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UNIT I Metal Casting Process Casting Casting is the process of producing metal parts by pouring molten metal into

the mould cavity of the required shape and allowing the metal to solidify. The solidified metal piece is called as casting. Types of casting

Sand Casting: Sand Casting is simply melting the metal and pouring it into a preformed cavity, called mold, allowing the metal to solidify and then breaking up the mold to remove casting. n sand casting e!pandable molds are used. So for each casting operation you have to form a new mold. " #ost widely used casting process. " $arts ranging in si%e from small to very large " $roduction quantities from one to millions

" Sand mold is used. " $atterns and Cores & Solid, Split, #atch'plate and Cope'and'drag $atterns & Cores & achieve the internal surface of the part Molds & Sand with a mi!ture of water and bonding clay & Typical mi!( )*+ sand, ,+ water, and -+ clay & to enhance strength and.or permeability Sand & /efractory for high temperature Size and shape of sand Small grain si%e '0 better surface finish 1arge grain si%e '0 to allow escape of gases during pouring rregular grain shapes '0 strengthen molds due to interlocking but to reduce permeability Types of patterns used in sand casting 2a3 solid pattern 2b3 split pattern 2c3 match'plate pattern 2d3 cope and drag pattern

Pattern Allowances 4ive types of allowances were taken into consideration for various reasons. They are described as follows( 5. Shrinkage allowance 6. 7raft allowance ,. 4inish allowance 8. Shake allowance
Pattern Material

9. 7istortion allowance

$atterns may be constructed from the following materials. :ach material has its own advantages, limitations, and field of application. Some materials used for making patterns are( wood, metals and alloys, plastic, plaster of $aris, plastic and rubbers, wa!, and resins. To be suitable for use, the pattern material should be( 5. :asily worked, shaped and ;oined 6. 1ight in weight ,. Strong, hard and durable 8. /esistant to wear and abrasion 9. /esistant to corrosion, and to chemical reactions <. 7imensionally stable and unaffected by variations in temperature and humidity -. =vailable at low cost Types of sand 1 !reen sand: t is sand used in the wet condition for making the mould. t is mi!ture of silica sand with 59'69 per cent clay and <'> per cent water

=s e!plained earlier green sand moulds are not dried and metal is poured in them in the wet condition ?eing damp the sand can be easily worked with hand to give it any desired shape This sand is used for producing small to medium si%ed moulds which are not very comple! " #ry sand: 7ry sand is the green sand that has been dried or baked after preparing the mould. 7rying sand gives strength to the mould so that it can be used for larger castings $ %oa& sand: 1oam sand is sand containing up to 9* + clay which has been worked to the consistency of builder mortar. This sand is used for loam sand moulds for making very heavy castings usually with the help of sweeps and skeleton patterns. ' Parting sand: This sand is used during making of the mould to ensure that green sand does not stick to the pattern and the cope and drug parts can be easily separated for removing the pattern without causing any damage to the mould. $arting sand consists of fine grained clay free dried silica sand, sea sand or burnt sand with some parting compounds. The parting compounds used include charcoal, ground bone and limestone, groundnut shells, talc and calcium phosphate. ( )acing sand:

4acing sand is the sand which covers the pattern all around it. The remaining bo! is filled with ordinary floor sand. 4acing sand forms the face of the mould and comes in direct contact with the molten metal when it is poured. @igh strength and refractoriness are required for this sand. t is made of silica sand and clay without the addition of any used sand.

Araphite, mollases, plumbago etc. may be added to the facing sand. Thickness of the sand layer varies from 6* to ,* mm. * +ac,ing sand: ?acking sand is the bulk of the sand used to back up the facing sand and to fill up the volume of the flask. t consists mainly of old, repeatedly used moulding sand which is generally black in colour due to addition of coal dust and burning on contact with hot metal. ?ecause of the colour backing sand is also sometimes called black sand. The main purpose for the use of backing sand is to reduce the cost of moulding. Steps in Sand Casting The cavity in the sand mold is formed by packing sand around a pattern, separating the mold into two halves The mold must also contain gating and riser system 4or internal cavity, a core must be included in mold = new sand mold must be made for each part 5. $our molten metal into sand mold 6. =llow metal to solidify

,. ?reak up the mold to remove casting 8. Clean and inspect casting 9. @eat treatment of casting is sometimes required to improve metallurgical properties

#esira-le Mold Properties and Characteristics " Strength ' to maintain shape and resist erosion " $ermeability ' to allow hot air and gases to pass through voids in sand " Thermal stability ' to resist cracking on contact with molten metal " Collapsibility ' ability to give way and allow casting to shrink without cracking the casting " /eusability ' can sand from broken mold be reused to make other molds. Testing of Mould . Core sand 53 $reparation of standard test specimen 63 #ould hardness test ,3 Core hardness test 83 #oisture content test on foundry sand 93 Sieve analysis <3 Clay content test

-3 $ermeability test >3 Compression, shear test )urnaces Cupola )urnace " = continuous flow of iron emerges from the bottom of the furnace. " 7epending on the si%e of the furnace, the flow rate can be as high as 5** tonnes per hour. =t the metal melts it is refined to some e!tent, which removes contaminants. This makes this process more suitable than electric furnaces for dirty charges.

#irect )uel/fired furnace &Crucible 4urnace & :lectric'arc 4urnace & nduction 4urnace " $ouring with ladle

" Solidification & watch for o!idation " Trimming, surface cleaning, repair and heat treat, inspection

Three types( 2a3 lift'out crucible, 2b3 stationary pot, from which molten metal must be ladled,

Induction )urnace:
nduction heating is a heating method. The heating by the induction method occurs when an electrically conductive material is placed in a varying magnetic field. nduction heating is a rapid form of heating in which a current is induced directly into the part being heated. nduction heating is a non'contact form of heating. The heating system in an induction furnace includes( 5. nduction heating power supply, 6. nduction heating coil, ,. Bater'cooling source, which cools the coil and several internal components inside the power supply. The induction heating power supply sends alternating current through the induction coil, which generates a magnetic field. nduction furnaces work on the principle of a

transformer. =n alternative electromagnetic field induces eddy currents in the metal which converts the electric energy to heat without any physical contact between the induction coil and the work piece. = schematic diagram of induction furnace is shown .The furnace contains a crucible surrounded by a water cooled copper coil. The coil is called primary coil to which a high frequency current is supplied. ?y induction secondary currents, called eddy currents are produced in the crucible. @igh temperature can be obtained by this method. nduction furnaces are of two types( cored furnace and coreless furnace. Cored furnaces are used almost e!clusively as holding furnaces. n cored furnace the electromagnetic field heats the metal between two coils. Coreless furnaces heat the metal via an e!ternal primary coil.

0ther 12penda-le Mould Casting " Shell #olding " Cacuum #olding " :!panded $olystyrene $rocess " nvestment casting " $laster and Ceramic #old casting Steps in shell/&olding

Shell'mold casting yields better surface quality and tolerances. The process is described as follows( The 6'piece pattern is made of metal 2e.g. aluminum or steel3, it is heated to between 5-9DC' ,-*DC, and coated with a lubricant, e.g. silicone spray. :ach heated half'pattern is covered with a mi!ture of sand and a thermoset resin.epo!y binder. The binder glues a layer of sand to the pattern, forming a shell. The process may be repeated to get a thicker shell. The assembly is baked to cure it. The patterns are removed, and the two half'shells ;oined together to form the moldE metal is poured into the mold. Bhen the metal solidifies, the shell is broken to get the part.

Ad3antages

Smoother cavity surface permits easier flow of molten metal and better surface finish on casting Aood dimensional accuracy #achining often not required #old collapsibility usually avoids cracks in casting Can be mechani%ed for mass production #isad3antages #ore e!pensive metal pattern 7ifficult to ;ustify for small quantities

In3est&ent Casting nvestment casting produces very high surface quality and dimensional accuracy. nvestment casting is commonly used for precision equipment such as surgical equipment, for comple! geometries and for precious metals. This process is commonly used by artisans to produce highly detailed artwork. The first step is to produce a pattern or replica of the finished mould. Ba! is most commonly used to form the pattern, although plastic is also used. $atterns are typically mass'produced by in;ecting liquid or semi'liquid wa! into a permanent die.

$rototypes, small production runs and specialty pro;ects can also be undertaken by carving wa! models. Cores are typically unnecessary but can be used for comple! internal structures. /apid prototyping techniques have been developed to produce e!pendable patterns. Several replicas are often attached to a gating system constructed of the same material to form a tree assembly. n this way multiple castings can be produced in a single pouring. Casting with e2penda-le &ould: In3est&ent Casting

Ad3antages $arts of great comple!ity and intricacy can be cast Close dimensional control and good surface finish Ba! can usually be recovered for reuse =dditional machining is not normally required ' this is a net shape process #isad3antages #any processing steps are required /elatively e!pensive process Plaster Molding " Similar to sand casting e!cept mold is made of plaster of $aris 2gypsum ' CaSF8'6@6F3

" $laster and water mi!ture is poured over plastic or metal pattern to make a mold . Ad3antages Aood dimensional accuracy and surface finish Capability to make thin cross'sections in casting #isad3antages #oisture in plaster mold causes problems( #old must be baked to remove moisture #old strength is lost when is over'baked, yet moisture content can cause defects in product $laster molds cannot stand high temperatures Per&anent Mold Casting ?asic $ermanent #old $rocess Gses a metal mold constructed of two sections designed for easy, precise opening and closing #olds for lower melting point alloys( steel or cast iron and #olds for steel( refractory material, due to the very high pouring temperatures Per&anent Mold Casting Process The two halves of the mold are made of metal, usually cast iron, steel, or refractory alloys. The cavity, including the runners and gating system are machined into the mold halves. 4or hollow parts, either permanent cores 2made of metal3 or sand'bonded ones may be used, depending on whether the core can be e!tracted from the part without damage after casting. The surface of the mold is coated with clay or other hard refractory material & this improves the life of the mold. ?efore molding, the surface is covered

with a spray of graphite or silica, which acts as a lubricant. This has two purposes & it improves the flow of the liquid metal, and it allows the cast part to be withdrawn from the mold more easily. The process can be automated, and therefore yields high throughput rates. t produces very good tolerance and surface finish. t is commonly used for producing pistons used in car enginesE gear blanks, cylinder heads, and other parts made of low melting point metals, e.g. copper, bron%e, aluminum, magnesium, etc. Ad3antage Aood surface finish and dimensional control and 4ine grain due to rapid solidification #isad3antage Simple geometric part, e!pensive mold. 12a&ple t is commonly used for producing pistons used in car enginesE gear blanks, cylinder heads, and other parts made of low melting point metals, e.g. copper, bron%e, aluminum, magnesium, etc. +asic Per&anent Mold Process

Ad3antages Aood dimensional control and surface finish #ore rapid solidification caused by the cold metal mold results in a finer grain structure, so stronger castings are produced %i&itations Aenerally limited to metals of lower melting point Simple part geometries compared to sand casting because of the need to open the mold @igh cost of mold 7ue to high mold cost, process is best suited to automated high volume production

#ie Casting " 7ie casting is a very commonly used type of permanent mold casting process. " t is used for producing many components of home appliances 2e.g rice cookers, stoves, fans, washing and drying machines, fridges3, motors, toys and hand'tools

" The molten metal is in;ected into mold cavity 2die3 under high pressure 2-' ,9*#$a3. $ressure maintained during solidification. " @ot Chamber 2$ressure of - to ,9#$a3 " The in;ection system is submerged under the molten metals 2low melting point metals such as lead, %inc, tin and magnesium3 " Cold Chamber 2$ressure of 58 to 58*#$a3 " :!ternal melting container 2in addition aluminum, brass and magnesium3 #olds are made of tool steel, mold steel, maraging steel, tungsten and molybdenum. " Single or multiple cavity " 1ubricants and :;ector pins to free the parts " Centing holes and passageways in die " 4ormation of flash that needs to be trimmed Properties of die/casting 53 @uge numbers of small, light castings can be produced with great accuracy. 63 1ittle surface finishing is required. ,3 $ermanent mold 2dies can be used over and over3 Ad3antages @igh production, :conomical, close tolerance, good surface finish, thin sections, rapid cooling 4ot/Cha&-er #ie Casting n a hot chamber process 2used for Hinc alloys, magnesium3 the pressure chamber connected to the die cavity is filled permanently in the molten metal. The basic cycle of operation is as follows(

2i3 7ie is closed and gooseneck cylinder is filled with molten metalE 2ii3 $lunger pushes molten metal through gooseneck passage and no%%le and into the die cavityE metal is held under pressure until it solidifiesE 2iii3 7ie opens and cores, if any, are retractedE casting stays in e;ector dieE plunger returns, pulling molten metal back through no%%le and gooseneckE 2iv3 :;ector pins push casting out of e;ector die. =s plunger uncovers inlet hole, molten metal refills gooseneck cylinder. The hot chamber process is used for metals that 2a3 have low melting points and 2b3 do not alloy with the die material, steelE common e!amples are tin, %inc, and lead.

Cold Cha&-er #ie Casting n a cold chamber process, the molten metal is poured into the cold chamber in each cycle. The operating cycle is 2i3 7ie is closed and molten metal is ladled into the cold chamber cylinderE 2ii3 $lunger pushes molten metal into die cavityE the metal is held under high pressure until it solidifiesE

2iii3 7ie opens and plunger follows to push the solidified slug from the cylinder, if there are cores, they are retracted awayE 2iv3 :;ector pins push casting off e;ector die and plunger returns to original position This process is particularly useful for high melting point metals such as =luminum, and Copper 2and its alloys3.

Ad3antages :conomical for large production quantities Aood dimensional accuracy and surface finish Thin sections are possible /apid cooling provides small grain si%e and good strength to casting #isad3antages Aenerally limited to metals with low metal points $art geometry must allow removal from die cavity Centrifugal casting Centrifugal casting uses a permanent mold that is rotated about its a!is at a speed between ,** to ,*** rpm as the molten metal is poured. Centrifugal forces cause the metal to be pushed out towards the mold walls, where it solidifies after cooling.

Centrifugal casting has greater reliability than static castings. They are relatively free from gas and shrinkage porosity. Surface treatments such as case carburi%ing, flame hardening and have to be used when a wear resistant surface must be combined with a hard tough e!terior surface. Fne such application is bimetallic pipe consisting of two separate concentric layers of different alloys.metals bonded together.

Car-on #io2ide Moulding " This sand is mi!ed with , to 9 + sodium silicate liquid base binder in muller for , to 8 minutes. =dditives such as coal powder, wood flour sea coal, de!trine may be added to improve its properties. " =luminium o!ide Iaolin clay may also added to the sand. " $atterns used in this method may be coated with Hinc of *.*9 mm to *.5, mm and then spraying a layer of aluminium or brass of about *.69 mm thickness for good surface finish and good results. Ad3antages " Fperation is speedy since we can use the mould and cores immediately after processing. " @eavy and rush orders " 4loor space requirement is less

" Semi skilled labour may be used. #isad3antages 7ifficult in reusing the moulding sand.
Process Sand Shell mold :!pendable pattern $laster mold Ceramic mold nvestment Ad3antages #isad3antages 12a&ples Bide range of metals, poor finish, wide engine blocks, cylinder si%es, shapes, low cost tolerance better accuracy, finish, limited part si%e higher production rate Bide range of metals, patterns have heads connecting rods, gear housings low cylinder heads, brake of

si%es, shapes strength comple! shapes, good non'ferrous

components metals, prototypes

surface finish low production rate comple! shapes, high small si%es accuracy, good finish comple! shapes, small parts, e!pensive e!cellent finish

mechanical parts impellers, in;ection mold tooling ;ewellery

$ermanent mold

good porosity,

finish,

low Costly mold, simpler gears, gear housings high shapes only dies, small precision camera bodies, gears, car

7ie

production rate :!cellent dimensional costly accuracy, high parts,

Centrifugal

production rate non'ferrous metals wheels 1arge cylindrical parts, :!pensive, limited pipes, good quality shapes flywheels

boilers,

Casting defects 7efects may occur due to one or more of the following reasons( 4ault in design of casting pattern 4ault in design on mold and core 4ault in design of gating system and riser

mproper choice of moulding sand mproper metal composition nadequate melting temperature and rate of pouring

So&e co&&on defects in castings: a3 #isruns b3 Cold Shut c3 Cold Shot d3 Shrinkage Cavity e3 #icro porosity f3 @ot Tearing a5 Misruns t is a casting that has solidified before completely filling the mold cavity. Typical causes include 53 4luidity of the molten metal is insufficient, 63 $ouring Temperature is too low, ,3 $ouring is done too slowly and.or 83 Cross section of the mold cavity is too thin. -5 Cold Shut = cold shut occurs when two portion of the metal flow together, but there is lack of fusion between them due to premature free%ing, ts causes are similar to those of a #isruns. c5 Cold Shots Bhen splattering occurs during pouring, solid globules of the metal are formed that become entrapped in the casting. $oring procedures and gating system designs that avoid splattering can prevent these defects. d5 Shrin,age Ca3ity This defects is a depression in the surface or an internal void in the casting caused by solidification shrinkage that restricts the amount of the molten metal available in the last region to free%e. e5 Micro porosity

This refers to a network of a small voids distributed throughout the casting caused by locali%ed solidification shrinkage of the final molten metal in the dendritic structure. f5 4ot Tearing This defect, also called hot cracking, occurs when the casting is restrained or early stages of cooling after solidification To a3oid these pro-le&s 2a3 sharp corners should be avoided 2these behave like cracks and cause stress concentration 2b3 Section changes should be blended smoothly using fillets 2c3 /apid changes in cross'section areas should be avoidedE if unavoidable, the mold must be designed to ensure that metal can flow to all regions and mechanism is provided for uniform and rapid cooling during solidification. This can be achieved by the use of chills or incorporating fluid'cooled tubes in the mold. These principles are illustrated in the figures below.

4ig( $oor and preferred design e!amples Shrin,age =s the casting cools, the metal shrinks. 4or common cast metals, a 5+ shrinkage allowance is designed in all linear dimensions 2namely, the design is scaled p by appro! 5+3. Since the solidification front, i.e. the surface at the boundary of the solidified and the liquid metals, travels from the surface of the mold to the interior regions of the part, the design must ensure that shrinkage does not cause cavities.

Parting line The parting line is the boundary where the cope, drag and the part meet. f the surface of the cope and drag are planar, then the parting line is the outline of the cross'section of the part along that plane. Jou can easily see the parting line for many cast and molded parts that you commonly use. t is conventional that the parting line should be planar, if possible. = very small of metal will always leak outside the mold between the cope and the drag in any casting. This is called the flash. f the flash is along an e!ternal surface, it must be machined away by some finishing operation. f the parting line is along an edge of the part, it is less visible & this is preferred.

4ig( $arting 1ine :!amples