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Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames

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AUSTRALIA

http://www.civil.usyd.edu.au/

Centre for Advanced Structural Engineering

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames

Research Report No R891

N S Trahair BSc BE MEngSc PhD DEng

June 2008

ISSN 1833-2781

School of Civil Engineering

Centre for Advanced Structural Engineering

http://www.civil.usyd.edu.au/

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames

Research Report No R891

N S Trahair BSc BE MEngSc PhD DEng

June 2008

Abstract:

Steel design codes do not provide sufficient information for the efficient design of steel

structures against out-of-plane failure, and what is provided is often overly

conservative. The method of design by buckling analysis corrects this situation for

beams, but the extension of this method to columns is only suggested, while there is no

guidance on how to apply this method to the design of beam-columns and frames.

Beam design by buckling analysis uses the design code formulation for the member

nominal design strengths in terms of the section moment capacities and the maximum

moments at elastic buckling, accurate predictions of which may be determined by

available computer programs. Column design by buckling analysis is similar to beam

design, in that it uses the design code formulation for the column nominal design

strengths in terms of the section compression capacities and accurate predictions of the

elastic buckling loads which may also be obtained from computer programs.

However, design codes do not provide formulations for the direct buckling design of

beam-columns, but instead use the separate results of beam design and column design

in interaction equations. The further extension to frames is not directly possible,

because frames are not designed as a whole (except through the rarely used methods

of advanced analysis), but as a series of individual members. This paper shows how

the method of design by buckling analysis can be used to design beam-columns and

frames as well as beams and columns. Two example frames are designed and very

significant economies are demonstrated when the method of design by buckling

analysis is used.

Keywords: beams, beam-columns, bending, buckling, columns, compression, design,

frames, member strength, moments, steel.

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames J une 2008

School of Civil Engineering

Research Report No R891

2

Copyright Notice

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames

2008 N.S.Trahair

N.Trahair@civil.usyd.edu.au

This publication may be redistributed freely in its entirety and in its original form without the

consent of the copyright owner.

Use of material contained in this publication in any other published works must be appropriately

referenced, and, if necessary, permission sought from the author.

Published by:

School of Civil Engineering

The University of Sydney

Sydney NSW 2006

AUSTRALIA

J une 2008

http://www.civil.usyd.edu.au

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames J une 2008

School of Civil Engineering

Research Report No R891

3

1 INTRODUCTION

Steel beam design by out-of-plane (flexural-torsional) buckling analysis allows greater

efficiency than when the buckling approximations embedded in some design codes

such as AS4100 [1] or BS5950 [2] are used. Design by buckling analysis is allowed in

AS4100 and implied in EC3 [3]. Steel column design by buckling analysis is suggested

in the Commentary to AS4100 [4] and implied in EC3. However, no methods are given

or suggested for designing beam-columns or frames against out-of-plane failure.

Beam design by buckling analysis uses the design code formulation for the member

nominal design strength M

bx

in terms of the section capacity M

sx

and the elastic buckling

moment M

oo

of the basic simply supported beam in uniform bending. Column design by

buckling analysis is similar to beam design, in that it uses the design code formulation

for the column nominal design strength N

cy

in terms of the section capacity N

s

and the

elastic buckling load N

oc

of the basic simply supported column. For other than the basic

cases, the elastic out-of-plane buckling moment or load needs to be determined.

Elastic out-of plane buckling of beams and columns [5] depends on:

(a) the elastic moduli, the section properties, and the length,

(b) the distribution of the moments and compressions and the load heights,

(c) the restraints,

(d) any non-uniformity of the section, and

(e) interactions between these.

The effects of the elastic moduli, the section properties, and the length are allowed for

in the basic cases, and formulations are given in most [1, 2, 6] but not all [3] codes.

The effect of the distribution of moments is allowed for approximately in most codes [1,

2, 3, 6]. The effect of load height is partially allowed for in some codes [1, 2], using

fairly inaccurate approximations.

Restraints may be concentrated or distributed, and may be elastic or rigid. Restraints

may be translational, rotational (out-of-plane), torsional, or warping. The effects of

translational and rotational restraints depend on their height. No codes allow for the full

range of restraint effects. Some [1, 2] allow approximately for partial torsional end

restraints, and some [1, 2, 6] allow for rotational elastic end restraints acting at the

centroid.

Some design codes [1, 2, 6] provide limited approximations for the effect of non-

uniformity of the section.

Design codes assume that these effects are largely independent so that they can be

treated separately, but this is not the case [7]. Thus there is a lack of precision in the

often conservative approximations used in codes to determine the elastic buckling

moments and loads. This can be overcome to a certain extent by using some of the

wealth of published research information [7] but this is difficult to access. However, for

some time now computer programs [8, 9] have been available, and some of these such

as ABAQUS [10] are often used by designers. The use of these programs now

provides a viable method of carrying out the efficient and economical design of beams

and columns by buckling analysis.

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames J une 2008

School of Civil Engineering

Research Report No R891

4

However, the extension of design by buckling analysis to beam-columns cannot be

carried out in the same way, even though accurate predictions of the elastic buckling

loads can be obtained. The reason for this is that design codes do not provide

formulations for the buckling design of beam-columns, but instead use the separate

results of beam design and column design in interaction equations. The further

extension to frames is also not possible, because frames are not designed as a whole

(except through the rarely used methods of advanced analysis [11]) but as a series of

individual members.

The purposes of this paper are to show how the methods of design of beams and

columns by buckling analysis can be used to design beam-columns and frames.

2 DESIGN BY BUCKLING ANALYSIS

2.1 Beams

The basic design code case for beams is the simply supported doubly symmetric beam

in uniform bending, for which the moment which causes elastic flexural-torsional

buckling [7] is

) 1 (

2

2

2

2

+ =

L

EI

GJ

L

EI

M

w

y

oo

in which E and G are the Youngs and shear moduli of elasticity, I

y

, J and I

w

are the

minor axis second moment of area, torsion and warping section constants, and L is the

length.

Most design codes provide approximations which allow for the effect of non-uniform

bending in simply supported beams loaded through the shear centre through

formulations of the type

) 2 (

oo m os

M M =

in which the moment modification factor

m

is approximated by [1]

) 3 ( 5 . 2

) (

7 . 1

2

4

2

3

2

2

+ +

=

M M M

M

m

m

in which M

m

is the maximum moment and M

2

, M

3

, and M

4

are the moments at the

quarter-, mid-, and three-quarter points, or by similar expressions [2, 6]. Alternatively,

m

may be determined from Equation 2 by using the value of M

os

determined by an

elastic buckling analysis. The effects of load height and end restraints are allowed for

approximately in some codes [1, 2] by replacing the beam length L in Equation 1 with

an effective length L

e

.

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames J une 2008

School of Civil Engineering

Research Report No R891

5

The method of design by buckling analysis of the Australian code AS4100 [1] allows the

direct use of the results of elastic buckling analyses. For this, the maximum moment

M

ob

at elastic buckling is used in the equation

) 4 ( 1 3 6 . 0

2

=

ob

sx m

ob

sx m

m

sx

bx

M

M

M

M

M

M

to determine the nominal major axis moment strength M

bx

, in which M

sx

is the nominal

major axis section capacity (reduced below the full plastic moment M

px

if necessary to

allow for local buckling effects). The variations of the dimensionless nominal strength

M

bx

/ M

sx

with the modified beam slenderness

b

= (M

sx

/ M

ob

) and the moment

modification factor

m

are shown in Fig. 1. It can be seen that as the value of

m

increases, the nominal design strengths M

bx

approach the elastic buckling moments

M

ob

, reflecting the additional influence of non-uniform bending on inelastic buckling

[5, 7, 12].

2.2 Columns

The basic design code case for columns is the simply supported column in uniform

compression, for which the load which causes elastic flexural buckling is

) 5 (

2

2

L

EI

N

y

oc

=

Many design codes [1, 2, 6] provide approximations which allow for the effect of flexural

end restraints on simply supported columns by replacing the column length L with an

effective length L

e

. Some codes for hot-rolled steel structures do not allow for column

failure by flexural-torsional buckling [7, 13].

The method of design by buckling analysis of the Australian code AS4100 [1, 4] allows

the direct use of the results of elastic buckling analyses. For this paper, the AS4100

nominal design strength N

cy

can be approximated by using

) 6 ( 1 058 . 0 409 . 0 832 . 0 095 . 0 003 . 1 /

4 3 2

+ + =

c c c c s cy

N N

in which N

s

is the nominal section capacity (reduced below the full plastic load Af

y

if

necessary to allow for local buckling effects),

c

=(N

s

/ N

om

) is the modified column

slenderness and N

om

is the elastic buckling load, although a more complicated general

formulation is given in the code. The variations of this dimensionless nominal strength

N

cy

/ N

s

with the modified slenderness

c

are shown in Fig. 2.

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames J une 2008

School of Civil Engineering

Research Report No R891

6

2.3 Beam-Columns and Frames

Design codes do not explicitly allow the use of a method of design by buckling analysis

for the out-of-plane design of beam-columns and frames. Instead, each member of a

frame is considered as a beam-column and designed independently by using out-of-

plane interaction equations of the type

) 7 ( 1 = +

bx

max

cy

max

M

M

N

N

in which N

max

and M

max

are the maximum nominal design actions (which are often

reduced by using capacity (or resistance) factors). Thus each beam-column is

considered first as a beam to determine M

bx

and second as a column to determine N

cy

,

before these are used in Equation 7.

When buckling analyses are used in the determination of M

bx

and N

cy

, then this

becomes the method of design by buckling analysis. This method is demonstrated in

the following sections for the two example frames shown in Figs 3 and 4, and compared

with the use of the normal code method of design without buckling analysis. For these

demonstrations and comparisons, the Australian design code AS4100 [1] is used, but

they could equally well be done by using other codes [2, 3, 6].

3 EXAMPLE FRAME 1

The members of the pin-based portal frame shown in Fig. 3a have the properties shown

in Fig. 5. The horizontal member has two equal transverse loads (initially equal to 1)

acting at the bottom flange. Warping is prevented at both ends and there are elastic

translational restraints of stiffness

t

=10 N/mm acting at the load points at the bottom

flange. The in-plane reactions and moment distribution are shown in Fig. 3b.

For this frame, the design is controlled by the horizontal member. For this, this member

is first treated as the beam shown in Fig. 3c, and then as the column shown in Fig. 3d.

The results of these are then used in Equation 7.

The results (No DBA) of using the Australian code AS4100 [1] alone are summarized in

Table 1. AS4100 does not provide any guidance on warping restraint [7, 14, 15], while

the bottom flange loads and elastic translational restraints cannot be accounted for.

Because of this, the values determined for the maximum nominal design actions N

max

and M

max

are quite conservative.

Also summarized in Table 1 are the results (DBA) of using the method of design by

buckling analysis. For this the elastic buckling moments M

oo

, M

os

, M

ob

were determined

using the computer program PRFELB [8, 9] which is able to account for the warping

and translational restraints and the bottom flange loading. It can be seen that the

values determined for the maximum nominal design actions N

max

and M

max

are

significantly higher than those determined without using design by buckling analysis.

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames J une 2008

School of Civil Engineering

Research Report No R891

7

Table 1 Elastic Buckling and Design

Frame 1 Frame 2

Quantity Units DBA No DBA DBA No DBA

M

ob

kNm 61.38 107.12

M

os

kNm 45.79 72.12

M

oo

kNm 25.78 25.78 40.00 40.00

m

1.776 1.719 1.803 1.817

M

ob

/

m

kNm 34.56 25.78 59.42 40.00

M

sx

kNm 155.52 155.52 155.52 155.52

s

0.1931 0.1463 0.3127 0.2210

M

bx

kNm 53.34 39.10 87.68 62.45

N/M 0.2000 0.2000 1.867 1.867

N

s

kN 1520 1520 1520 1520

N

om

kN 93.32 49.66 270.63 111.72

N

cy

kN 89.03 48.34 243.59 105.82

M

max

kNm 42.87 30.29 47.20 26.74

N

max

kN 8.57 6.06 88.11 49.92

The program PRFELB is able to determine the elastic buckling load factors

o

(i.e. the

ratios of values of the actions at elastic buckling to the initial values) of beam-columns

and frames, as well as those of beams and columns. While these are not required for

design by buckling analysis, they are shown in Table 2. The value of

o

=20940 for the

beam-column having the combination of the actions shown in Fig. 3c and d is slightly

different to that of

o

=20990 for the frame. This is because the beam-column is

assumed to be prevented from twisting but free to rotate horizontally at both ends,

although in the frame end twisting and rotation are elastically restrained by the vertical

members.

Table 2 Buckling Load Factors

o

Frame 1 Frame 2

Beam 22520 200000

Column 171200 270600

Beam-Column 20940 128100

Frame 20990 128400

4 EXAMPLE FRAME 2

The members of the pin-based portal frame shown in Fig. 4a have the properties shown

in Fig. 5. The horizontal member has a central transverse load (initially equal to 2)

acting at the centroid. Warping is prevented at both ends and there are rigid

translational and torsional restraints acting at the load point. Each vertical member has

an elastic translational restraint of stiffness

t

=100 N/mm acting at the outer flange.

The in-plane reactions and moment distribution are shown in Fig. 4b. For this frame, the

design is controlled by the vertical members.

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames J une 2008

School of Civil Engineering

Research Report No R891

8

The results (No DBA) of using the Australian code AS4100 [1] alone are summarized in

Table 1. AS4100 does not provide any guidance on warping restraint [7, 14, 15], while

the outer flange elastic translational restraints cannot be accounted for. Because of

this, the values determined for the maximum nominal design actions N

max

and M

max

are

quite conservative.

Also summarized in Table 1 are the results (DBA) of using the method of design by

buckling analysis. It can be seen that the values determined for the maximum nominal

design actions N

max

and M

max

are significantly higher than those determined without

using design by buckling analysis.

The elastic buckling load factors

o

are shown in Table 2. The value of

o

=12810 for

the beam-columns having the combination of the actions shown in Fig. 4c and d is

slightly different to that of

o

=12840 for the frame. This is because the beam-columns

are assumed to be prevented from twisting but free to rotate vertically at the top,

although in the frame end twisting and rotation are elastically restrained by the

horizontal member.

5. CONCLUSIONS

Steel design codes [1, 2, 3, 6] do not provide sufficient information for the efficient

design of steel structures against out-of-plane failure, and what is provided is often

overly conservative. The method of design by buckling analysis explicitly permitted by

the Australian code AS4100 [1] corrects this situation for beams, but the extension of

this method to columns is only suggested [1, 4], while there is no guidance on how to

apply this method to the design of beam-columns and frames.

Beam design by buckling analysis uses the design code formulation for the member

nominal design strengths M

bx

in terms of the section moment capacities M

sx

and the

maximum moment M

ob

at elastic buckling, accurate predictions of which may be

determined by available computer programs [8, 9, 10]. Column design by buckling

analysis is similar to beam design, in that it uses the design code formulation for the

column nominal design strengths N

cy

in terms of the section compression capacities N

s

and accurate predictions of the elastic buckling load N

om

which may also be obtained

from computer programs.

However, design codes do not provide formulations for the direct buckling design of

beam-columns, but instead use the separate results of beam design and column design

in interaction equations. The further direct extension to frames is also not possible,

because frames are not designed as a whole (except through the rarely used methods

of advanced analysis [11]) but as a series of individual members. This paper shows

how the method of design by buckling analysis can be used to design beam-columns

and frames as well as beams and columns. Two example frames are designed and

very significant economies are demonstrated when the method of design by buckling

analysis is used.

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames J une 2008

School of Civil Engineering

Research Report No R891

9

APPENDIX 1 REFERENCES

[1] SA. AS 4100-1998 Steel structures. Sydney: Standards Australia; 1998.

[2] BSI. BS5950 Structural Use of Steelwork in Building. Part 1:2000. Code of practice

for design in simple and continuous construction: Hot rolled sections. London: British

Standards Institution; 2000.

[3] BSI. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures: Part 1.1 General rules and rules for

buildings, BS EN 1993-1-1. London: British Standards Institution; 2005.

[4] SA. AS 4100-1998 Steel structures Commentary. Sydney: Standards Australia;

1998.

[5] Trahair, NS, Bradford, MA, Nethercot, DA, and Gardner, L. The behaviour and

design of steel structures to EC3, 4th edition. London: Taylor and Francis; 2008.

[6] AISC. Specification for structural steel buildings. Chicago: American Institute of Steel

Construction; 2005.

[7] Trahair, NS. Flexural-torsional buckling of structures. London: E & FN Spon; 1993.

[8] Papangelis, J P, Trahair, NS, and Hancock, GJ . PRFELB Finite element flexural-

torsional buckling analysis of plane frames, Sydney: Centre for Advanced Structural

Engineering, University of Sydney; 1997.

[9] Papangelis, J P, Trahair, NS, and Hancock, GJ . Elastic flexural-torsional buckling

of structures by computer. Computers and Structures, 1998; 68: 125 - 37.

[10] HKS. Abaqus user manual. Pawtucket, RI, USA: Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorensen;

2005

[11] Trahair, NS and Chan, S-L. Out-of-plane advanced analysis of steel structures.

Engineering Structures, 2003; 25: 1627-37.

[12] Nethercot, DA and Trahair, NS. Inelastic lateral buckling of determinate beams.

Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 1976; 102 (ST4): 701-17.

[13] Trahair, NS and Rasmussen, KJ R. Flexural-torsional buckling of columns with

oblique eccentric restraints. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 2005; 131 (11):

1731-7.

[14] Vacharajittiphan P and Trahair NS. Warping and distortion at I-section joints.

Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 1974; 100 (ST3): 547-64.

[15] Pi, Y-L and Trahair, NS. Distortion and warping at beam supports. Journal of

Structural Engineering, ASCE, 2000; 126 (11): 1279-87.

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames J une 2008

School of Civil Engineering

Research Report No R891

10

APPENDIX 2 NOTATION

A area of cross-section

E Youngs modulus of elasticity

f

y

yield stress

G shear modulus of elasticity

I

x

, I

y

second moments of area about the x, y principal axes

I

w

warping section constant

J torsion section constant

L length

L

e

effective length

M bending moment

M

bx

beam moment capacity

M

m

maximum moment in member

M

max

maximum nominal design moment

M

ob

maximum moment at elastic buckling

M

oo

M

ob

for a simply supported beam in uniform bending

M

os

M

ob

for a simply supported beam with shear centre loading

M

pxm

fully plastic moment about the x axis

M

sx

section moment capacity

M

2

, M

3

, M

4

moments at quarter-, mid-, and three quarter-points

N axial compression

N

cy

column compression capacity

N

max

maximum nominal design compression

N

om

N at elastic buckling

N

oy

N

om

for a simply supported column

x, y principal axes

m

moment modification factor

s

slenderness reduction factor

t

stiffness of translational restraint

b

modified beam slenderness

c

modified column slenderness

o

buckling load factor

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames J une 2008

School of Civil Engineering

Research Report No R891

11

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

Dimensionless slenderness

b

=(M

sx

/M

ob

)

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

D

i

m

e

n

s

i

o

n

l

e

s

s

m

o

m

e

n

t

r

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

M

b

x

/

M

s

x

Fig. 1 Beam lateral buckling moment resistances of AS4100

m

=1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0

M

ob

/M

sx

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames J une 2008

School of Civil Engineering

Research Report No R891

12

Fig. 2 Column buckling compression resistance of AS4100

Dimensionless slenderness

c

= (N

s

/N

om

)

D

i

m

e

n

s

i

o

n

l

e

s

s

c

o

m

p

r

e

s

s

i

o

n

r

e

s

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

N

c

y

/

N

s

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames J une 2008

School of Civil Engineering

Research Report No R891

13

1

0.5453

5000

5000

x

x

x

1 1

1

0.5453

5000 5000

3

x

4

5

6

1

2 5

(+)

()

()

2274

2726

2

3 4

5

1

6

x x

1

1

1 1

2726

2726

x x

2

5

4 3

0.5453

x x

0.5453

x

2

3 4

5

x

0.5453

x x

1 1 1 1

0.5453

2726

2726

x

5

4 3

2

x

(a) Frame

o

=20990

Deflection and

warping prevented

Deflection restrained

at bottom flange

t

=10

x

(b) Moment distribution

(c) Beam

o

=22520

(d) Column

o

=171200

(e) Beam-column

o

=20940

Fig. 3 Example Frame 1

x

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames J une 2008

School of Civil Engineering

Research Report No R891

14

(a) Frame

o

=128400 (b) Moment distribution

Fig. 4 Example Frame 2

1

0.0536

5000

5000

x

x

x

2

1

0.0536

2500 2500

3

x

4

7

6

1

2

5

x

(+)

1964

535.7

x

3

x

4

7

6

1

2

5

x

1

(c) Beam

o

=200000 (d) Column

o

=270600 (e) Beam-column

o

=128100

535.7

x

x

0.0536

3

1

2

0.0536

1

1

x

x

3

1

2

535.7

1

x

x

0.0536

3

1

2

0.0536

Deflection and warping prevented

Deflection restrained at outer flange

t

=100

Deflection and twist rotation prevented

x

x

x

Buckling Analysis Design of Steel Frames J une 2008

School of Civil Engineering

Research Report No R891

15

146 mm

256 mm

6.4 mm

10.9 mm

(a) Beam and Dimensions

250 UB 37.3 Grade 300

(c) Section Properties

A =4750 mm

2

I

x

=55.7E6 mm

4

I

y

=5.66E6 mm

4

J =158E3 mm

4

I

w

=85.2E9 mm

6

N

s

=1520 kN M

sx

=155.52 kNm

(b) Material properties

E =2E5 N/mm

2

G =8E4 N/mm

2

f

y

=320 N/mm

2

Fig. 5 Beam Section and Properties

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