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ITEM 300-311 SURFACE COURSES Item 300 - Aggregate Surface Course *Description -a wearing or top course composed of gravel

or crushed aggregate and binder material. *Material Requirements -the aggregate shall consist of hard,durable particles or fragments of stone or gravel and sand or other fine mineral particles. -it shall conform to grading requirements when tested by AA !"# "$$ and "%&. -the material retained on the %mm '(o. $)* sieve shall have a mass percent of wear by the +os Angeles Abrasion "est 'AA !"# ",-* of not more than ./. -when crushed aggregate is to be used, not less than fifty '/)* mass percent of the particles retained on the ..&/mm '(o..* sieve shall have at least one '$* fractured face. -the fraction passing the ).)&/mm '(o.%))* sieve shall not be greater than %01 of the fraction passing the )..%/mm '(o..)* sieve. -the fraction passing the )..%/mm '(o. .)* sieve shall have a ++ not greater than 1/ and 23 range of . to ,,when tested by AA !"# "4, and ",). -materials for gravel surface course and crushed aggregate surface course shall have a soa5ed 67R value of not less than %/8 and 4)8 respectively as determined by AA !"# "$,1. -the 67R 9alue shall be obtained at the ma:imum dry density and determined by AA !"# "$4),Method D. *6onstruction Requirements -the ma:imum compacted thic5ness of any layer shall not e:ceed $/) mm. -the moisture content of the material may be ad;usted prior to compaction by watering. -rolling when compacting shall progress gradually from the sides to the center, parallel to the centerline of the road and shall continue until the whole surface has been rolled. -compaction of each layer shall continue until a field density of at least $))8 of the ma:imum dry density determined in accordance with AA !"# "$4),Method D has been achieved. 3n-place density determination shall be made in accordance with AA !"# "$,$. *"rial sections -before construction starts, the 6ontractor shall spread and compact trial sections as directed by the <ngineer. -the purpose of the trial section is to chec5 the suitability of the materials and the efficiency of the equipment and construction method which is proposed to be used by the 6ontractor. -one trial section of about /)) sq.m. -shall be made for every type of material and0or construction equipment0procedure proposed for use. * urface 6ourse "hic5ness and "olerances thic5ness of layer = >$/mm , -/mm level of surface = >$/mm , -/mm

surface irregularity measured by 1-m straight edge = / mm cross fall or camber = >).%8 longitudinal grade over %/m in length = >).$8 *Method of measurement -shall be measured by the cubic meter. -unit of measurement is cubic meter compacted in place Item 301 - Bituminous Prime Coat *Description - consists of preparing and treating an aggregate base course with material in accordance with the plans ? specs, preparatory to the construction of a bituminous surface course. *Material Requirements -bituminous material shall be either Rapid 6uring or Medium 6uring 6ut-bac5 asphalt. *6onstruction Materials -prime coat shall be applied only to surfaces which are dry or slightly moist. (o prime coat shall be applied when the weather is foggy or rainy. -the material shall be sprayed by means of a pressure distributor of not less than $)))+ capacity, mounted on pneumatic tires of such width and number that the load produced on the road surface will not e:ceed $ 5('$))5gf* per cem width of tire. -the tan5 shall have a heating device able to heat a complete charge of bituminous liquid to $4)@6. -the liquid shall be insulated as to 5eep the flame from touching in such way that the drop in temperature when the tan5 is full of bituminous liquid at $4)@6 will not be less than %@6 per hour. -a thermometer shall be fi:ed to the tan5 in order to be able to measure the liquidAs temperature continuously. -the tan5 shall be furnished with a calibrated dipstic5 to indicate the contents. -the distributor shall be able to vary the spray width of the bituminous liquid in ma:imum steps of $))mm to a total width of .m. -the distributor shall be furnished with a tachometer, indicating its forward speed, which shall be visible from the driverAs speed. -the distributor shall be designed so that the deviation from the prescribed rate of application does not e:ceed $)8 and shall be equipped with a device for hand spraying of the bituminous liquid. *Applicatiom of 7ituminous Material -when required by the engineer, immediately prior to the application of the prime coat, the surface shall be slightly sprayed with water but not saturated. -the rate of application shall be within the range of $ to % litres0sq.m. -the prime coat shall be left undisturbed for a period of at least %. hours and shall not be opened to traffic until it has penetrated and cured sufficiently. -care shall be ta5en that the application of the bituminous material is not in e:cess of the specified amount, any e:cess shall be blotted with sand or removed as directed by the engineer.

-bituminous prime coat shall be measured by the tonne 't*. Item 30 - Bituminous Tac! Coat -it shall consist of preparing and treating an e:isting bituminous or cement concrete surface with bituminous material in accordance with the plans ? specs, preparatory to the construction of a bituminous surface course. *Material Requirements -bituminous material shall be either Rapid 6uring cutbac5 asphalt or emulsified asphalt. *6onstruction Requirements - same surface condition upon application to prime coat as well as that of equipment used. -the surface must be first cleaned by power broom or power blower. -the rate of application shall be within the range of ).% to ).& litre0sq.m. *Method of measurement -the bituminous tac5 coat shall be measured by the tonne 't*, completed and accepted in-place. Item 303 - Bituminous Sea" Coat *Description -it shall consist of an application of bituminous material with or without an application of aggregate on an e:isting surface course in accordance with the plans ? specs. *Material Requirements "ype $ "ype % "ype 1 7ituminous ).%-)./ )./-$ ).4/-$./ material +0sq.m. 6over Aggregate, (one /-$) 4-$. 5g0sq.m. *7ituminous Material -shall be asphalt cement, penetration grade $%)$/),rapid curing or medium curing cut-bac5 asphalt. *6over Aggregate -cover aggregate for "ype % seal coat shall consist of sand and fine screenings reasonably free from dirt or other organic matter. -aggregate for type 1 seal coat shall be crushed stone, crushed slag or crushed gravel. #nly one type of aggregate shall be used in a pro;ect unless alternative types are approved. -the aggregate shall have a mass percent of wear not e:ceeding .) when tested by AA !"# ",-. -when crushed slag is used, it shall be of uniform density and quality and shall have a density of not less than ,-) 5g0cu.m. '-) lb0cu.ft.* as determined by AA !"# "$,. *6onstruction Requirements -seal coating shall not be underta5en during foggy or rainy weather or when the surface to be treated is wet. -no seal coating wor5 shall be continued at night unless provided with sufficient lighting. -in no event shall seal coat be placed on newly constructed or reconditioned surfaces it shall only be placed in less than ten '$)* days after such surface is laid and opened to traffic.

-bituminous material shall be applied by means of a pressure distributor at the rate of appro:imately )., to $.4 litres for A6 and $./ to 1.) litres for cut-bac5 asphalt, per square meter of surface, in a uniform, unbro5en spread over the section to be treated. -care shall be ta5en that the application of bituminous material at the ;unction of spreads is not in e:cess of the specified quantities. -any e:cess shall be removed from the surface by a s#ueegee$ - if necessary, to obtain proper ;unction of spreads, a strip of manila paper appro:imately $ meter wide and at least as long as the spray bar shall be used at the beginning and end of each spread. "he paper shall be removed after use. *Application of the 6over Aggregate - immediately after the application of asphalt, the cover aggregate shall be evenly spread over the surface at the rate of appro:imately ).)). to ).))& cu.m. per sq.m. -spreading of cover aggregate shall only be done by aggregate spreader and the use of spreader boards shall not be permitted. -after spreading, the surface shall be broomed lightly with approved push or drag broom to ensure an even distribution, and shall be rolled with an approved power roller weighing not less than / nor more than - tonnes to a uniform surface. *Method of Measurement -the quantities of bituminous material shall be measured by the tonne 't*, calculated by the actual rate of application approved by the engineer. Item 30% - Bituminous Surface Treatment *Description -it shall consist of either a single application of bituminous material followed by a single spreading of aggregate 'single surface treatment* or two applications of bituminous material each followed by a spreading of aggregate 'double surface treatment* in accordance with the plans ? specs. *Material Requirements - the appro:imate amounts of materials per sq.m. and sequence of operations for single and double surface treatment shall be as provided in %able 1)..$ and "able 1)..%. -the quantities given in the table are those of aggregates having a bul5 specific gravity of %.-/ as determined by AA !"# "4. and "4/. 3f the bul5 specific gravity of the aggregates is above %.&/ and below %.//, the corrected amount of the bituminous material and cover aggregate will be the product of the quantity shown in the tables and the ratio of the bul5 specific gravity of the aggregate to %.-/. - the total amount of the bituminous material per sq.m. may be varied by the <ngineer but the total amount of aggregate per sq.m, will not be changed. -bituminous material shall be either 6R -$,6R -%,R $,R -",A6 $%)-$/),M6 %/)-4)), whichever is called in the 7#B.

-the aggregates shall be crushed stone, crushed slag,or crushed gravel. #nly one type of aggregate shall be used in a pro;ect unless alternative types are approved. Aggregates gradation shall conform to "able 1)..1. - same aggregate requirements for bituminous seal coat. Chen crushed gravel is used, not less than /) mass percent of the particles retained on the ..&/mm '(o..* sieve shall have at least one fractured face. *6onstruction Requirements -the rates of application0spreading of asphalt and aggregate given in the tables 1)..$ and 1)..% are given as guide only and will vary considerably according to the type and condition of the surface, the grading, type, shape and absorbency of the aggregate, the weather condition and the traffic. -the 6ontractor shall furnish the <ngineer a certified vendorAs certificate in duplicate immediately upon delivery of asphaltic material to the site. -a weighing equipment shall be provided by the 6ontractor and it shall be protected by a weather-proof house with a floor area of not less than $) sq.m. -equipment shall conform to the requirements in equipment of 3tem 1)$. -the application of bituminous material shall be done when the weather is warm and dry. -the required asphaltic material shall be applied to the surface at least %. hours after it has been prime coated. -asphaltic material shall be applied on a dry surface whenever cut-bac5 or asphalt cement is usedD moist surface when emulsified asphalt is used. -spraying shall not be done unless the road temperature has been above %)@6 at least one hour prior to the commencement of spraying operations, and the temperature shall not be less than %)@ during the spraying. -the application temperature for asphalt cement shall be within the range that produces a viscosity of $) tm -) second aybolt Eurol. -immediately after applying the asphaltic material, dry aggregate shall be uniformly and evenly distributed over the treated surface from an approved mechanical aggregate spreader. -no portion of the sprayed surface shall remain uncovered for a period in e:cess of % minutes. - where asphaltic material is e:posed during rolling, the area shall be covered with additional aggregate and further rolled until an even surface results. -traffic shall be prohibited from traveling at speeds in e:cess of .) 5m0h until the asphaltic material has set. *Method of Measurement -bituminous material and aggregate for 7ituminous urface "reatment will be measured by the tonne 't*. Item 30& - Bituminous Penetration Maca'am Pa(ement * Description -it shall consist of furnishing and placing one or more courses of graded aggregate and one or more application of bituminous material, followed by a seal

coat with cover aggregate constructed on a prepared base in accordance with the specs and in conformity with the lines, grades and typical cross-sections shown on the plans. *Material Requirements -the appro:imate amounts of materials per square meter and sequence of operations shall be provided in "able 1)/.$, whichever is called for in the 7ill of quantities. -other material requirements are the same as that of 3tem 1).-7ituminous urface "reatment. '7 F ? Ad;ustments* -the bituminous material shall be either A6, R6, cut-bac5 asphalt or emulsifies asphalt, whichever is called in the 7#B. -the coarse aggregate shall be crushed stone, crushed slag or crushed gravel. -the cho5er material, 5ey roc5, and cover aggregate shall be crushed or bro5en stone, crushed gravel, or crushed boulders or screened gravel or coarse sand. -natural gravel may be used for cover material. Fradation shall conform to "able 1)/.%. -the aggregate shall have a mass percent of wear not e:ceeding .) when tested by AA !"# ",-. -when the crushed gravel is sub;ected to five cycles of the sodium sulfate soundness test 'AA !"# "$).*, the weighted loss shall not e:ceed $% mass percent. -when crushed slag is used, it must be of uniform density and quality and shall have a density not less than $$%) 5g0cu.m. '&) lb0cu.ft.* as determined by AA !"# "$,. *6onstruction Requirements -application of bituminous material shall be made only when the aggregate is dry and the atmospheric temperature in the shade is $/@ or above and when the weather is not foggy or rainy. -the equipment to be used shall include hand or power operated brooms, shovels, ra5es, self-powered bituminous material distributors or hand or poweroperated spray pumps, broom dragging equipment, selfpowered rollers and a sufficient number of stiff-fiber or steel bristle push brooms. -the untreated base, if shown on the plans and called for in the 7#B shall be prime0tac5 coated. -the aggregates shall be dry-rolled until it is compacted and 5eyed. Rolling shall progress gradually from the sides to the center, parallel with the center line of the road and overlapping uniformly each preceding rear wheel trac5 by one-half the width of such trac5 and shall continue until the aggregate does not creep or displace ahead of the rollers. -along curbs, headers and walls, and at all places not accessible to the roller, the aggregate shall be tamped thoroughly with mechanical tampers or with hand tampers. -each hand tamper shall have a mass of not less than %/ 5g and a face area of not more than %/) mm by %/) mm. -prior to application of the bituminous material, the surface of the aggregate layer will be tested by the

<ngineer using a 1-m straight-edge at selected locations. -the variation of the surface from the testing edge of the straight-edge between any two contacts with the surface shall at no point e:ceed $) mm. -the bituminous material shall be uniformly applied at the rate specified in "able 1)/.$. -building paper shall be placed over the end of the previous application and the ;oining application shall start off in a satisfactory manner. 7uilding paper so used shall be removed and disposed off in a satisfactory manner. *Method of measurement -bituminous materials, and aggregate for bituminous penetration macadam pavement will be measured by the tonne 't*. Item 30) - Bituminous Roa' Mi* Surface Course *Description -it shall consist of constructing a bituminous road-mi: surface course on a prepared base in accordance with these specs and in conformity with the lines, grades and typical cross-sections shown on plans or established by the <ngineer. *Material Requirements -the bituminous material shall be either R6 cut-bac5, M6 cut-bac5 or emulsified asphalt, whichever is called for in the 7#B. -aggregate shall be tested for acceptance immediately preceding addition of bituminous material to the mi:. -the aggregate may be new or salvaged from the e:isting surface. -any particles of salvaged aggregate appearing in the surface at the time of lay-down and finishing that will not pass 1&./ mm '$ - $0% inch* sieve shall be removed by the 6ontractor as directed by the <ngineer. -the proportion of bituminous material on the basis of total dry aggregate, shall be from ../ to &.) mass percent when cut-bac5 asphalt is used and from -.) to $).) mass percent when emulsified asphalt is used. -during the mi:ing operation, )./ to $.) mass percent of hydrated lime, dry aggregate basis, shall be added to the mi:ture. "he lower percentage limit is applicable to aggregates which are predominantly calcareous. *6onstruction Requirements -the construction of road-mi: bituminous pavement shall be carried on only when the surface on which the material is to be placed is dry and when the weather is not foggy or rainy. -the equipment used by the 6ontractor shall include scarifying, mi:ing, spreading, finishing and compacting equipmentD a bituminous distributorD and the equipment for heating bituminous material. -the distributor shall be so designed, equipped, maintained and operated that bituminous material at even heat may be applied uniformly on variable widths of surface up to ../m at readily determined and controlled rates from ).% to $) +0sq.m.,with uniform pressure, and

with an allowable variation from any specified rate not to e:ceed ).$ +0sq.m. -distributor equipment shall include a tachometer, pressure gauge, accurate volume measuring devices or a calibrated tan5, and a thermometer for measuring temperatures of tan5 contents. -rollers shall be self-propelled steel-wheel tandem or 1wheel rollers weighing not less than 4 tonnes each and pneumatic tire rollers having a total compacting width of not less than $./% m '-) inches*and the gross mass ad;ustable within the range of 1,-.) to -,1-) 5g per meter '%)) to 1/) pounds per inch* of compaction width. -when new aggregate is to be used for the road mi: surface course, the e:isting base shall be scarified lightly and bladed to a uniform grade and to the cross-section shown on the plans and shall then be rolled or watered and then rolled, as directed. - when salvaged aggregate is to be used, same preparation as that of the new aggregate. "hen the reshaped surface shall then be scarified again to the depth ordered by the <ngineer and in such manner as to leave a foundation of undisturbed material parallel, both in profile and cross-section, to the proposed finished surface. "he loosened materials shall be bladed aside into a windrow at the side of the road and the undisturbed material rolled or watered and rolled, as directed -new aggregates, where required, shall be uniformly spread on the prepared surface by the use of spreader bo:es, or other approved mechanical spreading devices. -at least one day shall be allowed for measuring, sampling and testing for approval of quantity and gradation before the windrowed material is spread for application of bituminous material. -if the surface moisture of the aggregate is more than %8 of the dry weight of the aggregate, e:cept when the bituminous material is emulsified asphalt, the aggregate shall be turned by blades or disc harrows or otherwise aerated until the moisture content is reduced to %8 or less. -the aggregate shall then be spread smoothly and uniformly over half the road or other convenient width of the surface, but if a traveling mi:ing plant is used, the aggregate shall be formed into a uniform cross-section. -in lieu of aerating and drying the aggregate, the 6ontractor may use an approved additive, e:cept where emulsified asphalt is used. -the mi:ing equipment shall follow immediately behind the distributor, after each application of bituminous material. -if the mi:ture shows an e:cess, deficiency or uneven distribution of bituminous material, it shall be corrected by the addition of aggregates or bituminous material. - if the mi:ture contains e:cessive amounts of moisture or volatile matter, it shall be bladed, aerated or otherwise manipulated until the moisture and volatile content are satisfactory. -at the end of each dayAs wor5, or when the wor5 is interrupted by weather conditions or otherwise, all loose

materials shall be bladed into a windrow, whether mi:ing is completed or not, and shall be retained in a windrow until operations are resumed. -the material shall be spread by a self-propelled pneumatic-tire blade grader or a mechanical spreader of approved type. - same rolling procedure as in previous bituminous materials. <ach pass shall terminate at least ,$) mm '1 ft* in advance or to the rear of the end of the preceding pass. -initial rolling shall be performed with a pneumatic-tire roller and final rolling with a 1-wheel or tandem type steel wheel roller. -when the compacted thic5ness of the road mi: surface is to be more than /) mm '% inches*, the mi:ture shall be spread from the windrow and compacted in two layers, the first layer to be bladed and rolled before the second layer is spread. -surface requirements shall be as specified in section 1)&, e:cept that the permissible surface variance will be $)mm in 1m '1G4 inch in $) ft*. *Method of Measurement -bituminous material and aggregate for this item will be measured by the tonne 't*. "he weight of all moisture in the aggregate will be deducted from the pay quantity. ITEM 30+ - BITUMI,OUS P-A,T-MI. SURFACE COURSE - /E,ERA*Description -this item includes general requirements that are applicable to all types of bituminous plant mi: surface courses irrespective of gradation of aggregate or 5ind and amount of bituminous material. -this wor5 shall consist of constructing one or more bituminous bound layers on a prepared foundation in accordance with the specs and the plans. *Material Requirements Hob mi: formula - the bituminous material shall be composed of aggregate, mineral filler, hydrated lime, and bituminous material. - at least "!R<< wee5s prior to production, the 6ontractor shall submit in writing a ;ob-mi: formula for each mi:ture supported by laboratory test data along with samples and sources of the components and viscosity-temperature relationships information to the <ngineer for testing and approval. - <ach ;ob-mi: formula submitted shall propose definite single values forG $. "he percentage of aggregate passing each specified sieve siIe. %. "he percentage of bituminous material to be added. 1. "he temperature of the mi:ture delivered on the road. .. "he 5ind and percentage of additive to be used. /. "he 5ind and percentage of mineral filler to be used. - After the ;ob-mi: is established, all mi:ture furnished for the pro;ect shall conform thereto within the following ranges of tolerancesG 2assing (o. . and larger sieves J& percent 2assing (o. 4 to (o. $)) sieves 'inclusive* J. percent

2assing (o. %)) sieve J% percent 7ituminous Material J ).. percent "emperature of Mi:ture J $)@6 - the mi:ture shall have a minimum compressive strength of $.. M2a '%)) psi*. - the mi:ture shall have a mass percent air voids with the range of 1 to /. - the mi:ture shall also have an inde: of retained strength of not less than &) when tested by AA !"# " $-/. - for aggregates having ma:imum siIes over %/ mm '$ inch*, AA !"# " $-/ will be modified to use $/) mm : $/) mm ' - : - inches* cylindrical specimens. - the $/) mm '- inches cylinders will be compacted by the procedures outlined in AA !"# " $-& modified to employ $) repetitions of a molding load of ,.- M2a '$.)) psi*, with no appreciable holding time after each application of the full load. - the 5ind of bituminous material to be used will be as called for in the 7ill of Buantities, while the type and grade will be specified in the pecial 2rovisions. "he grade may be changed one step by the <ngineer at no change in unit price. - the proportion of bituminous material, on the basis of total dry aggregate, shall be from /.) to 4.) mass percent. - hydrated lime shall be added to the mi:ture during the mi:ing operation in the amount of one-half to one ')./ to $.)* mass percent, dry aggregate basis. "he lower percentage limit is applicable to aggregates which are predominantly calcareous. *6onstruction Requirements - bituminous plant mi: shall not be placed on any wet surface, or when weather conditions would prevent the proper handling or finishing of the bituminous mi:tures. ***6onstruction <quipment a. Requirements for all 2lants. 7ituminous Mi:ing 2lant - different aggregate siIes shall be 5ept separated until they have been delivered to the cold elevator feeding the drier. 2lant cales - shall be accurate to )./ percent of the ma:imum load that may be required. cales shall be inspected and sealed as often as the <ngineer may deem necessary to assure their continued accuracy. "he 6ontractor shall have on hand not less than ten %)-5g weights for testing the scales. <quipment for 2reparation of 7ituminous Material - tan5s for the storage of bituminous material shall be equipped with the proper devices to heat and hold the material at the required temperatures. "he heating shall be accomplished by steam coils, electricity, or other approved means so that no flame shall be in contact with the tan5.

Eeeder for Drier - for uniformly feeding the aggregate into the drier so that uniform production and temperature will be obtained. Drier - the plant shall include a drier or driers which continuously agitate during the heating and drying process. creens - plant screens, capable of screening all aggregate to the specified siIes and proportions and having normal capacities in e:cess of the full capacity of the mi:er 7ins - the plant shall include storage bins of sufficient capacity to supply the mi:er when it is operating at full capacity. 7ins shall be arranged to assure separate and adequate storage of appropriate fractions of the mineral aggregates. eparate dry storage shall be provided for filler or hydrated lime when used and the plant shall be equipped to feed such material into the mi:er. 7ituminous 6ontrol Fate - shall be provided to obtain the proper amount of bituminous material in the mi: within the tolerance specified. Means shall be provided for chec5ing the quantity or rate of flow of bituminous material into the mi:er. "hermometric <quipment - so placed at the discharge chute of the drier as to register automatically or indicate the temperature of the heated aggregates. Dust 6ollector - to waste or return uniformly all or any part of the material to the hot elevator collected as directed. "ruc5 cales - the bituminous mi:ture shall be weighed on approved scales furnished by the 6ontractor or on public scales at the 6ontractorKs e:pense. b. Requirements for 7atching 2lants Ceigh bo: or hopper - shall include a means for accurately weighing each siIe of aggregate in a weight bo: or hopper suspended on scales and of ample siIe to hold a full batch without hand ra5ing or running over. 7ituminous 6ontrol - the equipment used to measure the bituminous material shall be accurate to plus or minus )./ percent. "he bituminous material buc5et shall be a nontilting type with a loose sheet metal cover. "he length of the discharge opening or spray bar shall be less than L the length of the mi:er and it shall discharge directly into the mi:er. "he capacity of the bituminous material buc5et shall be at least $/ percent in e:cess of the weight of bituminous material required in any batch. Mi:er - the batch mi:er shall be an approved type capable of producing a uniform mi:ture with the ;ob-mi: tolerances. 3f not enclosed, the mi:er bo: shall be equipped with a dust hood to

prevent loss of dust. "he clearance of blades from all fi:ed and moving parts shall not e:ceed %/ mm '$ inch* unless the ma:imum diameter of the aggregate in the mi: e:ceed 1) mm '$-$0. inches*, in which case the clearance shall not e:ceed .) mm '$-$0% inches*. 6ontrol of Mi:ing "ime - the mi:er shall be equipped with an accurate time loc5 to control the operation of a complete mi:ing cycle. 3t shall loc5 the bituminous material buc5et throughout the dry and wet mi:ing periods. "he dry mi:ing period is defined as the interval of time between the opening of the weigh bo: gate and the start of introduction of bituminous material. "he wet mi:ing period is the interval of time between the start of introduction of bituminous material and the opening of the mi:er gate. "he control of the timing shall be fle:ible and capable of being set at intervals of / seconds or less throughout a total cycle of up to 1 minutes. c. Requirement for 6ontinuous Mi:ing 2lants Aggregate 2roportioning - "he plant shall include means for accurately proportioning each siIe of aggregate. Ceight 6alibration of Aggregate Eeed - the plant shall include a means for calibration of gate openings by weighing test samples. "he plant shall be equipped to conveniently handle individual test samples weighing not less than /) 5ilograms. ynchroniIation of Aggregate Eeed and 7ituminous Material Eeed - satisfactory means shall be provided to afford positive interloc5ing control between the flow of aggregate from the bins and the flow of bituminous material from the meter or other proportioning device. Mi:er - the plants shall include a continuous mi:er of an approved type, adequately heated and capable of producing a uniform mi:ture within the ;ob-mi: tolerances. !auling <quipment - have tight, clean, smooth metal beds which have been thinly coated with approved material to prevent the mi:ture from adhering to the beds. "ruc5 beds shall be drained prior to loading. 7ituminous 2avers - the equipment shall be selfcontained, power-propelled units, provided with an ad;ustable activated screed or stri5e-off assembly, heated if necessary, and capable of spreading and finishing courses of bituminous plant mi: material in lane widths applicable to the specified typical section and thic5ness shown on the 2lans. 2avers shall be equipped with a control system capable of automatically maintaining the screen elevation as specified herein. "he controls shall be capable of wor5ing in connection with any of the following attachments. a. 5i-type device of not less than , m '1) feet* in length or as directed by the <ngineer. b. "aut stringline 'wire* set to grade.

c. hort s5i or shoe Rollers - the equipment shall be of the steel and0or pneumatic tire type and shall be in good condition, capable of reversing without bac5lash, and shall be operated at speeds slow enough to avoid displacement of the bituminous mi:ture. *6onditioning of <:isting urface - contract surface or curb, gutters, manholes and other structures shall be painted with a thin, uniform coating of bituminous material prior to the bituminous mi:ture being placed against them. * 2reparation of 7ituminous Material - the temperature of asphalt cement delivered to the mi:er shall be as required to achieve a 5inematic viscosity in the range of $/)-1)) mm%0s, as determined by AA !"# " %)$. Asphalt cement shall not be used while it is foaming nor shall be heated above $/,@6 '1%)@E* at any time after delivery in the pro;ect. * 2reparation of Aggregate - aggregates for pug mill mi:ing shall be heated, dried and delivered to the mi:ing unit at a temperature within the range J$&)6 'J1))E* of the bitumen. Moisture content of the aggregate shall not e:ceed one mass percent at the time it is introduced into the mi:ing unit. Moisture content of the mi:ture from drum dryer plants shall not e:ceed three '1* percent of the output, as determined by AA !"# " $$). * Mi:ing - the dried aggregates and the bituminous material shall be measured or gauged and introduced into the mi:er in the amount specified by the ;ob mi: formula. the material shall be mi:ed until a complete and uniform coating of the particles and a thorough distribution of the bituminous material throughout the aggregate is secured. * preading and Einishing - the longitudinal ;oint in one layer shall offset that in the layer immediately below appro:imately $/ cm '- inches*D however, the ;oint in the top layer shall be at the center line of the pavement if the roadway comprises two '%* lanes, or at lane lines if the roadway is more than two '%* lanes, unless otherwise directed. - the mi:ture shall be placed at a temperature not less than $)&@6 '%%/@E* as measured in the truc5 ;ust prior to dumping into the spreader. - when tar is used, the mi:ture shall be placed at between --@6 and $)&@6 '$/)@E and %%/@E*. * 6ompaction - rolling shall begin at the sides and proceeds longitudinally parallel toward the road centerline, each trip overlapping M the roller width, gradually progressing to the crown of the road. - on superelevated curves, the rolling shall begin at the low side and progress to the high side overlapping of longitudinal trips parallel to the center line. - rolling shall be continued until roller mar5s are eliminated and a minimum of ,& mass percent of the density of the laboratory compacted specimens prepared in accordance with AA !"# " $-- has been obtained.

- to prevent adhesion of the mi:ture to the rollers, the wheels shall be 5ept properly moistened with water or water mi:ed with very small quantities of detergent or other approved material. <:cess liquid will not be permitted. * Hoints - transverse ;oints shall be formed by cutting bac5 on the previous run to e:pose the full depth of the course. Chen directed by the <ngineer, a brush coat of bituminous material shall be used on contact surfaces of transverse ;oints before additional mi:ture is placed against the previously rolled material. * Acceptance, ampling and "esting - the contractor shall cut full depth samples as directed, from the finished pavement, for testing. amples shall be neatly cut by saw or core drill. <ach sample shall be at least $/) mm : $/) mm or $)) mm diameter full depth. At least one, but not more than three samples shall be ta5en for each full dayKs operation. 3f no core samples were ta5en during the dayKs operation, core samples shall be ta5en from the completed pavement for every $)) +. M. per lane. - no acceptance and final payment shall be made on completed asphalt pavement unless core test for thic5ness determination is conducted, e:cept for 7arangay Roads where the implementing office is allowed to waive such test. - the compacted pavement shall have a density equal to, or greater than ,& mass percent of the density of a laboratory specimen. "he asphalt pavement represented by the cores shall not be accepted if the deficiency in density is more than %8. - the compacted pavement shall have a thic5ness tolerances of -/ mm. "hic5ness in e:cess of the specified thic5ness shall not be considered in the payment of asphalt pavement. "he asphalt pavement represented by the individual core shall not be accepted if the deficiency in the core thic5ness as obtained in accordance with A "M D 1/., is more than / mm. Averaging of the density and thic5ness of asphalt cores is not permitted. - if the deficiency in the core thic5ness is more than / mm, additional layer may be permitted in order to meet the designed thic5ness, however, the minimum additional asphalt overlay thic5ness should be dependent on the minimum thic5ness capacity of asphalt paver but it should not be less than /) mm '% inches* and that proper construction procedures are followed. * urface "olerances - the surface will be chec5ed by the use of a 1-m straight-edge at sites selected by the <ngineer. "he straight-edge will be applied at right angles, as well as, parallel to the centerline of the roadbed. -the variation of the surface from the testing edge of the straight-edge between any two contacts with the surface shall not e:ceed - mm. -tests will be made immediately after initial compaction and any variations detected shall be corrected by removing or adding materials, as may be necessary.

Rolling shall then be continued as specified. After final rolling, the smoothness of the course shall be chec5ed again. *Method of Measurement - the area to be paid for under this item shall be the number of square meters 'm%* of asphalt pavement placed, compacted and accepted based on the thic5ness and densities of the cores ta5en. ITEM 300 1 CO-2 ASP3A-T P-A,T- MI. * Description - this item shall consist of constructing 7ituminous urface 6ourse 'Asphalt 6old Mi:* prepared in central mi:ing plant, laid cold, on the prepared base in accordance with this pecification and in conformity with the lines, grades and typical cross-section shown on the 2lans. * Material Requirements - the asphalt cold mi: shall be composed of coarse mineral aggregates, fine mineral aggregates, mineral fillers and chemically bonding bitumen. - at least three wee5s prior to production, the 6ontractor shall submit in writing a ;ob-mi: formula for each mi:ture supported by laboratory test data along with samples and sources of the components and viscositytemperature relationships information to the <ngineer for testing and approval. - <ach ;ob-mi: formula submitted shall propose definite single value forG $. "he percentage of coarse mineral aggregates passing each specified sieve siIe. %. "he percentage of fine mineral aggregates passing each specified sieve siIe. 1. "he percentage of chemically bonding bitumen material to be added. .. "he temperature of the mi:ture delivered on the prepared base of the road. /. "he 5ind and percentage of chemical additive to be used. -. "he 5ind and percentage of mineral filler to be incorporated. * 7ituminous Material - it shall be either +iquid 6ut-bac5 Asphalt or <mulsified Asphalt, whichever is called for in the 7ill of Buantities. "he type and grade of asphalt material will be specified by the <ngineer and shall comply to the requirements of AA !"# pecification M4%, M$.) orM%)4 'A "M Designation D %1,&*. - coarse and fine aggregates as well as mineral fillers shall conform to the requirements of 3tem &)1. *2roportioning of Mi:ture - the proportioning of 7ituminous Material on the basis of total dry aggregate shall be from ../ to &.) mass percent when cut bac5 asphalt is used and from -.) to $).) mass percent when emulsified asphalt is used. * 6onstruction Requirements - cold Asphalt 2lant Mi: shall be placed only when the specified density can be obtained. "he mi:ture shall not be placed on any wet surface or when weather condition

will prevent its proper handling or finishing. Asphalt surface mi:ture shall not be placed when the surface temperature of the base course is below $))6 '/))E*. - when the compacted subgrade on which the asphalt base is to be placed loosely bonded, it shall be primed with )./ to $..) litre0m% or ).$ to ).1 gal0yd% of the type and grade of asphalt priming material. "he asphalt should be entirely absorbed by the base course and the prime should be fully set and cured before placing the surface. - surfaces of curbs, gutters, vertical faces of e:isting pavements, and all structures to be in actual contact with the asphalt-aggregate mi:ture shall be given a thin, even coating of asphalt material, type and grade. 6are shall be ta5en to prevent spattering of the asphalt on surfaces that will not be in contact with the asphalt aggregate mi:ture. - when it is necessary to blend aggregates from one or more sources to produce the combined gradation, each source or siIe of aggregate shall stoc5piled individually. Aggregate from the individual stoc5piles shall fed through separate bins to cold elevator feeders. "hey shall not be blended in the stoc5pile. - mi:ing time shall be the shortest time that will produce a satisfactory mi:ture. * 2lacing "he Mi: - the base course mi:ture shall be placed in one or more lifts with an asphalt paver or spreader to provide a nominal compacted thic5ness of the base course. - the minimum lift thic5ness shall be at least two times the ma:imum particle siIe. "he ma:imum lift thic5ness shall be that which can be demonstrated to be laid in a single lift and compacted to a required uniform density and smoothness. 2lacing the mi:ture shall be a continuous operation. * 6ompacting "he Mi:ture - the mi: shall be compacted immediately after placing. 3nitial rolling with a steel wheeled tandem or three wheeled roller, vibratory roller, or a pneumatic-tired roller shall follow the paver as closely as possible. 3f needed, intermediate rolling with a pneumatic-tired roller shall be done immediately behind the initial rolling. - an application of cho5e aggregate may be necessary to prevent mi: pic5-up by the pneumatic-tired roller. Einal rolling shall eliminate mar5s from previous rolling. 3n areas too small for the roller a vibrating plate compactor or a hand-tamper shall be used to achieve thorough compaction. * Acceptance Requirement - divide asphalt mi:ture production into lots, each lot equal to the mi: produced during one day. Determine the target density for each lot by measuring the average density of si: laboratory prepared specimens representing two randomly chosen subsamples from truc5s delivering mi:ture to the ;obsite. "he target density should be reported as dry density. - Determine the compacted density in the field from five randomly located positions in each lot of the compacted mi:ture by using a properly calibrated nuclear density

device or other procedure. Density determinations made after a period of curing may be determined on samples obtained from compacted material by a suitable core drilling technique. - all compacted densities should be converted to dry densities. 3t is recommended that the average of five field density determinations made in each lot be equal to or greater than ,& percent of the average density of the si: laboratory prepared specimens, and that no individual determination be lower than ,/ percent. - the surface of the completed pavement will be chec5ed longitudinally and transversely for smoothness with a 1 m '$) ft.* straightedge. "he surface shall not vary more than / mm ').% in* in a 1 m '$) ft.* parallel to the centerline and not more than 4 mm ').1 in* in 1 m '$) ft.* at right angles to the centerline. * <quipment $. Asphalt mi:ing plants designed to produce a uniform mi: within the ;ob-mi: tolerances. %. elf-powered pavers that are capable of spreading the mi: to the thic5ness and width specified, true to the line, grade and crown shown on the 2lans. 1. <nough smooth metal-bedded haul truc5s, with covers when required ensure orderly and continuous paving operations. .. A pressure distributor that is capable of applying tac5 coat and prime material uniformly without atomiIation. /. teel-wheeled, pneumatic-tired, or vibratory rollers capacity of attaining the required density and smoothness. -. A power broom or a power blower or both. &. !and tools necessary to complete the ;ob. * ampling - sampling of asphalt materials shall be in accordance with the latest revision of AA !"# Designation ".) 'A "M Designation D$.)*. ampling of mineral aggregate shall be in accordance with the latest revision of AA !"# designation 'A "M Designation D &/*. ampling of the asphalt mi:ture, as required by the <ngineer, shall be in accordance with the latest revision of AA !"# Designation $-4 'A "M Designation D ,&,*. * Method of Measurement - the bituminous mi:ture will be measured by square meter 'm%*. "he quantity to be paid for shall be the number of square meters of the mi:ture placed and compacted in the accepted pavement. (o deduction will be made for the weight of bituminous material in the mi:ture. -batch weights will not be permitted as a method of measurement. ITEM 304 1 BITUMI,OUS P-A,T-MI. 5STOC6PI-E MAI,TE,A,CE MI.TURE7 *Description - this 3tem shall consist of a bituminous stoc5pile maintenance mi:ture composed of aggregate, mineral

filler, hydrated lime and bituminous material mi:ed in a central plant. "he mi:ture is stoc5piled for immediate or future maintenance needs. * Material Requirements - 6omposition and Buality of 7ituminous Mi:ture - ame as ubsection 1)&.%.$ * 7ituminous Material - the type and grade of bituminous material shall be in accordance with the following guidelinesG M6 - %/) Eor use within short time after stoc5piling. M6 - 4)) Eor immediate use under hot or moderate weather conditions, or for use within a short time after stoc5piling. 6M -%0% - Mi: can be designed for use within a short time after stoc5piling or for long storage *Aggregate -it shall be crushed stone, crushed or natural gravel, slag, sand, stone or slag screenings, mineral dust, or a combination of these materials. "he several aggregate fractions shall be combined in such proportions that the gradation of the composite aggregate shall conform to the grading requirements of "able 1),.$. -the combined aggregate after going through the drier, shall have a sand equivalent value of not less than .). -the coarse aggregate shall have a mass percent of wear not e:ceeding .) when tested by AA !"# " ,-. -slag, if used, shall weigh not less than $$%) 5g0m1 '&) lb0cu. ft.*. *2roportioning of Mi:ture -the amount of bituminous material to be added will be from . to $) mass percent of total mi:. "he e:act percentage to be used shall be fi:ed by the <ngineer in accordance with the ;ob-mi: formula and other quality control requirements. Npper limit may be raised when using absorptive aggregate. -during the mi:ing operation, one-half to one ')./ to $.)* mass percent of hydrated lime, dry aggregate basis, shall be added to the mi:ture. "he lower percentage limit is applicable to aggregates which are predominantly calcareous. *6onstruction Requirements -the aggregate, mineral filler, and hydrated lime shall be fed into the plant in the proportions required to provide a composite aggregate meeting the grading requirements. "he aggregate shall be free from visible moisture at the time of mi:ing. - the finished mi:ture shall be stoc5piled on a platform level storage space. * Method of Measurement -the area to be paid for under this item shall be the number of square meters of asphalt pavement placed, compacted and accepted based on the thic5ness and density of the cores ta5en.

ITEM 310 1 BITUMI,OUS CO,CRETE SURFACE COURSE8 3OT--AI2 *Description - shall consist of constructing a bituminous concrete surface course composed of aggregates, mineral filler, and bituminous material mi:ed in a central plant, constructed and laid hot on the prepared base in accordance with this pecification and in conformity with lines, grades, thic5ness and typical cross-section shown on the 2lans. * Material Requirements - 6omposition and Buality of 7ituminous Mi:ture 'HobMi: Eormula* ame as ubsection 1)& * 7ituminous Material - it shall be either Medium 6uring 'M6* 6ut-bac5 Asphalt or Asphalt 6ement, whichever is called - aggregates, mineral filler and hydrated lime shall conform to the requirements of 3tem 1)&, 7ituminous 2lant Mi: urface 6ourse-Feneral. * 2roportioning of Mi:tures -the proportion of bituminous material on the basis of total dry aggregate shall be from /.) to 4.) mass percent. -during the mi:ing operation, one-half to one ')./ to $.)* mass percent of hydrated lime, dry aggregate basis, shall be added to the mi:ture. -the lower percentage limit is applicable to aggregates which are predominantly calcareous. *6onstruction Requirements -the construction requirements shall be in accordance whenever applicable, with ection 1)&. *Method of Measurement -the area to be paid for under this item shall be the number of square meters 'm %* of asphalt pavement placed, compacted and accepted based on the thic5ness and density of the cores ta5en in accordance with subsection 1)&. ITEM 311 1PORT-A,2 CEME,T CO,CRETE PA9EME,T *Description -this 3tem shall consist of pavement of 2ortland 6ement 6oncrete, with or without reinforcement, constructed on the prepared base in accordance with this pecification and in conformity with lines, grades, thic5ness and typical cross section shown on the 2lans. * Material Requirements 2ortland 6ement - shall conform to the applicable requirements of 3tem &)).#nly "ype 3 2ortland 6ement shall be used unless otherwise provided for in the pecial 2rovisions. Different brands or the same brands from different mills shall not be mi:ed nor shall they be used alternately unless the mi: is approved by the <ngineer. !owever, the use of 2ortland 2oIIolan 6ement "ype 32 meeting the requirements of AA !"# M %.)0A "M 6 -,/, pecifications for 7lended !ydraulic 6ement

shall be allowed, provided that trial mi:es shall be done and that the mi:es meet the concrete strength requirements, the AA !"#0A "M provisions pertinent to the use of 2ortland 2oIIolan "ype 32 shall be adopted. Eine Aggregate - 3t shall consist of natural sand, stone screenings or other inert materials with similar characteristics, or combinations thereof, having hard, strong and durable particles. Eine aggregate from different sources of supply shall not be mi:ed or stored in the same pile nor used alternately in the same class of concrete without the approval of the <ngineer. 3t shall not contain more than three '1* mass percent of material passing the ).)&/ mm '(o. %)) sieve* by washing nor more than one '$* mass percent each of clay lumps or shale. "he use of beach sand will not be allowed without the approval of the <ngineer. 3f the fine aggregate is sub;ected to five '/* cycles of the sodium sulfate soundness test, the weighted loss shall not e:ceed $) mass percent. 3f sub;ected to the colorimatic test for organic impurities and a color dar5er than the standard is produced, it shall be re;ected. !owever, when tested for the effect of organic impurities of strength of mortar by AA !"# " &$, the fine aggregate may be used if the relative strength at & and %4 days is not less than ,/ mass percent. "he fine aggregate shall be well-graded from coarse to fine and shall conform to "able 1$$.$ 6oarse Aggregate - it shall consist of crushed stone, gravel, blast furnace slag, or other approved inert materials of similar characteristics, or combinations thereof, having hard, strong, durable pieces and free from any adherent coatings. 3t shall contain not more than one '$* mass percent of material passing the ).)&/ mm '(o. %))* sieve, not more than ).%/ mass percent of clay lumps, nor more than 1./ mass percent of soft fragments. 3f the coarse aggregate is sub;ected to five '/* cycles of the sodium sulfate soundness test, the weighted loss shall not e:ceed $% mass percent. 3t shall have a mass percent of wear not e:ceeding .) when tested by AA !"# " ,-. 3f the slag is used, its density shall not be less than $$%) 5g0m1 '&) lb.0cu. ft.*. "he gradation of the coarse aggregate shall conform to "able 1$$.%. #nly one grading specification shall be used from any one source. Cater - Cater which is drin5able may be used without test. Chere the source of water is shallow, the inta5e shall be so enclosed as to e:clude silt, mud, grass or other foreign materials. Reinforcing teel - it shall conform to the requirements of 3tem .)., Reinforcing teel.

Dowels and tie bars shall conform to the requirements of AA !"# M 1$ or M .%, e:cept that rail steel shall not be used for tie bars that are to be bent and restraightened during construction. "ie bars shall be deformed bars. Dowels shall be plain round bars. 7efore delivery to the site of wor5, one-half of the length of each dowel shall be painted with one coat of approved lead or tar paint. "he sleeves for dowel bars shall be metal of approved design to cover /) mm ' % inches*, plus or minus / mm '$0. inch* of the dowel, with a closed end, and with a suitable stop to hold the end of the sleeve at least %/ mm '$ inch* from the end of the dowel. Hoint Eillers -poured ;oint fillers shall be mi:ed asphalt and mineral or rubber filler conforming to the applicable requirements of 3tem &)/.3t shall be punched to admit Admi:tures - Air-entraining admi:ture shall conform to the requirements of AA !"# M $/.. 6hemical admi:tures, if specified or permitted, shall conform to the requirements of AA !"# M $,.. Ely Ash, if specified or permitted as a mineral admi:ture and as %)8 partial replacement of 2ortland 6ement in concrete mi: shall conform to the requirements of A "M 6 -$4. 6uring Materials - shall conform to the following requirements as specifiedD 6otton mats and water-proof paper can be used. a* 7urlap cloth - AA !"# M $4% b* +iquid membrane forming compounds AA !"# M $.4 c* heeting 'film* materials - AA !"# M $&$ 6alcium 6hloride06alcium (itrate - it shall conform to AA !"# M $.., if specified or permitted by the <ngineer, as accelerator. * torage of 6ement and Aggregate - storage buildings shall have capacity for storage of a sufficient quantity of cement to allow sampling at least twelve '$%* days before the cement is to be used. 3n order to secure greater uniformity of concrete mi:, the <ngineer may require that the coarse aggregate be separated into two or more siIes. * 2roportioning, 6onsistency and trength of 6oncrete - the 6ontractor shall prepare the design mi: based on the absolute volume method as outlined in the American 6oncrete 3nstitute 'A63* tandard %$$.$, ORecommended 2ractice for electing 2roportions for (ormal and !eavyweight 6oncreteP. - it is the intent of this pecification to require at least 1-. 5g of cement per cubic meter of concrete to meet the minimum strength requirements. - the <ngineer shall determine from laboratory tests of the materials to be used, the cement content and the proportions of aggregate and water that will produce wor5able concrete having a slump of between .) and &/ mm '$-$0% and 1 inches* if not vibrated or between $)

and .) mm '$0% and $-$0% inches* if vibrated, and a fle:ural strength of not less than 1.4 M2a '//) psi* when tested by the third-point method or ../ M2a '-/) psi* when tested by the mid-point method at fourteen '$.* days in accordance with AA !"# ",& and "$&&, respectivelyD or a compressive strength of %..$ M2a '1/)) psi* for cores ta5en at fourteen '$.* days and tested in accordance with AA !"# "%.. - slump shall be determined using AA !"# " $$,. - the designer shall consider the use of lean concrete 'econocrete* mi:tures using local materials or specifically modified conventional concrete mi:es in base course and in the lower course composite, monolithic concrete pavements using a minimum of &/ mm '1 inches* of conventional concrete as the surface course. * 6onstruction Requirements - the 6ontractor shall furnish the <ngineer a Buality 6ontrol 2lan detailing his production control procedures and the type and frequency of sampling and testing to insure that the concrete produces complies with the pecifications. * Bualification of Cor5men 6oncrete 7atcher. "he person performing the batching or mi:ing operation shall be capable of accurately conducting aggregate surface moisture determination and establishing correct scale weights for concrete materials. !e shall be capable of assuring that the proportioned batch weights of materials are in accordance with the mi: design. 6oncrete "echnician. "he person responsible for concrete production control and sampling and testing for quality control shall be proficient in concrete technology and shall have a sound 5nowledge of the pecifications as they relate to concrete production. !e shall be capable of conducting tests on concrete and concrete materials in accordance with these pecifications. !e shall be capable of ad;usting concrete mi: designs for improving wor5ability and pecification compliance and preparing trial mi: designs. !e shall be qualified to act as the concrete batcher in the batcherKs absence. * <quipment 7atching 2lant and <quipment - shall include bins, weighing hoppers, and scales for the fine aggregate and for each siIe of coarse aggregate. 3f cement is used in bul5, a bin, a hopper, and separate scale for cement shall be included. "he batch plant shall be equipped with a suitable non-resettable batch counter which will correctly indicate the number of batches proportioned. cales for weighing aggregates and cement shall be of either the beam type or the springless-dial type. "hey shall be accurate within one-half percent ')./8* throughout the range of use.

Mi:ers Q each mi:er shall have a manufacturerKs plate attached in a prominent place showing the capacity of the drum in terms of volume of mi:ed concrete and the speed of rotation of the mi:ing drum or blades. "he mi:er shall be equipped with an approved timing device which will automatically loc5 the discharge lever when the drum has been charged and released it at the end of the mi:ing period. 3n case of failure of the timing device, the mi:er may be used for the balance of the day while it is being repaired, provided that each batch is mi:ed ,) seconds. "he mi:er shall be equipped with a suitable nonresettable batch counter which shall correctly indicate the number of the batches mi:ed. "ruc5 mi:ers used for mi:ing and hauling concrete, and truc5 agitators used for hauling central-mi:ed concrete, shall conform to the requirements of AA !"# M $/&. 2aving and Einishing <quipment - the finishing machine shall be equipped with at least two '%* oscillating type transverse screed. 9ibrators shall operate at a frequency of 4,1)) to ,,-)) impulses per minute under load at a ma:imum spacing of -) cm. 6oncrete aw - the 6ontractor shall provide sawing equipment in adequate number of units and power to complete the sawing with a watercooled diamond edge saw blade or an abrasive wheel to the required dimensions and at the required rate. Eorms - shall be of steel, of an approved section, and of depth equal to the thic5ness of the pavement at the edge. "he base of the forms shall be of sufficient width to provide necessary stability in all directions. "he flange braces must e:tend outward on the base to not less than %01 the height of the form. *2reparation of Frade - after the subgrade of base has been placed and compacted to the required density, the areas which will support the paving machine and the grade on which the pavement is to be constructed shall be trimmed to the proper elevation by means of a properly designed machine e:tending the prepared wor5 areas compacted at least -) cm beyond each edge of the proposed concrete pavement. "he subgrade or base shall be uniformly moist when the concrete is placed. * etting Eorms 7ase upport -Any roadbed, which at the form line is found below established grade, shall be filled with approved granular materials to grade in lifts of three '1* cm or less, and thoroughly rerolled or tamped. 3mperfections or variations above grade shall be corrected by tamping or by cutting as necessary. Eorm etting - After the forms have been set to correct grade, the grade shall be thoroughly

tamped, mechanically or by hand, at both the inside and outside edges of the base of the forms. "he forms shall not deviate from true line bv more than one '$* cm at any point. Frade and Alignment - testing as to crown and elevation, prior to placing of concrete can be made by means of holding an approved template in a vertical position and moved bac5ward and forward on the forms. * 6onditioning of ubgrade or 7ase 6ourse - unless waterproof subgrade or base course cover material is specified, the subgrade or base course shall be uniformly moist when the concrete is placed. 3f it subsequently becomes too dry, the subgrade or base course shall be sprin5led, but the method of sprin5ling shall not be such as to form mud or pools of water. * !andling,Measuring and 7atching Materials - stoc5piles shall be built up in layers of not more than '$* meter in thic5ness. <ach layer shall be completely in place before beginning the ne:t which shall not be allowed to RconeR down over the ne:t lower layer. -all washed aggregates and aggregates produced or handled by hydraulic methods, shall be stoc5piled or binned for draining at least $% hours before being batched. -when cement is placed in contact with the aggregates, batches may be re;ected unless mi:ed within $./ hours of such contact. -batching shall be so conducted as the resulting weight of each material is within a tolerance of $8 for cement and %8 for aggregates. -the accuracy of measuring the water shall be within a range of error of not more than $8. *Mi:ing 6oncrete -the concrete may be mi:ed at the site of the wor5, in a central-mi: plant, or in truc5 mi:ers. -mi:ing time will be measured from the time all materials, e:cept water, are in the drum. -ready-mi:ed concrete shall be mi:ed and delivered in accordance with requirements of AA !"# M$/&, e:cept that the minimum required revolutions at the mi:ing speed for transit-mi:ed concrete may be reduced to not less than that recommended by the mi:er manufacturer. -when mi:ed at the site or in a central mi:ing plant, the mi:ing time shall not be less than /) seconds nor more than ,) seconds, unless mi:er performance tests prove adequate mi:ing of the concrete is a shorter time period. -. seconds shall be added to the specified mi:ing time if timing starts at the instant the s5ip reaches its ma:imum raised positions. -transfer time in multiple drum mi:ers is included in mi:ing time. -any concrete mi:ed less than the specified time shall be discarded and disposed off by the 6ontractor at his e:pense. -the volume of concrete mi:ed per batch shall not e:ceed the mi:erAs nominal capacity in cubic metre, as shown on the manufacturerAs standard rating plate on the mi:er, e:cept that an overload up to $)8 above the

mi:erAs nominal capacity may be permitted provided concrete test data for strength, segregation, and uniform consistency are satisfactory, and provided no spillage of concrete ta5es place. -the batches shall be so charged into the drum that a portion of the mi:ing water shall be entered in advance of cement and aggregates. - the flow of first water shall be uniform and all water shall be in the drum by the end of the first $/ seconds of the mi:ing period. -the time elapsed from the time water is added to the mi: until the concrete is deposited in place at the site shall not e:ceed ./ minutes whenthe concrete is hauled in non-agitating truc5s, nor ,) minutes when hauled in truc5 mi:ers or truc5 agitators, e:cept that in hot weather or under other conditions contributing to quic5 hardening of the concrete, the minimum allowable time may be reduced by the <ngineer. - in e:ceptional cases and when volumetric measurements are authoriIed for small pro;ect requiring less than &/ cu.m. of concrete per day of pouring, the weight proportions shall be converted to equivalent volumetric proportions. -concrete mi:ing chute is allowed provided that weighing scales for determining the batch weight will be used. - retempering concrete by adding water or by other means shall not be permitted, e:cept that when concrete is delivered in truc5 mi:ers, additional water may be added to the batch materials and additional mi:ing performed to increase the slump to meet the specified requirements, if permitted by the <ngineer, provided all these operations are performed within ./ minutes after the initial mi:ing operation and the water-cement ratio is not e:ceeded. *+imitation of Mi:ing -during hot weather, the <ngineer shall require that steps be ta5en to prevent the temperature of mi:ed concrete from e:ceeding a ma:imum temperature of ,)E '1%6*. -concrete not in place within ,) minutes from the time the ingredients were charged into the mi:ing drum or that has developed initial set shall not be used. *2lacing 6oncrete -necessary hand spreading shall be done with shovels, not ra5es. -when concrete is to be placed ad;oining a previously constructed lane and mechanical equipment will be operated upon the e:isting lane, that previously constructed lane shall have attained the strength for $. day concrete. -is only finishing equipment is carried on the e:isting lane, paving in ad;oining lanes may be permitted after 1 days. 3n no case shall be the vibrator be operated longer than $/ seconds in any one location. *"est pecimens -at least $ set of 1 concrete beam specimens, $/)mm : $/)mm : /%/mm or ,))mm shall be ta5en from each

11) sq.m. pavement, %1)mm depth, or fraction thereof placed each day. -the beams shall be made, cured and tested in accordance with AA !"# "%1 and ",&. * tri5e-off of 6oncrete and 2lacement of Reinforcement -when reinforced concrete pavement is placed in % layers, the bottom layer shall be struc5-off and consolidated to such length and depth that the sheet of fabric or bar mat may be laid in full length on the concrete in its final position without further manipulation. -any portion of the bottom layer of concrete which has been placed more than 1) minutes without being covered with the top layer shall be removed and replaced with freshly mi:ed concrete at the 6ontractorAs e:pense. *Hoints +ongitudinal Hoints -deformed steel tie bars of specified length, siIe and spacing and materials shall be placed perpendicular to the longitudinal ;oints. -when shown on the plans ans when ad;acent lanes of pavement are constructed separately, steel side forms shall be used which will form a 5eyway along the construction ;oint. -tie bars, e:cept those made of rail steel, may be bent at right angles against the form of the first lane constructed and straightened into final position before the concrete of the ad;acent lane is placed, or in lieu of bent tie bars, approved two-place connectors may be used. -these ;oints shall be effected or formed when the concrete is in a plastic state. -the longitudinal ;oint shall be sawed before the end of the curing period or shortly thereafter and before any equipment or vehicles are allowed on the pavement. "ransverse <:pansion Hoint -the e:pansion ;oint filler shall be continuous from form to form, shaped to subgrade and to the 5eyway along the form. -finished ;oint shall not deviate more than - mm from a straight line. "ransverse 6ontraction Hoint0Cea5ened Hoint -it shall consist of planes of wea5ness created by forming or cutting grooves in the surface of the pavement and shall include load transfer assemblies. -the depth of the wea5ned plane ;oint should at all times not be less than /)mm, while the width should not be more than -mm. -transverse strip contraction ;oint shall be formed by installing a parting strip to be left in place as shown on the 2lans. -formed groove shall be made by depressing an approved tool or device into the plastic concrete. "he tool or device shall remain in place at least until the concrete has attained its initial set. -sawed contraction ;oint shall be created by sawing grooves in the surface of the pavement of the width not more than -mm, depth should at all times not be less than /)mm. awing of the ;oint shall commence as soon

as the concrete has hardened sufficiently to permit sawing without e:cessive raveling, usually . to %. hours. "ransverse 6onstruction Hoint -it shall be constructed when there is an interruption of more than 1) minutes in the concreting operations. (o transverse ;oint shall be constructed within $./m of an e:pansion ;oint, contraction ;oint, or plane of wea5ness. +oad "ransfer Device - dowel, when used, shall be held in position parallel to the surface and center line of the slab by a metal device that is left in the pavement. -the portion of each dowel painted with one coat of lead or tar, in conformance with 3tem .)., shall be thoroughly coated with approved bituminous materials, e.g., M6-&), or an approved lubricant, to prevent the concrete from binding to that portion of the dowel. -the sleeves for dowels shall be a metal designed to cover /)mm plus or minus /mm '$0. inch* of the dowel, with a watertight closed end and with a suitable stop to hold the end of the sleeves at least %/mm '$ inch* from the end of the dowel. *Einal tri5e-off '6onsolidation and Einishing* - the sequence of operations shall be the stri5e-off and consolidation, floating and removal of laitance, straightedging and final surface finish. -the addition of water to the surface of the concrete to assist in finishing operations will not be permitted. -if the application of water to the surface is permitted, it shall be applied as fog spray by means of an approved spray equipment. -if uninterrupted operation of the finishing machine causes damage to the ;oints, the finishing machine shall be stopped when the front screed is appro:imately %)cm '4 inches* from the ;oint. - segregated concreted shall be removed from in front of and off the ;oint. "he front screed shall be lifted and set directly on top of the ;oint and the forward motion of the machine resumed. -when the second screed is close enough to permit the e:cess mortar in front of it to flow over the ;oint, it shall be lifted and carried over the ;oint. "hereafter, the machine may be run over the ;oint without lifting the screeds, provided there is no segregated concrete immediately between the ;oint and the screed or on the top of the ;oint. - screed for hand finishing shall be at least -)cm '% feet* longer than the ma:imum width of slab to be struc5 off. -consolidation shall be attained by the use of suitable vibrator or other approved equipment. -after the concrete has been struc5 off and consolidated, it shall be further smoothed, trued and consolidated by means of hand or mechanical longitudinal float. -the hand-operated longitudinal float shall be not less than 1-/cm '$% feet* in length and $/cm '- inches* in width, properly stiffened to prevent fle:ibility and warping. -floating movement ahead along the center line of the pavement shall be in successive advances of not more than $0% the length of the float.

-for mechanical longitudinal float, it shall be accurately ad;usted and coordinated with the ad;ustment of the transverse finishing machine so that a small amount of mortar is carried ahead of the float at all times. -the mechanical float shall pass over each areas of pavement at least two times, but e:cessive operation over a given area will not be permitted. -as an alternative for floating, long handled floats having blades not less than $/)cm '/ feet* in length and $/cm '- inches* in width may be used to smooth and fill in open-te:tured areas in the pavement. -long-handled floats shall not be used to float the entire surface of the pavement in lieu of the preceding methods in floating. -when the crown of the pavement will not permit the use of the longitudinal float, the surface shall be floated transversely by means of the long-handled float. - after the floating has been completed and the e:cess water removed, and while the concrete is still plastic, the surface of the concrete shall be tested for its trueness with a 1m long straight-edge. -for this purpose the 6ontractor shall furnish and use an accurate 1m straight-edge swung from handles $m '1 feet* longer than $0% the width of the slab. -advances for straight-edge testing shall be in successive stages of not more than $0% the length of the straight-edge. -final finish can be broom,belt or drag finished. -broom finish shall be applied when water sheen has disappeared. "he brooming operation shall be drawn center to edge of the pavement with ad;acent stro5es slightly overlapping and the corrugations produced in the surface is uniform in appearance and be not more than $./mm in depth. -belt finish shall be applied when straight-edging is complete and water sheen has disappeared and ;ust before the concrete becomes non-plastic. "he surface shall be belted with %-ply canvass belt not less than %) cm wide and at least $)) cm longer than the pavement width. "he belt shall be operated with short stro5es transverse to the center line and with a rapid advances parallel to the center line. -if the surface te:ture is drag finished, a drag shall be used which consists of a seamless strip of damp burlap or cotton fabric, which shall produce a uniform of gritty te:ture after dragging it longitudinally along the full width of pavement. Eor pavement /m or more in width, the drag shall be mounted on a bridge which travels on the forms. "he dimensions of the drag shall be such that a strip of burlap or fabric at least $m wide is in contact with the full width of pavement surface while the drag is used. "he drag shall consist of not less than % a layers of burlap with the bottom layer appro:imately $/cm wider than the layer. Frooves shall be more than $./mm in depth. -regardless of the method used for final finish, the hardened surface of pavement shall have a coefficient of friction of ).%/ or more. 6ompleted pavement that is found to have a coefficient of friction of less than ).%/

shall be grounded or scored by the 6ontractor at his e:pense to provide the required coefficient of friction. -after the final finish, but before the concrete has ta5en its initial set, the edges of the pavement along each side of each slab, and on each side of ;oints shall be wor5ed with an approved tool and rounded to the radius required by the plans. * urface "est -as soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently, the pavement surface shall be tested with a 1m straightedge or other specified device. -areas showing high spots of more than 1mm but not e:ceeding $%mm in 1m shall be mar5ed and immediately ground down with an approved grinding tool to an elevation where the area will not deviate in e:cess of 1mm. -when the departure from the correct cross-section e:ceeds $%mm, the pavement shall be removed and replaced by and at the e:pense of the 6ontractor. -any area or section so removed shall be not less than $./ m in length and not less than the full width of the lane involved. -any remaining portion of the slab ad;acent to the ;oints that is less than $./m in length shall also be removed and replaced. *6uring -the concrete shall not be left e:posed for more than $0% hour between stages of curing or during the curing period. 6otton or 7urlap Mats -the surface of the pavement shall be entirely covered with mats. "he mats used shall be of such length 'or width* that as laid they will e:tend at least twice the thic5ness of the pavement beyond the edges of the slab. 2rior to being placed, the mats shall be saturated thoroughly with water. "he mat shall be maintained fully wetted and in position for &% hours after the concrete has been placed unless otherwise specified. Caterproof paper -the pavement shall be completely covered with the waterproof paper where the units are lapped at least ./cm. "he paper shall have such dimension but each unit as laid will e:tend beyond the edges of the slab at least twice the thic5ness of the pavement, or at pavement width and -)cm strips of paper for the edges. Nnless otherwise specified, the covering shall be maintained in place for &% hours after the concrete has been placed. traw 6uring -when this is used, the pavement shall be cured first with burlap or cotton mats, until after the final set of the concrete, or, in any case, for $% hours after placing the concrete. After the mats are removed, the pavement shall be thoroughly wetted and covered with at least %)cm of straw or hay, thic5ness of which is to be measured after wetting. 3t shall be 5ept thoroughly saturated with water for &% hours and thoroughly wetted down during the morning of the .th day, and the cover

shall remain in place until the concrete has attained the required strength. 3mpervious Membrane Method -the entire surface shall be sprayed uniformly with white pigmenting curing compound immediately after the finishing of the surface and before the set of the concrete has ta5en place, or if it is cured initially with cotton or burlap mats, it may be applied upon removal of the mass. "he curing compound shall not be applied during rain. "he compound shall be applied at the rate of .+ to not more than $.sq.m. by mechanical sprayers equipped with wind guard. "he curing compound shall be that the film will harden 1) minutes after application. 2roper curing shall be achieved after &% hours, but if the film was damaged from any cause, it shall be repaired immediately with additional compound. Chite 2olyethylene heet - the units shall cover the top and sides of the pavement and lapped at least ./cm. "he sheeting shall have a dimension where it will e:tend beyond the edges of the slab at least twice the thic5ness of the pavement. Nnless otherwise specified, the covering shall be maintained in place for &% hours after the concrete has been placed. *Removal of Eorms - forms for concrete shall remain undisturbed for not less than %. hours after concrete pouring. - in case portions of the concrete are spalled due to removal of forms, it shall be immediately repaired with fresh mortar mi:ed in the proportion of $ part of 2ortland 6ement and % parts fine aggregates. * ealing Hoints - ;oints shall be sealed with asphalt sealant soon after completion of the curing period and before the pavement is opened to traffic. -material for seal applied applied hot shall be stirred during heating so that localiIed overheating does not occur. -the use of sand or similar material as a cover for the seal will not be permitted. -the seals shall be installed in a compressive condition and shall at time of placement be below the level of the pavement surface by appro:imately -mm. *6oncrete 2avement - lip Eorm Method Frade - the grade should be constructed sufficiently in advance of the placing of the concrete. 2lacing of 6oncrete - the concrete shall be placed with an approved slip-form paver designed to spread, consolidate, screed and float-finish the freshly placed concrete in one complete pass of the machine. Any edge slump of the pavement, e:clusive of the edge rounding, in e:cess of -mm shall be corrected before the concrete has hardened. "he concrete shall be held at a uniform consistency, having a slump of not more than .)mm '$./ inches*. Einishing, 6uring and Hoints - shall meet the requirements of 2662.

2rotection Against Rain - protective materials for unhardened concrete shall consist of standard metal forms or wood plan5s having a nominal thic5ness of not less than /)mm '% inches* and a nominal width of not less than the thic5ness of the pavement at its edge. 3f rain is imminent, all paving operations shall stop and protective covering for the unhardened concrete shall be placed. * Acceptance of 6oncrete - the strength level of the concrete will be considered satisfactory if the averages of all sets of 1 consecutive strength test results equal or e:ceed the specified strength fAc and no individual strength test result in deficient by more than $/8 of the specified strength fAc. -if the concrete is deemed unacceptable from the previous criteria, the 6ontractor can provide evidence, by means of core tests 'A "M "%.* that the quality of concrete represented by the failed test results is accepted in place. -concrete in the area represented by the cores will be considered adequate if the average strength of the cores is equal to at least 4/8 of, and if no single core is less than &/8 of, the specified strength, fAc. -if it not feasible or advisable to obtain cores due to structural considerations, payments will be made at an ad;usted price due to strength deficiencyG Deficiency in trength of 2ercent '8* of 6ontract 6oncrete pecimens 2rice Allowed 2ercent '8* +ess than / $)) / to less than $) 4) $) to less than $/ &) $/ to less than %) -) %) to less than %/ /) %/ or more ) *#pening to "raffic -the road will not be opened to traffic until test specimens molded and cured in accordance with AA !"# " %1 have attained the minimum strength requirements in ubsection 1$$. -if such tests are not conducted prior to the specified age the pavement shall not be operated to traffic until $. days after the concrete was placed. *"olerance and 2avement thic5ness Feneral -"he thic5ness of the pavement will be determined by measurement of cores from the completed pavement in accordance with AA !"# " $.4. "he completed pavement shall be accepted on a lot basis. A lot shall be considered as $))) linear meters of pavement when a single traffic lane is poured or /)) linear meters when two lanes are poured concurrently. "he last unit in each slab constitutes a lot in itself when its length is at least M of the normal lot length. 3f the length of the last unit is shorter than M of the normal lot length, it shall be included in the previous lot. #ther areas such as

intersections, entrances, crossovers, ramp, etc., will be grouped together to form a lot. mall irregular areas may be included with other unit areas to form a lot. <ach lot will be divided into five '/* equal segments and one core will be obtained from each segment in accordance with AA !"# " %.. 2avement "hic5ness - After the pavement has met all surface smoothness requirements, cores for thic5ness measurements will be ta5en. 3n calculating the average thic5ness of the pavement, individual measurements which are in e:cess of the specified thic5ness by more than / mm will be considered as the specified thic5ness plus / mm and measurement which are less than the specified thic5ness by more than %/ mm shall not be included in the average. Chen the average thic5ness for the lot is deficient, the contract unit price will be ad;usted for thic5ness. 3ndividual areas within a segment found deficient in thic5ness by more than %/ mm shall be evaluated by the <ngineer, and if in his ;udgment, the deficient areas warrant removal, they shall be removed and replaced by the 6ontractor with pavement of the specified thic5ness at his entire e:pense. !owever, if the evaluation of the <ngineer is that the deficient area should not be removed and replacedD such area will not be paid. Chen the measurement of any core is less than the specified thic5ness by more than %/ mm, the actual thic5ness of the pavement in this area will be determined by ta5ing additional cores at no less than / m intervals parallel to the center line in each direction from the affected location until a core is found in each direction, which is not deficient in thic5ness by more than %/ mm. "he area of slab for which no payment will be made shall be the product of the paving width multiplied by the distance along the center line of the road between transverse sections found not deficient in thic5ness by more than %/ mm. "he thic5ness of the remainder of the segment to be used to get the average thic5ness of each lot shall be determined by ta5ing the average thic5ness of additional cores which are not deficient by more than %/ mm. Ad;ustment for "hic5ness - Chen the average thic5ness of the pavement per lot is deficient, payment for the lot shall be ad;usted as followsG Deficiency in the 2ercent '8* of 6ontract Average "hic5ness per 2rice 2er +ot lot 'mm* )-/ $))8 2ayment --$) ,/8 2ayment $$-$/ 4/8 2ayment $--%) &)8 2ayment %$-%/ /)8 2ayment

Remove and replace0(o payment - (o acceptance and final payment shall be made on completed pavement unless core test for thic5ness determination is conducted, e:cept for 7arangay Roads where the implementing office is allowed to waive such test. More than %/ *Method of Measurement - the area to be paid for under this 3tem shall be the number of square meters 'm%* of concrete pavement placed and accepted in the completed pavement. -the width for measurements will be the width from outside edge to outside edge of completed pavement as placed in accordance with the 2lans "he length will be measured horiIontally along the center line of each roadway or ramp. Any curb and gutter placed shall not be included in the area of concrete pavement measured. ITEM %0& 1 STRUCTURA- CO,CRETE *Description -this 3tem shall consist of furnishing, bending, placing and finishing concrete in all structures e:cept pavements in accordance with this pecification and conforming to the lines, grades, and dimensions shown on the 2lans. -concrete shall consist of a mi:ture of 2ortland 6ement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, admi:ture when specified, and water mi:ed in the proportions specified or approved by the <ngineer. *6lasses and Nses of 6oncrete 6lass A Q All superstructures and heavily reinforced substructures. "he important parts of the structure included are slabs, beams, girders, columns, arch ribs, bo: culverts, reinforced abutments, retaining walls, and reinforced footings. 6lass 7 Q Eootings, pedestals, massive pier shafts, pipe bedding, and gravity walls, unreinforced or with only a small amount of reinforcement. 6lass 6 Q "hin reinforced sections, railings, precast R.6. piles and cribbing and for filler in steel grid floors. 6lass 2 Q 2restressed concrete structures and members. eal Q 6oncrete deposited in water. *Material Requirements -2ortland 6ement, aggregates, admi:tures, curing materials and water shall conform to subsection of 3tem 1$$. Frading for coarse aggregates shall conform to "able .)/.$. -reinforcing steel shall conform to the requirements of 3tem &$), Reinforcing teel and Cire Rope. :<:pansion ;oint materials shall beG $. 2reformed ponge Rubber and 6or5, conforming to AA !"# M $/1.

%. !ot-2oured <lastic "ype, conforming to AA !"# M $&1. 1. 2reformed Eillers, conforming to AA !"# M %$1. *<lastomeric 6ompression Hoint eals - "hese shall conform to AA !"# M %%). *<lastomeric 7earing 2ads - "hese shall conform to AA !"# M %/$ or 3tem .$% Q <lastomeric 7earing 2ads. * torage of 6ement and Aggregates-shall conform to all the requirements of ubsection 1$$.%.$). * ampling and "esting of tructural 6oncrete -as wor5 progresses, at least one '$* sample consisting of three '1* concrete cylinder test specimens, $/) : 1))mm '- : $% inches*, shall be ta5en from each seventy five '&/* cubic meters of each class of concrete or fraction thereof placed each day. -compliance with the requirements of this ection shall be determined in accordance with the following standard methods of AA !"#G ampling of fresh concrete "$.$ Ceight per cubic metre and air content 'gravi"$%$ Metric* of concrete ieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregates "%& lump of 2ortland 6ement 6oncrete "$$, pecific gravity and absorption of fine "4. aggregate - "ests for strength shall be made in accordance with the followingG Ma5ing and curing concrete compressive and "%1 fle:ural tests specimens in the field 6ompressive strength of molded concrete "%% 6ylinders * 2roportioning and trength of tructural 6oncrete - the concrete materials shall be proportioned in accordance with the requirements for each class of concrete as specified in "able .)/.%, using the absolute volume method as outlined in the American 6oncrete 3nstitute 'A63* tandard %$$.$. ORecommended 2ractice

for electing 2roportions for (ormal and !eavyweight 6oncreteP.

* "he measured cement content shall be within plus or minus % mass percent of the design cement content. ** 7ased on .) 5g0bag *7atching - Measuring and batching of materials shall be done at a batching plant. 2ortland 6ement - <ither sac5ed or bul5 cement may be used. (o fraction of a sac5 of cement shall be used in a batch of concrete unless the cement is weighed. All bul5 cement shall be weighed on an approved weighing device. Accuracy of batching shall be within plus '>* or minus '-* $ mass percent. Cater - Cater may be measured either by volume or by weight. "he accuracy of measuring the water shall be within a range of error of not more than $ percent. Aggregates - toc5piling of aggregates shall be in accordance with ubsection 1$$. All aggregates whether produced or handled by hydraulic methods or washed, shall be stoc5piled or binned for draining for at least $% hours prior to batching. Rail shipment requiring more than$% hours will be accepted as adequate binning only if the car bodies permit free drainage. 3f the aggregates contain high or non-uniform moisture content, storage or stoc5pile period in e:cess of $% hours may be required by the <ngineer. 7atching shall be conducted as to result in a % mass percent ma:imum tolerance for the required materials. 7ins and cales - "he batching plant shall include separate bins for bul5 cement, fine aggregate and for each siIe of coarse aggregate, a weighing hopper, and scales capable of determining accurately the mass of each component of the batch. cales shall be accurate to one-half ')./* percent throughout the range used. 7atching - Chen batches are hauled to the mi:er, bul5 cement shall be transported either in waterproof compartments or between the fine and coarse aggregate. Chen cement is placed in contact with moist aggregates, batches will be re;ected unless mi:ed within $-$0% hours of such contact. Admi:tures - shall be measured into the mi:er with an accuracy of plus or minus three '1* percent. "he use of 6alcium 6hloride as an admi:ture will not be permitted. * Mi:ing and Delivery - concrete may be mi:ed at the site of construction, at a central point or by a combination of central point and truc5 mi:ing or by a combination of central point mi:ing and truc5 agitating. Mi:ing and delivery of concrete shall be in accordance with the appropriate requirements of AA !"# M $/&. - batching and mi:ing shall be in accordance with A "M 6 -4/, ection - through ,. - mi:er having a rated capacity of less than a one-bag batch shall not be used. "he volume of concrete mi:ed per batch shall not e:ceed the mi:erKs nominal capacity as shown on the manufacturerKs standard rating plate on the mi:er e:cept that an overload up to $) percent above the mi:erKs nominal capacity may be permitted, provided concrete test data for strength, segregation,

and uniform consistency are satisfactory and provided no spillage of concrete ta5es place. - flow of water shall be uniform and all water shall be in the drum by the end of the first $/ seconds of the mi:ing period. Mi:ing time shall be measured from the time all materials, e:cept water, are in the drum. Mi:ing time shall not be less than -) seconds for mi:ers having a capacity of $./m1 or less. Eor mi:ers having a capacity greater than $./m1, the mi:ing time shall not be less than ,) seconds. 3f timing starts, the instant the s5ip reaches its ma:imum raised position, . seconds shall be added to the specified mi:ing time. Mi:ing time ends when the discharge chute opens. Mi:ing 6oncreteG Feneral - "he accuracy of all weighing devices e:cept that for water shall be such that successive quantities can be measured to within one percent of the desired amounts. "he water measuring device shall be accurate to plus or minus )./ mass percent. Chen the entire plant is running, the scale reading at cut-off shall not vary from the weight designated by the <ngineer more than one mass percent for cement, $-$0% mass percent for any siIe of aggregate, or one '$* mass percent for the total aggregate in any batch. Mi:ing 6oncrete at ite - "he pic5-up and throw-over blades of mi:ers shall be restored or replaced when any part or section is worn %)mm or more below the original height of the manufacturerKs design. Chen bul5 cement is used and volume of the batch is )./m1 or more, the scale and weigh hopper for 2ortland 6ement shall be separate and distinct from the aggregate hopper or hoppers. "he discharging mechanism shall also be interloc5ed against opening when the amount of cement in the hopper is underweight by more than one '$* mass percent or overweight by more than 1 mass percent of the amount specified. "he batch shall be so charged into the mi:er that some water will enter in advance of cement and aggregate. All water shall be in the drum by the end of the first quarter of the specified mi:ing time. All concrete shall be mi:ed for a period of not less than $-$0% minutes after all materials, including water, are in the mi:er. Mi:ing 6oncrete in "ruc5 - "ruc5 mi:ers, unless otherwise authoriIed by the <ngineer, shall be of the revolving drum type, water-tight, and so constructed that the concrete can be mi:ed to insure a uniform distribution of materials throughout the mass. "ruc5 mi:ing, shall, unless other-wise directed be continued for not less than $)) revolutions after all ingredients, including water, are in the drum. "he mi:ing speed shall not be less than . rpm, nor more than - rpm. Mi:ing shall begin within 1) minutes after the cement has been added either to the water or aggregate, but when cement is charged into a mi:er drum containing water or surface wet aggregate and when the temperature is above 1%@6, this limit shall be reduced to $/ minutes. Chen a

truc5 mi:er is used for transportation, the mi:ing time specified previously at a stationary mi:er may be reduced to 1) seconds and the mi:ing completed in a truc5 mi:er. * "ransporting Mi:ed 6oncrete - mi:ed concrete may only be transported to the delivery point in truc5 agitators or truc5 mi:ers operating at the speed designated by the manufacturers of the equipment as agitating speed, or in nonagitating hauling equipment, provided the consistency and wor5ability of the mi:ed concrete upon discharge at the delivery point is suitable point for adequate placement and consolidation in place. - when a truc5 mi:er or agitator is used for transporting concrete to the delivery point, discharge shall be completed within one hour, or before %/) revolutions of the drum or blades, whichever comes first, after the introduction of the cement to the aggregates. Nnder conditions contributing to quic5 stiffening of the concrete or when the temperature of the concrete is 1)@6, or above, a time less than one hour will be required. * Delivery of Mi:ed 6oncrete - the rate shall be such that the interval between batches shall not e:ceed %) minutes. * Method of Measurement -the quantity of structural concrete to be paid for will be the final quantity placed and accepted in the completed structure. (o deduction will be made for the volume occupied by pipe less than $))mm '. inches* in diameter or by reinforcing steel, anchors, conduits, weep holes or e:pansion ;oint materials. ITEM 10% 1 EMBA,6ME,T * Description -this 3tem shall consist of the construction of emban5ment in accordance with this pecification and in conformity with the lines, grades and dimensions shown on the 2lans or established by the <ngineer. * Material Requirements uitable Material Q Material which is acceptable in accordance with the 6ontract and which can be compacted in the manner specified in this 3tem. 3t can be common material or roc5. elected 7orrow, for topping Q soil of such gradation that all particles will pass a sieve with &/ mm '1 inches* square openings and not more than $/ mass percent will pass the ).)&/ mm '(o. %))* sieve, as determined by AA !"# " $$. "he material shall have a plasticity inde: of not more than - as determined by A !"# " ,) and a liquid limit of not more than 1) as determined by AA !"# " 4,. Nnsuitable Material Q Material other than suitable materials such asG 'a* Materials containing detrimental quantities of organic materials, such as grass, roots and sewerage. 'b* #rganic soils such as peat and muc5. 'c* oils with liquid limit e:ceeding 4) and0or plasticity inde: e:ceeding //.

oils with natural water content e:ceeding $))8. 'e* oils with very low natural density, 4)) 5g0m1 or lower. 'f* oils that cannot be properly compacted as determined by the <ngineer. * 6onstruction Requirements - prior to construction of emban5ment, all necessary clearing and grubbing in that area shall have been performed in conformity with 3tem $)), 6learing and Frubbing. - where shown on the 2lans or directed by the <ngineer, the surface of the e:isting ground shall be compacted to a depth of $/) mm '- inches* and to the specified requirements of this 3tem. *Methods of 6onstruction -when emban5ment is to be placed and compacted on hillsides, or when new emban5ment is to be compacted against e:isting emban5ments, or when emban5ment is built one-half width at a time, the e:isting slopes that are steeper than 1G$ when measured at right angles to the roadway shall be continuously benched over those areas as the wor5 is brought up in layers. -where an emban5ment of less than $.% m '. feet* below subgrade is to be made, all sod and vegetable matter shall be removed from the surface upon which the emban5ment is to be placed, and the cleared surfaced shall be completely bro5en up by plowing, scarifying, or steeping to a minimum depth of $/) mm. -wherever a compacted road surface containing granular materials lies within ,)) mm '1- inches* of the subgrade, such old road surface shall be scarified to a depth of at least $/) mm '- inches* whenever directed by the <ngineer. -roadway emban5ment of earth material shall be placed in horiIontal layers not e:ceeding %)) mm '4 inches*, loose measurement, and shall be compacted as specified before the ne:t layer is placed. -when e:cavated material contains more than %/ mass percent of roc5 larger than $/) mm in greatest diameter and cannot be placed in layers of the thic5ness prescribed without crushing, pulveriIing or further brea5ing down the pieces resulting from e:cavation methods, such materials may be placed on the emban5ment in layers not e:ceeding in thic5ness the appro:imate average siIe of the larger roc5s, but not greater than -)) mm '%. inches*. -even though the thic5ness of layers is limited as provided above, the placing of individual roc5s and boulders greater than -)) mm in diameter will be permitted provided that when placed, they do not e:ceed $%)) mm '.4 inches* in height and provided they are carefully distributed, with the interstices filled with finer material to form a dense and compact mass. -lifts of material containing more than %/ mass percent of roc5 larger than $/) mm in greatest dimensions shall not be constructed above an elevation 1)) mm ' $% inches* below the finished subgrade. "he balance of the emban5ment shall be composed of

'd*

suitable material smoothed and placed in layers not e:ceeding %)) mm '4 inches* in loose thic5ness and compacted as specified for emban5ments. *6ompaction 6ompaction "rials - "he 6ontractor shall carry out full scale compaction trials on areas not less than $) m wide and /) m long as required by the <ngineer and using his proposed procedures or such amendments thereto as may be found necessary to satisfy the <ngineer that all the specified requirements regarding compaction can be consistently achieved. <arth - "he 6ontractor shall compact the material placed in all emban5ment layers and the material scarified to the designated depth below subgrade in cut sections, until a uniform density of not less than ,/ mass percent of the ma:imum dry density determined by AA !"# " ,, Method 6, is attained, at a moisture content determined by <ngineer to be suitable for such density. At least one group of three in-situ density tests shall be carried out for each /)) m of each layer of compacted fill. Roc5 - one of the rollers, vibrators, or compactors meeting the requirements shall compact the emban5ment full width with a minimum of three complete passes for each layer of emban5ment. * errated lopes -cut slopes in rippable material 'soft roc5* having slope ratios between ).&/G$ and %G$ shall be constructed so that the final slope line shall consist of a series of small horiIontal steps. *<arth 7erms -when called for in the 6ontract, permanent earth berms shall be constructed of well graded materials with no roc5s having a diameter greater than ).%/ the height of the berm. Chen local material is not acceptable, acceptable material shall be imported, as directed by the <ngineer. 6ompacted 7erm - shall consist of moistening or drying and placing material as necessary in locations shown on the drawings or as established by the <ngineer. "he 6ontractor shall compact the material placed until at least ,) mass percent of the ma:imum density is obtained as determined by AA !"# " ,,, Method 6. Nncompacted 7erm - construction shall consist of drying, if necessary and placing material in locations shown on the 2lans or as established by the <ngineer. Material shall contain no froIen material, roots, sod or other deleterious materials. 6ontractor shall ta5e precautions to prevent material from escaping over the emban5ment slope.

AA !"# " $.$-)/ - tandard Method of "est for ampling Ereshly Mi:ed 6oncrete AA !"# " %& Q ieve analysis of fine and 6oarse aggregates AA !"# " %, ampling Aggregates AA !"# " $$, Materials Einer than (o. %)) '&/ Sm* ieve in Mineral Aggregates by Cashing AA !"# " 4,, Determining the +iquid +imit of oils AA !"# " ,), Determining the 2lastic +imit and 2lasticity 3nde: of oils AA !"# " %.4, Reducing amples of Aggregate to "esting iIe AA !"# " %//, "otal <vaporable Moisture 6ontent of Aggregate by Drying AA !"# " $%$ Nnit Ceight #f 6oncrete tandard Method of

AA !"# " $$,M0" $$,-$)

"est for lump of !ydraulic 6ement 6oncrete 'A "M DesignationG 6 $.106 $.1M-)4* AA !"# " 4. Q pecific Fravity And Absorption #f Eine Aggregate AA !"# " %1 - tandard Method of "est for Ma5ing and 6uring 6oncrete "est pecimens in the Eield.

AA !"# " %%-)- tandard Method of "est for 6ompressive trength of 6ylindrical 6oncrete pecimens.