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Physics 204L

Bernoullis Law
Names: Wajiha Jurdi Kheir and Nancy Kiwan
Section: 3
Instructor: Litfallah Mubarak
Date: 23/10/2007

A)

Drag Coefficient

- What happens when you give the ball a gentle sideways push? Why?
When we give the ball a push, it will rebound, returning to its initial equilibrium
position. According to the Bernoulli equation (and if height is the same), when
velocity decreases, pressure in the vicinity will increase. The velocity of air from
the fan is much greater than the velocity of the outside air, which means that the
pressure outside the fan is greater than the pressure above it. Hence, when we
give it a push away from the flow of air from the fan, the ball will return to a low
pressure area above the fan.

- Determining the Drag Coefficient, Cw:


2
It is given that F = C w v A

2F

and therefore, C w = v 2 A
2

Air density: air = 1.3 kg/m3


Recorded air velocity: v = 6.0 0.5 m/s
Ball Area and Error on Area:
Ball diameter d= 6.790 0.005 cm = (6.790 0.005) 10-2 m
Ball radius r= 3.3950 0.0025 cm = (3.3950 0.0025) 10-2 m
Since, r = (

( d / 2)
0.005
d )2 = ( d )2 = d =
= 0.0025 cm
d
2
2
2

Ball area: A = 2r2 = (7.242 0.011) 10-3 m2

(r2 not 2r2)

(2r 2 )
r ) 2 = 4r r
Since,
r
A = 4 3.395 10 2 0.0025 10 2 = 1.07 10 5 = 0.011 10 3 m 3

A = (

Ball Weight:
Ball mass: m = (5.68 0.05) 10-3 kg
W = mg = 5.68 10-3 Kg 9.78 N/Kg = (5.56 0.05) 10-2 N
Since, W = (

(mg )
m ) 2 = g m = 4.9 10 4 = 0.05 10 2 N
m

Note: The ball is in equilibrium in the air, and therefore F resistance = Weight

Drag coefficient Cw =
W= (5.56 0.05) 10-2 N,

2W
2 5.56 10 2 N
=
= 0.328
2
2
v A 6.0 7.242 10 3 m 2 1.3Kg / m3

v = 6.0 0.5 m/s,

A = (7.242 0.011) 10-3 m2

C = (

Cw
C
C
W ) 2 + ( w v ) 2 + ( w A ) 2
W
v
A

C = (

2
4W
2W
W ) 2 + ( 3
v ) 2 + ( 2 2 A ) 2
v A
v A
v A

C = (

2 0.05 10 2
4 5.56 10 2 0.5 2
2 5.56 102 0.011 10 3 2
)2 + ( 3
) +(
)
3
3
6 7.242 10 1.3
6 7.242 10 1.3
6 2 (7.242 103 ) 2 1.3

C = (2.951 10 3 ) 2 + (5.468 10 2 ) 2 + (4.98 104 ) 2 = 2.999 10 3 = 0.055


w

Drag Coefficient Cw = 0.328 0.055

B) Flow rate
- Determining the air flow rate in m3/s along with its rms error:
Cross-sectional
Area(m2)

1/A (m-2)

Velocity(m/s)

Diameter (m)
4.5 10-2

1.59 10-3

6.29 102

23

6 10-2

2.83 10-3

3.53 102

8.5 10-2

5.67 10-3

1.76 102

6.95

0.10

7.85 10-3

1.27 102

4.95

Test point

Note: A=d2/4
According to the continuity equation, Flow rate k= Av = constant
Therefore, v = k(1/A) in the form of y = ax + b, so we are dealing with a linear
relationship. We apply linear regression to find the slope k.
Slope = k = 0.03469

Y-intercept = b = - 0.419

xi = (1/A)
6.29 102
3.53 102
1.76 102
1.27 102
xi= 1.285 103

yi = v
23
8
6.95
4.95

Correlation Coeff = r = 0.9508

xi2
395641
124609
30976
16129
2
xi = 5.67355 105

ei
-1.599
3.8266
-1.26356
-0.96337

ei2
2.557
14.6426
1.59658
0.92808
ei2= 19.724

ei = kxi + b yi
= Nxi 2 ( xi ) = 4 5.67355 10 5 (1.285 10 3 ) 2 = 6.18195 10 5
2

k2 =

N ei 2 4
19.724
=
= 6.381158 10 5
N 2
2 6.18195 10 5

k = k2 = 6.381158 10 5 = 7.988 10 3 = 0.8 10 2

FLOW RATE k = (3.5 0.8) 10-2 m3/s


- Plotting v versus 1/A:

Velocity Versus 1/A

Velocity of Air (m/s)

25
20
15
10
5
0
629

353

176

127

1/A
Velocity versus 1/A

Linear (Velocity versus 1/A)

Precision
The precision can be calculated using the formula ( A / A) 100 . The precision
level for k = (3.5 0.8) 10-2 m3/s is 2.28%. Our results are not extremely
precise, but we cant judge until we know the precision level of the instruments
we have used in the lab.

C) Determining Air Density


- Determining the air density in kg/m 3 along with its rms error:
Test point

Pressure (Pa) = x

Velocity (m/s)

v2 = y

14

4.8

23.04

44.8

8.3

68.89

118

13.8

190.44

183

17.2

295.84

235

19.5

380.25

245

20

400

The following equation is derived from Bernoullis Equation:


v2 = (2/).P
It is in the form of y = ax + b, so we are dealing with a linear relationship. We
apply linear regression to find the slope 2/.
Note: we will use P instead of P so as to get a positive value for the slope
Slope = a = 1.63220, Y-intercept = b = -2.04383, Correlation Coef. = r = 0.9999
yi = v2
23.04
68.89
190.44
295.84
380.25
400

xi = (P)
14
44.8
118
183
235
245
xi= 839.8

xi2
196
2007.04
13924
33489
55225
60025
2
xi = 164886.04

ei
-2.233
2.189
0.11577
0.80877
1.27317
-2.15483

ei2
4.9864
4.7905
0.0134
0.6541
1.6210
4.6433
2
ei = 16.7087

ei = axi + b yi
= Nxi 2 ( xi ) = 6 164886.04 839.8 2 = 284052 .2
2

a2 =

N ei 2
6
16.7087
=
= 8.8234 10 5
N 2
4 284052 .2

a = a2 = 8.8234 10 5 = 9.39 10 3 = 0.009

Slope = 1.632 0.009

Density: =

2
2
=
= 1.225 Kg / m 3
a 1.6322

Finding the error of the density using propagation of error:

= (

(2 / a )
2
A ) 2 = 2 a = 0.75073 0.009 = 6.76 10 3 = 0.007
a
a

DENSITY = 1.225 0.007 Kg/m3


- Plotting v2 v/s P

Velocity Squared Versus Pressure


500
450
Velocity squared

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
14

44.8

118

183

235

245

Pressure (Pa)
Velocity Squared Versus Pressure

Linear (Velocity Squared Versus Pressure)

Precision
The precision can be calculated using the formula ( A / A) 100 . The precision
level for = 1.225 0.007 Kg/m3 is 0.57%, so we can safely say that our
results are precise.

Accuracy: Comparison with Literature Value


The literature value of density of air is 1.3 Kg/m3 and it does not fall in the
interval of 2, ie. lit [1.211, 1.239]. This means that the results are not
accurate. This can be attributed to systematic and random errors that might have
occurred during the conduction of the experiment. It is worth noting that our
apparatus was very unstable for it was missing a screw at the base. In addition,
the density of air given is a general value and may not be completely
representative of the atmospheric conditions present in our lab.