.1"$2, 8irst &uropean conference on &arth'ua(e &n)ineerin) & Seismolo)y. Eeneva, Switzerland, A. K September "##G A.% <hopra Anil 4., !ynamics of Structures7 Theory & Application To earth'ua(e &n)ineerin)., "nd edition, ;rentice 6all Of *ndia. 3.% 8a.Eun) 8an and Eoodarz Ahmadi, ?ulti.story base.isolated buildin)s under a harmonic )round motion .;art *7 A comparison of performances of various systems., !epartment of ?echanical and *ndustrial &n)ineerin). <lar(son Mniversity, ;otsdam, 0ew :or(, MS ,Bune,12K2 $.% 6art !.E. , <hapter Kth, >ase isolation. G.% 6wan),9u,;an,:an) "##"% A mathematical hysteretic model for elastomeric isolation bearin)s,

HA

H.% *S 1K2A."##" part *7 <riteria for &arth'ua(e =esistant !esi)n of Structures, ;art 17 Eeneral ;rovisions & >uildin)s 8ifth revision%, >ureau of *ndian Standards, 0ew !elhi, *ndia. K.% Ban)id =.S. and !atta T.4. =eview of the seismic behaviour of base isolated >uildin)s., 2.% ?atsa)ar Dasant & Ban)id =.S. >ase.isolated >uildin) with Asymmetries due to the *solator ;arameters, Advances in Structural &n)). Dol. K, no. G , !ec. "##$% 1#.% ?urat !iclelia Tur(y% & Sri(anth >uddharam MSA% <omprehensive evaluation of e'uivalent linear analysis method for seismic.isolated structures represented by S!O8 systems,!epartment of &n)ineerin) Sciences, ?iddle &ast Technical Mniversity, #G$A1 An(ara, Tur(ey & !epartment of <ivil &n)ineerin) and <onstruction, >radley Mniversity, ;eoria, *F G1G"$, MSA, October "##G. 11.% 0aeim 8arzad & 4elly Treavor, !esi)n of Seismic *solated Structures 7 8rom theory to practice,, 1222, Bohn 9iley & Sons, *nc., 0ew :or(. 1".% Oliveto & marletta, Seismic =etrofittin) Of =einforced <oncrete >uildin)s Msin) Traditional And *nnovative Techni'ues,, *S&T Bournal, paper no. $3$, "##$ 1A.% ;andit sachin, Structural =ehabilitation by Stiffness Stren)thenin) & >ase *solation, **T !elhi, "##$. 13.% Sa/al (anti deb **TE% Seismic isolation 7 an overview,. 1$.% S(inner , =obinson & ?c Derry , An *ntroduction To Seismic *solation,, 122A, Bohn 9iley & Sons, *nc., 9ellin)ton, 0ew Lealand. 1G.% Tervor &. 4elly, >ase *solation of Structures 7 !esi)n )uidelines, 6olmes <onsultin) Eroup Ftd.

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1H.% Mniform >uildin) <ode 122H , Dolume ", Structural !esi)n =e'uirements 1K.% 9alters ?ason, S.&., ;rincipal T# ! i!mic r tro(it o( t# Oakland Cit/ -all" , ;aper no. 1#, 8orell@&lsesser &n)ineers, *nc., San 8rancisco, <alifornia 12.% 9an), :en.;o, 8undamentals of seismic base isolation, .

W *!it ! r ( rr d:
1.% www.csiber(eley.com ".% web.mit.edu@ist)roup@ist@documents@earth'ua(e@;art$.pdf , *ST )roup "##3% ?ethods of seismic retrofittin) of structures, A.% www.nicee.or)

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