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BEARING DYNAMICS ANALYSIS USING

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD


A THESIS
SUBMITTED TO THE
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING-UNIVERSITY OF BASRAH
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE
IN
AZZAM DAOOD HASSAN
(B. Sc.)
September 2000


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Certification
I certify that this thesis is prepared under my supervision at the
university of Basrah, as a partial requirement for the degree of Master of
Science in Mechanical Engineering.
7
Signature: / ~ r : d 1 (} (YttJJcJ--?.____-
1
Supervisor: Dr. Ameen A. Nassar
Date: 6 ( tJ ; 2-ec.-:> C'
In view of the available recommendations, I forward this thesis for
debate by the examining committee.
Signature: W 1/ /4( /Z:l ~
Name: Dr. R. R. Al-Rab)l
(Head ofMech. Eng. Dept.)
Date: / q /? o -...s---)
Committee Report
We certify that we have read this thesis entitled "Bearing Dynamics
Analysis Using Finite Element Method" as examining committee, and
have examined the student in its contents. In our opinion it is adequate for
the partial fulfillment of the Degree of Master of Science in Mechanical
Engineering.
Signature:
1\btoiTF""'. Hrr.- A. S. Shihab
Member
Date: '1--1-/ If 12000
Signature: i,i!}!iVC7
Name: Dr. S. H. Muhoder
Member
Date: 2f-t/ I 12000
On behalf ofthe University:
Signature: r-----:.,--
Name: Dr. A. S. Resen
Dean
Date: /2000
;J
Name: Dr. A. A. Al-Edani
Supervisor
Date1J-f // /2000

Signature: "!_ '. ;=-
Name: Dr. A. S. Resen
Chairman
Date: /2000
AcliHOJvledtJement
I wish to acknowledge my supervisor
Dr. Ameen A. Nassar for his useful suggestions,
which helped me during the preparation of this
thesis.
Also I would like to thank the Dean of
Engineering College Dr. A. S. Resen and the
computer center for their cooperation.
Thanks for all staff of mechanical engineering
department.
Finally, I wish to express my gratitude to my
family and my friends for their encouragement.
ABSTRACT
Fluid film bearings commonly used in heavy rotating machines play
a significant role in the dynamic behaviour of the rotor because the thin
film that separates the moving surfaces supports the rotor load.
The thin film was represented as a linearized values of the stiffness
and damping coefficients. It has been shown that the stiffness and damping
properties of the oil film significantly alter the critical speeds and out of
balance response of a rotor.
In addition, rotor instability occurs, which is a self excited vibration
arising out of the bearing fluid film effects, and this is an important factor
to be considered in the rotor design.
This work presented a dynamic modeling of rotor bearing systems
with rigid disks, distributed parameter finite rotor elements and t1exible,
discrete multibearings. The mathematical model takes into account the
rotary inertia, gyroscopic moment, axial load, internal viscous and
hysteretic damping and transverse shear defonnations, linear as well as
nonlinear stiffness and damping for the finite bearing using
TIMOSHENKO element.
A computer program is developed in this work to calculate the whirl
frequency and critical damping speed and to evaluate the dynamic
unbalance response and rotor stability.
CONTENTS
Title I Page
Abstract
I
I
Contents
I
II
Nomenclature IV
Chapter One: Introduction
1.1 General Introduction 1
1.2 Methods to Analyze the Rotor-Bearing Systems 2
1.3 Instability of Rotors Mounted on Fluid Film Bearing 3
1.4 Eigenvalues Problems
i
6
1.5 Scope of the Thesis
I
6
I
Chapter Two: Literature Review
2.1 Introduction I 7
2.2 Literature Review
I
7
I
2.3 Conclusions
I
10
Chapter Three: Theory
3.1 Introduction I 11
I
3.2 Beam Theories 11 I
3.2.1 Beam-Bending Theory (Rayleigh Beam Theory)
I
12
3 .2.2 Timoshenko Beam Theory
I
13
3.3 Shape Functions
I
14
3.4 Fluid Film Bearing Element
I
16
I
3.5 General Dynamic Equations
;
17
I
3.5.a Strain Energy i 18
3.5.b Kinetic Energy 19
3.5.c Dissipation Energy
I
20
! I
3.5.d Potential Energy I
20
3.6 Element Equations for Finite Rotor Systems !
20
3.6.a Kinetic Energy of Rotor Element I 20
3.6.b Potential Energy with Internal Damping
I
22
3.6.c Dissipation Function 25
3.7 Total Energy of Rotor
I
25
3.8 Effect of Initial Applied Force and Torque
I
26
3.9 Rigid Disk Element I
27
3.10 Unbalance Response
I
27
3.11 Solution of System Equations I
28
3.1l.a Whirl Speeds I 28
3.1l.b Unbalance Response
I
28
3.1l.c Ruge-Kutta Scheme
I
29
II
Title Pag_e
ChaQ_ter Four: Programmin2
4.1 Introduction 31
4.2 Master Program
31
4.3 Free Vibration Program 32
i
4.4 Damping Program
32
4.5 Time Domain Program 33
4.6 Unbalance Response Program 33
Chapter Five: Results and Discussion
5.1 Introduction 35
5.2 Case Study 35
I
5.2.1 Critical and Whirl Speeds 35
5.2.2 Unbalance Response 38
5.2.3 Forced Vibration Response 39 !
5.2.4 Transient Response 40
5.3 Summary 41
Chapter Six: Conclusions and Recommendation
i
6.1 General Introduction
59 l
6.2 Conclusions 59
I
6.3 Recommendation 60
References 62
Appendices
I
Appendix A:
Al System Matrices Components
A2 Unbalance Nodal Force Vector
AppendixB: . ..
Cases Study
III
Nomenclature
Symbol Description
I
Units
I
!
'
[D) I Stress-Strain of dynamic system.
I
!
[B(x,y,z)] I Coordinate matrix of dynamic system.
I
I
I
[M],[C],[K] Mass, damping and stiffness matrix.
[N(x,y,z)] Shape function matrix of dynamic system
[I] Identity matrix
[F(t)] External force vector of dynamic system N I
Ux,Uy,Uz
Displacement components at point (x,y,z) inside
I
m
I beam.
K
Shear function of the cross section
I
Vy,Vz Shear forces in y,z direction
I
N
i
NtiNri
Translation and rotation displacement shape function,
I
1=1,2,3,4
v(x, t),oo(x, t)
Centerline displacement in y,z direction
G
Shear modulus N/m
2
EI
Bending stiffness per unit curvature N.m
2
I
Cross section area
,
I
A
m-
I
L
Element length m
I
I
I
0
,IP
Diametral and polar mass moment of inenia per unit
I
length
Kg.m
I
Ip Polar mass moment of inenia for element
I Kg.m" I
Mz,My Internal moment about z, y direction
I
N.m
I
Initially axially force
I
I
p
N
I
T Initially axially torque N.m
I
Cyy,Cyz
Czy,Czz
Elements of bearing damping matrix N.s/m
Kyy,Kyz
Elements ofbearing stiffness matrix
N/m
I
K;cy,Kzz
I
!
fy.fz Interaction force of bearing in y,z direction N
md
Mass of disk Kg
I
!
IV
Symbol Description
Units
Diametral inertia and polar inertia of disk. where I
I
d Id I ~ =112(md(3R
2
+H
2
))
Kg.m'
1
Io, P
I ~ = 1/2(mdR
2
)
H,R Disk thickness and radius
m
Ou,n
Unbalance nodal force vector
N
Qs,Qc
Cosine and sine components of distributed unbalance
N
force vector.
Element mass center location in rotor element, where
Z(x),Y(x)
(Zc, Yc)= (Z(O), Y(O))
m
(ZR, YR)= (Z(L), Y(L))
I
yd,zd
Disk mass eccentricity in y,z direction
m
Greek Letters
Symbol Description
Units !
[cr],[] Stress and strain vectors
I
[oJ Displacement vector of dynamic system
:
I
~
Transverse shear effect
i
EJ
Internal viscous damping Sec I
I
EH
Internal hysteretic damping
!
YH
Loss angle rad
!
~ y
Small angle rotation about (y,z) axis rad
n Natural frequency of rotating system rad/sec
1-1.
Mass per unit length Kg/m
X
Total energy of system
I
(J) Whirl speed rad/sec
a
Complex eigenvalue
v
Subscripts:
n x n Order of matrix.
Derivative with respect to time.
Second derivative with respect to time.
Derivative with displacement.
II Second derivative with displacement.
'r Transpose matrix
d Refer to disk element.
b Refer to bearing element.
Abbreviation
KE Kinetic energy.
DE Dissipation energy.
u
Strain energy.
v Potential energy.
VI
Chapter One
INTRODUCTION
1.1 General Introduction
The phenomenon of natural frequency and critical speed of rotating
shafts is the most common problem that is discussed by a vibration
engineer. Some of the rotors weight as much as 100 tons as in the case of
large steam turbine and obviously they deserve at most attention in this
regard. The rotor have always some amount of residual unbalance, however
well they are balanced, and will get into resonance when they rotate at
speed equal to their critical speeds. These speeds are called as critical speed
by RANKLINE in 1869.
In 1895 GUSTAVE DELAV AL became the first person to
demonstrate experimentally thatasteam turbine was capable of sustained
operation above the rotor's lowest resonance speed (first critical speed).
With this previously held restriction on maximum rotor speed removed,
designers were free to increase pertain speeds, thereby utilized from all the
potential benefits of higher speeds, with this new found freedom, it did not
take designers too long to discover a true upper limit for safe operating
speeds. Namely, the THRESHOLD SPEED of rotor in film journal bearing.
In 1925 it has become evident that an important class of rotor
bearing dynamic phenomena cannot be studied without accounting for the
highly non-linear forces produced by fluid film journal bearings under
large amplitude vibrations (amplitudes approaching the bearing clearance).
Rotor unbalance, rotor stability and torsional dynamics of drive
trains are the major aspects of the rotor bearing dynamics problem.
Reference sources at which information on rotor bearing dynamics has
been presented are:-
(1) IUTAM Denmark Symposium Proceeding, September, 1974.
(2) ASME Vibration Conference, Washington, D.C., September, 1975.
(3) Rochester Symposium Proceedings, July, 1975.
(4) ASME Flexible Rotor-Bearing Dynamics, Monographs 1973.
(5)" SVIC Monographs on Computer Programs, and on Balancing 1972
The major cause of excessive vibrations in rotating shafts is the
residual unbalance. The unbalance in the rotor come from material
inhomogeneites, manufacturing processes, key ways, slots, . . . etc. In
addition the rotor deteriorates its balance condition during the operating
due to wear, thermal bendii)g, process dirt collection ... etc. Naturally, it is
important to determine the response of a rotor due to specified unbalance,
to study its dynamic behaviour so as to determine, whether is, a rebalance
is necessary during the rotor life.
Rotor formulations vary widely from simple discrete mass/beam
rotors through complex distributed mass-elasticity rotors. some
applications of the finite element method for unbalance response analysis
have been developed by Lund [1] and by Zorzi & Nelson [2].
1.2 Methods to Analyze the Rotor-Bearing Systems
The two main methods employed currently are the transfer matrix
method and the finite element technique. Both these procedures adopt a
continuous representation of element parameters which is the main reason
for their relatively high accuracy compared to the conventional lumped
parameter modeling, as was shown by Ruhland Booker [3].
The transfer matrix method as modified by Lund and Orcutt [4].
Allows for a continuous representation at the shaft section and was found
2
to produce results in good agreement with the experimental observations
[4]. This method has also been used in model analysis for calculating the
damped natural frequencies and the associated modes. This has the
advantage of small computer memory requirements, but the equations of
motion using such a procedure are not explicity written and it was found in
[4] that accurate unbalance response calculation using such a method
requires a number of rotor sections that are 4 to 5 times the highest
anticipated natural frequency. On the other hand, the finite element
technique provides an accurate modeling of rotor-bearing system with few
number of elements while being less sensitive to numerical instabilities [3].
The finite element procedure leads essentially to an explicity written set of
general dynamic equations independent of any pre-specification of the
input excitation. Additional details such as the bearing support flexibility
can be incorporated easily in the finite element formulation. Similarly,
shear deformations have also been included in general finite element
modeling and used for rotor dynamic problems by Rouch and Kao [5].
1.3 Instability of Rotors Mounted on Fluid Film Bearing
The instability of a rotor is a self-excited vibration arising out of
fluid film forces and is distinct from the large amplitudes of vibration
caused by residual unbalance. This phenomenon is also known as oil whip
or oil whirl and has been first observed by Newkirk and Taylor [6].
To understand this phenomenon let us consider a lightly loaded
journal bearing, i.e., the pressure developed in the film is insignificant, the
journal center operates close to the bearing center and the eccentricity is
very small compared to the radial clearance. Since the pressure induced
flow is assumed to be negligible, the velocity profile ofthe film in the
clearance space is linear with a maximum value roR at the journal surface,
as shown in Fig. 1.1. The flow into the wedge of the journal bearing is:
3
Fi =!LRro(c+e)
the flow out of the wedge is
F
0
=!LRro(c-e)
Fig. 1.1 Journal bearing
... (1.1)
... (1.2)
If pressure is developed in the film, when the bearing is operating
under steady conditions, the flow-in is reduced and flow-out is increased by
the pressure induced flow, which balances Fi and F
0
for maintaining the
flow continuity. However, ifthe load is small, in the absence of pressure a
small whirl velocity is induced to maintain the flow balance. If the
instantaneous angular velocity is v for the journal center j, then the
induced velocity is ev as shown in Fig. 1.1. By lifting off the journal from
its steady state position, the film volume increases by,
F=2LRev
where 2LR is the projected area of the bearing, therefore,
!LRro(c +e)= !LRro(c -e)+ 2L Rev
4
.. . ( 1.3)
... (1.4)
and
... (1.5)
Hence the rotor tries to whirl at a frequency of half the speed of
rotation to maintain the flow balance. We notice that if v >fro, the
outward flow is more and therefore pressure is developed in the film and
. the bearing becomes stable. If, however v <fro, the rotor losses load
carrying capacity and becomes unstable. The frequency of whirl in the
rotors under such conditions is observed to be around 0.46 to 0.48
rotational speed.
If the rotor is flexible, the instability caused by oil whirl causes large
amplitudes due to resonant conditions generated by the rotor speed above
the first critical. This is explained in Fig. 1.2 which is a campbell type of
diagram, showing schematically, the system resonant frequency as a
function of rotor speed. The dashed lines show the synchronous whirl and
the first critical speed, where the rotational speed is equal to the system
natural frequency.
The half frequency whirl line also shown in Fig. 1.2. Since the
journal is stable for frequency of whirl more than half the rotational speed,
where the system frequency and half frequency whirl lines meet, we have
the Instability threshold, which known as oil whip. This obviously an
important consideration in the design of the rotor and thus attracted the
attention of many workers in rotor dynamics.
Instability threshold
Fig. 1.2. Instability threshold spped-oil whirl
5
1.4 Eigenvalue Problems
The theory for the eigenvalue problem for non-spinning systems with
elastic restoring and dissipation forces is well developed, while the
eigenvalue problem for spinning systems containing elastic and dissipation
parts has received very little attention. The main difference between non-
spinning and spinning systems is the damping matrix which have a skew
symmetry properties due to the vector gyroscopic effect. . ~ .
The equation of motion for typical rotor systems (free vibration) can
be written in the following compact and matrix forms:
where
MX+Cx+Kx=O
M: Mass matrix
C: Damping matrix
K: Stiflhess matrix
... ( 1.6)
Also in same cases the damping matrix and stiffness matrix take
nonsymmetrical form and its mathematical insights are discussed by
Adams [7].
1.5 Scope of the Thesis
The scope of this work can be summarized as follows:
Chapter Two summarized the important previous work in the rotor
dynamic field. The basic theories, energy equation of rotor element
formulation, forced load formulation and numerical solution method are
reviewed in Chapter Three.
The properties and construction of programming are reviewed in
Chapter Four.
Chapter Five contain the discussion of selected cases.
Finally, the major conclusions of this work and recommendation for
future work are summarized in Chapter Six.
6
Chapter Two
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
With the ever increase in demand for large size and velocity in
modem machines, rotor dynamics became more and more an important
subject in the mechanical engineering design.
The rotor-bearing system is contain many difficult problems such as
stability, natural frequency, unbalance response ... etc, consequently there
are many researches tried to treatment these problems. When mathematical
models are presented, the researchers succeeded to treat such type of
analysis.
At first transfer matrix was indicated a continuous success in that
field, at last finite element method was produced as an optimum solution to
solve that type of complex system.
Recent advances in computer technology have allowed more
realistic, i.e. more complex, system problems to be examined as opposed to
~ idealized solutions obtained by earlier authors. Technology procedures
in these problem areas are now becoming firmly established as design
routines.
2.2 Literature Review
In order to study the effect of bearing supports on the dynamic
behaviour of the rotor, the Jeffcot model can be used, e.g., Morton (8] and
Kirk & Gunter [9]. Rao (10] used Jeffcot model analysis to study the
conditions for backward synchronous whirl of a flexible rotor in
hydrodynamic bearings. In this study he has shown that there is no distinct
7
critical speed as it conventionally known when one of the cross coupled
stiffuess coefficients of the bearing is negative and that a specific relation is
satisfied, when the expression under a square roote in the frequency
equation becomes negative. It mentioned then that the rotor becomes
unstable, but no details were presents. Rao, Bhat and Snakar [11] extended
this study to take into account the effect of bearing damping on the
synchronous whirl of a rotor in hydrodynamic bearings.
The instability of a rotor in fluid film bearings is generally attributed
to the self excited vibration arising out of fluid film bearings and has been
observed first by NewKirk and Taylor [6] who called it as oil whip of a
rotor. In this instability region, the whirling frequency of the rotor is
slightly less than half the rotational speed and therefore is known as half
frequency whirl instability. The unbalance response of a general rotor with
properties defmed at several stations. Transfer matrices and finite element
methods are popular, e.g., Rao [12]. A detailed analytical treatment for
instability speeds of rigid and flexible rotors on different types of bearing is
given by Rao [13].
Riegen and Cundiff [14] studies unbalance response of a compressor
rotor, which did not show the two typical peaks corresponding to the major
and minor speeds of a rotor in fluid film bearings in the region of rigid
bearing critical speeds. Bhat [15] used modal analysis to determine the
unbalance response of a single mass rotor on fluid film bearings.
Rao [16] studied the instability of a rotor mounted in fluid film
bearings, it is demonstrated that instability of a rotor mounted on
hydrodynamic bearings can occur under super synchronous whirl
conditions. It is shown that such an instability condition arises only when
one of the cross-coupled stiffuess coefficients is negative and the problem
is formulated accordingly. In this study Rao used analytical method to
formulate the problem, therefore many factors were neglected in his study.
8
Sharan and Rao [17] presented the dynamic response of a multi-disk rotor
system supported by fluid film bearing using the method of influence
coefficients. The stiffness and the damping coefficients have been
considered as speed dependent. The two bearings, which support the rotor
shaft, are dissimilar. The dynamic response is calculated by varying
parameters such as spacing between the disks, the bearing clearance ratio
and the relative mass of the rotor disks. Wong and Shih [18] used an
optimization technique to fmd the optimum diameters of shaft elements so
that the optimized rotor can sustain maximum fluid leakage excitation.
A rotor-bearing system is modeled as an assemblage of concentrated
rigid disks, discrete bearings, and rotor segments with distributed mass, and
it would also contain the model of leakage excitation in this study. The
weak in this study came from this application of finite element techniques
had well made by Nelson in 1976.
The works ofRuhl [19] and Ruhl & Booker [3] are the first examples
of the studies using finite elements in rotor dynamics. In these investigation
the effect of rotary inertia, gyroscopic moments, shear deformations, axial
load, and internal damping have been neglected. These studies deals with
the instability of rotating system and unbalance response and their result
compared with classical lumped mass. Thorkildsen [20] has included rotary
inertia and gyroscopic moment. Polk [21] has used a Rayleigh beam finite
element in his work. In 1979 Nelson [22] utilized Timoshenko beam theory
for establishing the shape functions. He derived the system matrices
including the effects of rotary inertia, gyroscopic moments, axial load, and
shear deformations. A flexible rotor bearing system is represented in
Hashish and Sankar [23] studies. The mathematical model takes into
account many factors using Timoshenko element. As an application the
different effects of the bearing lining flexibility and the bearing support
flexibility on the rotor stability behaviour is studied and discussed.
9
Nevzat and Levent [24] are present dynamic modeling of rotor
bearing system with rigid disks, distributed parameter finite rotor elements
and flexible, discrete multibearings. A computer program is developed in
this work to calculate the forward and backward whirl speed, the
corresponding mode shapes, the dynamic unbalance response of
multibearing rotor system.
2.3 Conclusions
From the previous researchers we can take some notes on their work
as follows:-
1. All the researches neglected a number of important factors like
axial force and torque, viscous and hysteretic damping in the
formulation therefore, we consider these factors in the formulation.
2. The numerical methods that used in the previous researches have
many weekness points such as linearize any rotor-bearing system to
single mass and massless shaft (Jeffcot model). In this work, it has
been consider the finite elements technique to prevent this
weekness.
3. The study of bearing and its effect on the rotor stability is not
considered in a good attention.
Also, from the above discussion we found that all researchers not take
into account the effect of cross-coupled bearing coefficients on the system
while this factor have very important effect on the system as shown later.
10
3.1 Introduction
Chapter Three
THEORY
In this investigation a flexible rotor bearing system is represented by
a finite element model taking into account the gyroscopic moments, rotary
inertia, shear deformation, stiffness and damping for the finite bearing. A
simple Timoshenko beam is utilized and for rotor element two nodes and
eight degree of freedom was considered because of many reasons list as
follows:
1. Capacity of addition of many significant factors to the element
. model.
2. Reducing the order of system matrices.
3. Two nodes element have high accuracy and that proved in study of
Ruhl [5].
The present formulation allows many nonlinear effects to be studied
and their influence on the dynamic response of flexible rotors. The
unbalance response of rotor supported in multilobe or tilting pad bearing is
readily obtained. In addition the effects of fluid film dampers on rotor
performance may be investigated.
3.2 Beam Theories
In the structural studies the assumptions primarily about
displacement fields. Also, we usually make assumptions as to certain
aspects of the constitutive law to be employed.
The next paragraph will be explained in details the Rayliegh beam
theory and Timoshenko beam theory.
11
3.2.1 Beam-Bending Theory
Consider a long beam, which defonns in the x-y plane to shear forces
(in the y-direction) and bending moments (in the z-direction), with the x-
axis being its neutral axis, as shown in fig. 3.1. The Raleigh beam theory is
based upon the following assumptions and approximations:
1. The beam material is homogenous, isotropic, and linearly elastic, that
is, the generalized Hook's equations are valid for such a case.
2. The strain components at any point inside the beam are infinitesimal.
3. The variation of the literal deflection across the beam thickness is
negligible.
4. Transverse normal stress is negligible .
. 5. Transverse shear strain is negligible compared with rotations due to
bending. It can be deduced from this assumption that plane cross
section of the beam remain plane after loading.
Consider the continuous beam shown in fig. 3 With forces and
moments bending the beam in the x-y plane, it is clear that the
displacement cqmponent in the z direction (Uz) is negligible, and it can also
deduced from the previous assumption that the displacement component in
the y-direction (the literal deflection Uy) can be approximated at any point
(x,y,z) inside the beam as a function of(x) only defonned on the x-y plane
due to shear forces and bending moments, can be approximated as follows
[25];
dv
Ux(x,y,z)::::: -y-
dx
Uy(x,y,z)::::: -v(x)
Uz(X, y,z)::::: 0
Also, it can be shown: that the relationship between moment and shear
force withy direction deflection is as [25]:
12
.. . (3.1)
... (3.2)
X
z
M (Bending moment)
Fig 3.1 Beam under bending in the x-y plane
3.2.2 Timoshenko Beam Theory
The beam bending theory was not considered the effect of shear
stress and strains, which may be lead to inaccurate results for short beams.
The beam bending equation which take account of transverse shear
deformation and rotary inertia was given by Timoshenko.
Also the first four assumptions of bending theory are also employed
in Timoshenko's theory. The deflection and stress equation are summarized
as follows:
dv
- = \jl(x) + x )
dx
... (3.3)
where \ji(X) is rotating angle due to bending only and ~ x ) is rotating
angle due to shear deflection effect only.
Ux(x,y,z) = -y\ji(X) = -y[: ~ x ) ]
Uy(x,y,z) = -v(x)
Uz(x,y,z) = 0
13
.. . (3.4)
shear force and bending moment can define as:-
d\jl
M=-EI-
dx
V(x) =
... (3.5)
where K is shear factor of the cross-sectional, which consider recognizing
the shear stress distribution at a section and for alternation
deviation for shear factors.
3.3 Shape Functions
A typical rotor-bearing system consists of a rotor composed of
discrete disks and rotor segments, and discrete elastic bearings. Figure 3.2
shows a typical rotor element of length I with the coordinates used to
describe the end point displacements ( q). Each rotor element is modeled as
an eight degree of freedom element with two rotations and two translations
at each end.
X
z
Fig. 3.2 Finite rotor element.
The displacements of a differential disk of thickness dx placed at a
distance x from the element end are denoted by v{x, t ), ro(x, t), J3(x, t) and
y(x, t), as shown in fig. 3.2. Translations { v(x, t)} and rotations { co(x, t)}
of such a differential disk internal to the element can be related to the end
14
point displacements by the translational and rotational shape function
matrices [Nt(x)] and [Nr(x}], respectively, as
{
v(x,t)}
ro(x,t) =[Nt(x)]{q(t)} .
= [Nr(x)]{q(t)}
0 00(306)
where the relation approximates the translation and rotation of a typical
point internal to the element, written in the matrix form:

0 0
Ntz Nt3
0 0
Nt4]
Ntl -Ntz
0 0
-Nt3 Nt4
0
ooo(3o6a)
[Nr(x)]=[
0
-Nrl Nr2
0 0
-Nr3
Nr4
0
loo(3o6b)
Nrl
0 0
Nr2 Nr3
0 0
Nr4
Translations and rotations can be written as the summation of translations
and rotations due to bending and shear deformations:
{v(x, t)}= {vb(x, t)}+ {v
5
(x, t)}
{ro(x, t)}= {rob(x, t)}+ {ro
5
(x, t)}
the translational shape function can be written as [23]
Nu = -
1
-(1



where
and
Nt2 =
1



Nt
3



Nt4 1

12EI
KGA1
2
X

1
15
00 0(307)
0 0 o(3o8)
0 oo(3o9)
Also we can divided these shape functions into two parts, one for
bending contribution and the other due to shear deformation contribution.
[Nt],; [Nbt]+ [Nst]
Nlbt Nl t
1+$ s 1+$
N3bt N3st

N4bt =

N4st


the rotational shape function can be written as [23]
N rl L(1: /- + 2)
Nr2 =-L-(1


(l+ 4>)
N rJ L(l $ - 2)
Nr4
(1 + $)
3.4 Fluid Film Bearing Element
.. . (3.10a)
(3.10b)
For the modeling of bearings, the classical linearized model with
eight spring and damping coefficients [26], [22], [27] is used, fig. 3.3. In
this model, the force at each bearings is obtained from,
... (3.11)
where C ij and Kij are the elements of damping and stiffness matrices for
the bearings and lFb J is the vector of baring forces.
16
z
Fig. 3.3. Modeling of bearings
The non-linearity problems in this m o e l ~ the coefficients Kij, Cij
were a function of journal speed [27], [28], whereas, the values of Kij, Cij
varied with rotating speed and then the stiffness damping matrices become
a function to speed and that make a big problems for many investigations.
Many researchers tries to solve the previous problems and some of
them like ADAMS [9] and DIMAROGONAS [29]; their solutions were
closed for their case studies only and it cannot apply for the universal
studies.
The present work depend upon charts which gives by Rao [27]: this
chart give the direct and cross-coupled stiffness and damping coefficient
with different speed.
3.5 General Dynamic Equations
Consider engineering dynamic system, geometrically described by
means of a number of finite elements in the x-y-z Cartesian space, and it is
subjected to dynamic loading.
At any instance of time (t), the nodal displacement vector of the
structure is a function of time represented by o(t), in order to formulate the
17
dynamic equations for the system, the energy balance principle may be
employed.
This principle states that: At any instant of time the summation of the
system energies is stationary, that is the summation of the kinetic energy
KE, the dissipation energy DE, the strain energy U, and the potential
energy Vis stationary, or:
KE +ED+ U + V =Stationary ... (3-12)
If these energies are defined in terms of the nodal displacement vector o(t)
then:

00
.. . (3-13)
Each term in the previous equation will be discussed briefly, for a general
type of dynamic system.
3.5.a Strain Energy
Defining cr, e as the vectors of stress and strain components at any
point, inside a finite element, then for a linear elastic material, stress, strain
matrix D can be formulated, such that:
cr(t)= De(t)
Hence, the strain energy can be expressed as follows :
m m
U=t:L JJJ &
1
crdxydz=t:L JJJe
1
Dedxdydz
e=lelement e=le)ement
where m is the total number of elements.
If there exist a matrix of coordinates B(x,y,z) such that:
t(x,y,z,t)= B(x,y,z)o(t)
then the strain energy can be written in the following form:
u = to
1
[f JJJB
1
DBdxdydz]o
e=lelement
18
.. . (3.14)
... (3.15)
... (3.16)
... (3.17)
which can be reduced as follows:
where K represents the stiffness matrix of the system.
Hence, it can be deduced that: or its defined as:
m
K= L JfJBtDBdxdydz
e=l element .
au
-=Ko(t)
ao
3.5.b Kinetic Energy
... (3.18)
. .. (3-18)
Defining the velocity vector of an infmitesimal mass dm inside the
system as q, then the total kinetic energy of the system can be explained as
follows:
m
KE=t f qtqdm=tr fffMqtqdxdydz
system e=lelement
If there exists a matrix of coordinate N, such that:
q(x,y,z, t) = N(x,
where 8(t)=
dt
... (3.19)
. . . (3.20)
Then the kinetic energy of the system can be written in the following
matrix form:
.. . (3.21)
Hence, it can be shown that:
... (3.22)
19
3.5.c Dissipation Energy
The dissipation energy depends upon the nature of the damping, and
for the case of viscous damping, a matrix C can be defmed, such that:
DE= to
1
(t)c8(t)
Hence, it can be deduced that:
aoE = c8(t)
ao
3.S.d Potential Energy
.. . (3.23)
... (3 .24)
In the absence of external fields, the potential energy of the system at
an instant of time (t) may be expressed in terms of the work done by the
applied forces at that instant, which are represented by an equivalent nodal
force vector, i.e.
V =-WORK= -o
1
(t)F(t) ... (3.25)
from the above eq. We can write:
av
ao = -F(t) .. . (3.26)
Substituting Eqs. (3.18), (3.22), (3.24) and (3.26) in (3.13) gives;
M8(t)+CB(t)+Ko(t)=F(t) ... (3.27)
which is the dynamic finite element matrix equation of the system, and it
represents a system of simultaneous second order differential equation with
respect to time (t).
3.6 Element Equations for Finite Rotor Systems
3.6.a Kinetic Energy of Rotor Element
Figure 3.4 explained the differential disk located at (x) and the
cross-section spin about rotating references.
We can write the kinetic energy equation as:
~ ] [ ] d x ... (3.28)
I p (l)c
20
where 1
0
and Ip are the diametrical and polar inertia per unit length, J..l:
mass/length.
Fig. 3.4. Cross section spins about
rotating references.
z
To transfer from (abc) reference to (xyz) reference using Euler's
Angles formula:



by substituting Eqs. (3.6) and (3.28) in (3.29) we get:-
dk = !J..L4 T[Ntf[Nt]qdx+!Ipro
2
dx +!Io4 T[Nrf[Nr]qdx
- rolpq T[N r Y f [NrP ]qdx
where:
[Nry]= [Nrl 0 0 Nr2 Nr3 0 0 Nr4]
[NrP]=[O -Nr
1
Nr
2
0 0 -Nr
3
Nr
4
0]
and by take the integration over the length of element to obtain:
K = !4 T [Mt]+ [Mr ]}q + Ipro
2
+roq T[R]q
21
... (3.29)
.. . (3.30)
... (3.31)
... (3.32)
where
- 2
Ip = (112)mR
I
[M t) = J J.1 [N t JT [N t ]dx
0
I
[M rJ= Jio [N rJT [N r]dx
0
I
[ R ] = J I p [ N r y JT [ N r P ]dx where dx = ld
0
... (3.33) .
[Mt] and [Mr] are symmetric matrices, which are listed in Appendix A.
3.6.b Potential Energy with Internal Damping
In addition to external sources of damping there is very large number
of mechanism where by vibration e n e r ~ y can be dissipation, Ahid et. al.
[30] discussed large type of internal damping model in his books.
In present thesis we just take the final model of material damping for
two important type of dampings:-
1. Viscous damping: this type due to internal viscosity of material which
discussed in Ahid [30] and it represented as a simple dashpot model
with a damping coefficient.
2. Hysteretic dampings the stress leads to corresponding strain by an
angle (YH) which is a material property. The hysteretic loop in the
stress- strain plane is an ellipse whose area, proportional to sin YH .
Gives a measure of the dissipated energy such that:
EH
smyH= ~
-vi+ ~
where EH is hysteretic loss factor, and for more information or details
about this type of damping, Ahid [30], Pao [27] gives a good investigations
about this subject in their researches.
22
Lund [31] described the relation of internal moments with internal
viscous and hysteric damping.
term+ dissipation term
where Bending term= EI[e
1
1[ ::]
Dissipation term= Ele
1
[N
1
1[ ::]
So the potential energy with damping effect:
d, =tEl{[ [.,1[ :ndx+ [ :J[,l( :}}
where,
[e2l=


[e
2
] = &
8
[I]+ eb[N2]
[N2J=[
23
. .. (3.34) .
. . . (3.35)
.. . (3.36)
. .. (3.37)
Substitute Eq. (3.37) into Eq. (3.36) then,
dp = { [ [1][ :ndx + { [N2l[
H :J [11[ ::Jdx +E.[ ::r [N2l[ ::Jdx J} .(J.J?)
By integrating Eq. (3.37),
where
then,
Pe = tUq T(Ea[kb]+ Eb[kcbllk + lq T(Ea[ks]+ Eb[kcsllh}
I
(Kcb]= El J(Nbtf(N2](Nbt]dx
0
I
[kcsl=



0
[kcb]= (N3](kb]
[kcsl= (N3][ks]
where [N
3
] is:

0 0 ' -1 0 0 0 0
[
N ]= . 0 ' 0, 0 _Q _
3
0 0 . 0 -1 0 0
0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
0 0 0) 0 ) 0 0 - 1
0, 0 0 0 1 0.
Substitute Eqs. (3.40), (3.41) in Eq. (3.38) then:
... (3.38)
. .. (3.39)
... (3.40)
. .. (3.41)
pe = t {lq T(Ea (Ikxs + Eb(N 3lllkb]+ lq T (ea (1]+ Eb(N 3llj(kJI} ... (3.42)
24
3.6.c Dissipation Function
We can write the Dissipation Function as a summation of dissipation
due to bending and dissipation due to shear,
and by integration ofEq. (3.43) gives:
D = !elq T (kb + ks)q
3. 7 Total energy of Rotor Element
Total Energy= Potential Energy+ Kinetic Energy
+ Dissipation Energy
substitute Eqs. (3.32), (3.42) and (3.44) in Eq. (3.45):
Total Energy [x] = fq T [Ea [I]+ &dN 3 ]]x [kb + ks]q
+t&Icl[kb +ksR +tqT(MT +MR]q
+!lpro
2
+roqT[R)q
Using Lagrangian equation to give the equation of motion [32]
So the differential equations of rotor element can be written as:
(M T + M R R + (& 1 [k b + k r)- ro [G ]q +
[
a[I1xs+[elro+
}+&H } +&H
where G=[R]-[Rf.
25
. . . (3.43)
. . . (3.44)
. . . (3.45)
. .. (3.46)
... (3.47)
... (3.48)
3.8 Effect of Initial Apolied Force and Torgue
The potential energy due to initial force (P) is:
_
1
Rv']T[P O][v']
kp --- dx
2
ro' 0 P ro'
0
and by using Eq. (3.6) in Eq. (3.49) we get:
kp =-tqT(A)q
where [A] is described as follows:
I
(A]=P
0
The potential energy due to initial torque (T) is:
_
1
[w]T[T o][w]
kT --- dx
2 o y' 0 T y'
Also using Eq. (3.7) in Eq. (3.52) we get:
kT = -tq T(T]q
I
[T]=T
0
So the final differential equation is:
[MT ]+ [M R ll'i + [EI[kb + k
5
]- ro[G llci +
. .. (3.49)
... (3.50)
... (3.51)
... (3.52)
... (3.53)
... (3.54)
[
a(kb +k
5
)-(A)-(T)+(g](NJkb +k5 ]lq =0 . .. (3.55)
}+f:H l+EH
And the all matrices that were denoted in the above equation are listed in
Appendix A.
26
3.9 Ridgid Disk Element
The kinetic energy and element matrix for ridgid disk element is
presented as follows:
lMd jqd - rolod Jl4d J= [o] ... (3.56)
where: [qd F = [vropy],
and lMd j and lad j matrices are listed in Appendix A.
3.10 Unbalance Force Vector
A- For unbalance on rotor element, assuming a linear distribution of
the mass center location in rotor element, the mass eccentricities in y
direction is y(x) and in z direction is z(x), we can drive force nodal vector
from virtual work principle:
[Qun]=

... (3.57)
0
z(x)
0
y(x)
Eq. (3.57) can be written as the summation of two components:
[Qc]=

JrNtf[y(x)]dx
0
z(x)
[Q
5
]=


o y(x)
... (3.58)
Nevzat and Levent [24] take mass unbalance distribution over the element:
y(x) = YR
z(x) = zL(l-
... (3.59)
where YL,YR,zL and zR are the mass eccentricities of the left and right
ends in Y and Z direction respectively.
B- For unbalance on disk element we can write nodal force vector:
... (3.60)
27
So, Eq. (3.60) can b summarized as follows:
lo:!n J= o ~ Jcos rot+ o ~ Jsin rot
where y d and zd are the disk mass eccentricities in Y and Z direction
respectively.
3.11 Solution of System Equations
3.1l.a Whirl Speeds
Whirl speeds can be determined from the solution of the eigenvalue
problem resulting from the free vibration equation,
[M][q]+ [c][q]+ [K][q]= [o] . . . (3 .61)
We can write Eq. (3.61) as
[
[o] -[Mn[[qn [[M] [ol][[qn
[M] [c] J [q]J+ [o] [K] [q]J = [o]
... (3.62)
Adams and Padovan [9] formed the quotient to solve the above
equation. It yields both forward and backward whirl speeds from the same
Eigenvector. In order to cut down the computation time and to guarantee
the right convergence, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the
corresponding undamped system are taken as the starting values for the
complex eigensolution iterations.
The eigenvalues are found in the form,
a= A.+iro
. . . (3.63)
where ro is the whirl speed.
3.11.b Unbalance Response
The unbalance response is come from solution of the equation (3.61)
after adding the forcing vector [F] which is the vector of unbalance forces
and can be written as the summation of two components,
(F] = (Qc]cosrot + (Q
5
]sinrot
. . . (3 .64)
28
where
... (3.65)
3.ll.c Runge-Kutta Scheme
The Runge-Kutta procedure applied to second order differential
equations. The following procedure can be applied to the finite element
dynamic matrix equation given as,
MX+Cx+Kx=F(t)
where F(t) is applied force vector.
. .. (3.66)
At initial time the following parameters are assumed to be known
initially:
x
1
(t
0
)=x
0
, x
1
(t
0
)=x
0
, F
1
(t
0
)=F
0
the equation (3.66) can be written as,
MX
1
=F
1
-Cx
1
-Kx
1
A vector g is defined, such that:
g = .:ltX or g
1
= .:ltx
1
then we can calculate:
29
. . . (3.67)
. . . (3.68)
where F
2
= F( t
0
+
from the above we find:
also,
X4 = X
0
+ X
0
+ g;)
x
4
= x
0
+g
3
, Mx
4
= F
4
-Cx
3
-Kx
3
g
4
=

where F
4
= F(t
0
+
At the last we can find the displacement as follows,
x = x
0
+

+i(g, + gz + g3)]
30
.. . (3.69)
... (3.70)
... (3.71)
4.1 Introduction
Chapter Four
PROGRAMMING
The cost of experimental testing makes it practical to consider computer
simulation to verify rotor bearing system designs without the necessity of
building each design variation considered.
During the past few years, a number of program packages have been
published, for example the thesis which is presented by Mushtaq [33] in
mechanical department, University of Basrah and NASTRAN package. In this
work a computer package program is developed in FORTRAN language which is
calculate the mass, stiffness and damping matrices then, using the another
programs, we can calculate the forward and whirl speeds forced and unbalance
response.
On the other hand, the package is presented in a way, which we can make
comparison between the results to make sure from the accuracy of the program.
4.2 Master Program
It is the main program, which calculate the mass, damping and stiffness
matrices of the rotor bearing system.
Master program divide into many subroutines which give the matrices of
all parameters that are considered and then assembly these matrices in form of
general matrices which represent as mass, damping and stiffness matrix.
These subroutines are listed as follows :-
SMT and StviR are give the mass matrix of the rotor element. SKBKS
gives the stiffness matrix of the rotor element. STand SAM are give the matrix
which is add as shows in eq. (3 .55). These two subroutines are take into account
the effect of the axial torque and force respectively. SGB is subroutine to enter
31
effect of gyroscopic effect. SMTD and S.MRD are give the mass matrix for
element. SGB gives the damping matrix for disk element. SCB and SKB are
the damping and stiffness matrix for bearing element. Then after generated
these matrices, assembler is held and gives a general form of matrices.
These programs are carried out to calculate the whirl frequency for rotating
systems.
Gupta [34] and Chandrosekaran [35] and others are published many
researches about the stability and development of eigenvalues solver for structure
while in rotor dynamics solvers, it is found that 0 Sami et. al. [36] were the
recognized researches studied in that field where 0 Sami used undamped system
and isotropic bearing in his investigation.
In that program, it is prefer to select the QZ method [23] in order to find the
eigenvalues and this selection was success by giving high accuracy and ability to
separation between closed eigenvalues [33] .
4.4 Damping Vibration Program
This program is not different from the free vibration program in method of
solution, but before solving we made change on the differential equation which is
discussed in section (3.11.a).
This change gives a complex eigenvalues which are deals with the damping
critical speed for rotating systems. The complex eigenvalues refer to difficult in
solution after the change on the differential equation and non-symmetric system
matrices. The select of QZ solver in order to find the eigenvalues is success to
solve this problem and give high accuracy complex eigenvalues.
4.5 Time Domain Response Program
These programs are developed to calculate the time response of rotating
system. These solver which used is Runge-Kutta scheme. It is discussed in
section (3 .ll .c ).
These solvers have very critical stability, which require small time
increment which take long calculation time. Response program di vided into two
32
subroutines. MA subroutine is format the matrices by product the initial
displacement with stiffness matrix and product the initial velocity with damping
matrix.
In the subroutine FI we can use it for forced vibration and also for
unbalance response in rotor or disk element.
4.6 Unbalance Response Program
Normally, these programs are developed to find the response of unbalanced
rotating systems. Its consists of two parts: Generation and assembler of matrices
system and solve this matrices. Mushtaq [33] used a complex static solver to find
the response. He is converted the complex equations as below:-
where
let
[M][X]=[V]
[M] : Complex matrix
[X]: Complex variable
[V] : complex vector
[M] = [MR] + i [MI]
[X]= [XR] + i [XI]
[V] = [VR] + i [VI]
sub. In eq. 94.1)
... (4.1)
.. . (4.2)
~ f { [ R ] + i[MI]}CXR + iXI) = (VR + iVI) ... (4.3)
{[MR]XR- [MI]}+i{[MR]XI + [MI]XR}= (VR + iVI) ... (4.4)
so,
[MR]XR- [MI]XI = VR
[MR ]XI + [MI]XR = VI
then solving equations (4.5) to find [XR] and [XI] .
.. . (4.5)
In this work another method is take which can summarized by solving the
general matrix
Mx + Cx + Kx = F( t)
.. (4.6)
by take F(t) as unbalance forcewhich gives in section (J. ll .b).
33
(
Start
I
E
..
Generation [m], [c] and [k]
I

Matrices for rotor element
I
I
C)
l
e
Generation [ m] and [ c]
Matrices for disk element
!
a..
l
'-
Generation [ c] and [k]
'Q)
Matrices for bearing element
! .......
I Ul
l
l ro
Assembly the all matrices
I:?!
In general form
I
-1--------.5-
- li-----
Q,

Non-damping system l
!
a
..

Q
Deferential equation
Make the matrices (QZ) solver
solver (Runge-kutta)
scheme
as in eq.(3 .62) M=k
I
Tirhe response due to Calculation of
Time response due
unbalance in rotor or eigenvalues
to transient vibration
disk element and eigenvectors
End
34
Chapter Five
RESULTS & DISCUSSION
5.1 Introduction
The widely application of rotors in industry caused that the vectors
have many types, shapes, size, complexity, supporting methods, etc. Some
of rotors have a large length and high weight such as turbine's shafts and
power shafts, the other are have an intermediate length with small size like
in the small generators.
There is another kind of difference depends upon the type of loading
and operation condition. Some of rotors are exposed to high axial torque
and force such as power shafts but the other types does not effect by this
problem such as supported shafts.
In order to prove the rightful performance for the mathematical
model a modified comparisons were carried out, also for illustrate the
accuracy of the program developed and to investigate the combined effect
of cross-coupled s ~ i f f u s s and damping coefficients and whirl speed on the
instability of rotor.
5.2 Cases Study
5.2.1 Critical and Whirl Speeds
In order to illustrate the accuracy of the program developed and to
i_!?-vestigate the effect of bearing properties on whirl speeds and instability
threshold, case (1) and case (2) is used.
As can be seen from table (5.1), a close agreement between the
values listed in the table and the corresponding values [24] demonstrates
the accuracy of the program in calculating the complex eigenvalues.
Furthermore, using 8-element give a good results as shown in the table.
35
Also, the theoretical wliirl speed for case (1) is 568.1 rad/sec, which
is calculated from equations gives in [2'7] and this another .comparison to
show the accuracy of the program.
When the cross stiffness coefficients take into account we can
conclude from table (5.2) these coefficients are increase the whirl speeds.
Also the direct damping increased the whirl speeds, as a result the
combmed effect of direct damping and cross-coupled stiffness coefficient
are increase the whirl speeds.
Fig. 5.1 and Fig. 5.2 explain the first and second mode whirl speeds
and the effect of cross-coupled coefficients on it. Case (2) is used and the
following two cases are taken for analysis:
A-I) Internal viscous damping E
1
= 0.0002 sec. with no bearing damping.
A-II) Internal viscous damping E
1
=0.0002 sec. with bearing damping.
Fig. 5.1 illustrates the stability for case (A-I). It is show the
instability of the first mode occurred at speed of 520.6 rad/sec and the
second occurred at speed of 1039.1 rad/sec. When the cross stiffness
coefficients taken into account the first and second mode occurred at
speeds of531.686 and 1504.9 rad/sec, respectively.
Fig. 5.2 illustrates the stability for case (A-II). It shows that the direct
damping increase the whirl speed. From Fig. 5.1 and Fig. 5.2 we can
conclude that the cross-coupled coefficients improve the critical and
threshold speed for rotor bearing system and the table (5 .3) show the
threshold speed compared with references [5] and [33].
36
Table (5.1) Whirl frequencies of the simply supported beam (flexible
bearings) for case (1)
Whirl frequencies (rad/s)
c1 = 0.0002, cH = 0.0
Mode 2-element
First (F) 535.0
First (B) 535.0
Second (F) 1607.5
Second (B) 1607.5
Third (F) 2250.3
F: Forward mode
B: Backward mode
5-element 8-element
500.0 512.9
500.0 512.9
1033.5 1050.0
1033.5 1050.0
2772.0 2291.7
Ref. [24]
520.1
521.8
1096.0
1095.3
2222.7
Table 5.2) Whirl frequencies and effect of cross-coupled coefficients
Mode Cross stiffuess Direct damping
First (F) 628.2 281.3

First (B)
628.2 281.3
Third (F) 1219.4 1601.2
Third (B)
1219.4 1601.2
Table (5.3) Threshold speed comparison
Threshold speed (rad/sec)
The source
942.47
Rouch and Kao [5]
1045.00
Mushtaq (33]
1279.8
Present Work case (A-II)
37
\\
The critical speed is calculated by meet the synchronous line in
figures 5.1 and 5.2. From Fig. 5.2 the critical speed without cross
coefficient is 531.2 rad/sec while it is 564.9 rad/sec with cross coefficient.
The last value is true, but there is another critical speed which is . .found
531.686 rad/sec appear because the cross stiffness is negative , which give
instability in super synchronous condition. This result is similar to Rao's
study [16].
5.2.2 Unbalance Response
In reality, we cannot define critical speeds, as we do for a rigid
bearing rotors, because the bearing coefficients are function of the speed of
rotors. Consequently, it is always better to study the out of balance
response to locate the critical speed and to study the effect of bearing
properties on unbalance response.
Case (3) was considered for this purpose. Fig. 5.3 shows this effects.
From this figure, it is clear that the critical speed in damped case shifts
towards the right. In addition, the cross-coupled peak response is higher
than direct damping peak response. Similar results were found in (17]
and [27].
This case have a negative cross-coupled stiffness coefficient and for
a positive cross-coupled, Case (4) was considered, Fig. 5.4 shows the direct
bearing damping reduces the unbalance response in the region of the
critical speeds and the peaks are shifted to the right from these critical
speed. From the two damped response curves it is observed that the cross-
coupled damping increase the response. This is because the predominant
cross-coupled damping is negative. Fig. 5.5, 5.6, 5.7 and 5.8 shows a
periodic response with time and effect of cross-coupled on it which
increase as shown Fig. 5.5 and Fig. 5.6 show the response in critical
speed where Fig. 5.7 and Fig. 5.8 show the response at speeds (3000 rpm
and 2000 rpm).
38
5.2.3 Forced Vibration Response
Fig. 5.9 shows the response of forced rotor in bearing position with
appsense of cross-coupled bearing coefficients. From the above figure we
conclude that the rotor is stable [33]. Fig. 5.10 and 5.11 illustrates the
response of the same rotor in disk and right bearing position. In fig. 5.12
illustrates the response of rotor when effect of cross-coupled is take into
account. Its show that the rotor is unstable and this result also clear in Fig.
5.13 and 5 .14. This result is true after we notice that the force frequency
(955 rpm) which is closed to the rotating speed ( 1000 rpm) also after the
calculation of the cross-coupled coefficients [27] we notice that the cross-
coupled stiffness is negative, this gives another instability in this case as
shown in reference [16] which demonstrate that instability of a rotor can
occur under super synchronous whirl conditions.
Another forced case we take case ( 6). Fig. 5.15, 5. 16 and 5.1 7
illustrated the response of the rotor in bearing position without cross-
coupled coefficients. Fig. 5.18, 5.19, 5.20 illustrated the response with
cross-coupled coefficients for the same case. From these figures it is clear
that the rotor is stable in the two states. The difference between them is the
response in first state (without cross-coupled) is less than the second state
(with cross-coupled). Also there are peaks in the second state which
di.sappear in first state. This gives another conclusion, that, when the cross-
coupled damping is positive as in this case, the response is reduced as
shown in the above figures.
39
5.2.4 Transient Response
Case (1) is taken to study the transient response of the rotor bearing
system. Fig. 5.27 gives a response of the rotor with no cross-coupled while
fig. 5.22 gives a response with cross-coupled. Fig. 5.27 is similar to the
result of Ref. [32]. By observation of the two figures it can concluded that
the cross-coupled coefficients is made the rotor instable or on the other
hand it made a self excited which arising the response to instability. For the
seek of comparison, the result of fig. 5.23 have been compared with
Ref. [32] similar result which shows that the rotor also become instable,
fig. 5.24. fig. 5.25 and fig. 5.26 show the response of the rotor when is
loaded with axial torque.
Fig. 5.29 shows the response without shear deformation and with
cross-coupled coefficients. It can be observed that the cross-coupled is
reduce the time to reach the instability condition. In addition by
comparison of fig. 5.22 and fig. 5.29 we notice that the shear deformation
has no effect on the response, this is similar to the result which given by
references [27] and [33]. Figures 5.30, 5.32 and 5.31, 5.33 were compared
to show the effect of1tysteretic damping on the response of the rotor.
Which has no effect on the response in the two cases (without and with
cross coefficients).
After we calculate the whirl speed for this case, which is 4973.3 rpm,
while the rotating speed is (4000 rpm). Thus the speed 4973.3 rpm is
critical speed and the rotor is unstable because it runs near to the critical
speed as we show in the transient response.
40
5.3 Summary
It is clear that the analyzed case studies in this work have a proved
the accuracy of the results.
Section (5.2.1) shows the accuracy ofthe program by a test which
uses case (1) . for this purpose. The effect of the coefficients
which increase the whirl speed as found in table (5.2). From Fig. 5.1 and
Fig. 5.2 it can be concluded that the cross coefficients also increase the
critical speed, which increase directly the threshold speed.
In the unbalance response, Fig. 5.3 and 5.4, we can notice that the
positive cross-coupled damping reduce the response and the negative cross-
coupled damping increase the response and this occur at the region of the
critical speed. Also, the positive cross stiffness increase the response while
the negative cross stiffness reduces the response. Figures 5.5 and 5.6 are
show the response of the rotor with time at the critical speed of (900 rpm)
and they shows the effect of the cross-coupled which reduce the response.
while figures 5.7 and 5.8 are show the response of the rotor at different
speed.
Section (5.2.3) shows the forced response of the rotor using two case
studies. We can concluded that the bearing coefficients made the rotor
unstable as shown in Figs. 5.12, 5.13 and 5.14. This for the fi rst case, but
for the second case we concluded that the stability of a rotor can be
improved by the use of anistropy of bearings. This is clear in Figs. 5 . 18,
5.19 and 5.20.
Section (5.2.4) shows the transient response and the effect of the
cross-coupled coefficients, which made the rotor unstable as shown in
Figs. 5.22, 5.23 and 5.24.
41

2000
*++>M< FIRST . MODE WITH CROSS COUPLED
SECOND MODE WITH CROSS COUPLED
(? 1750

1500

1250

(/) 1000
....

750
- - - - - - -fr-- - - - - - - -
SECOND MODE
- ..... -
_ - - - -- - FIRST MODE

250

200 260 320 380 440 500 560 620 680 740 800
ROTATING SPEED(RPM)
FIG.5.1 EFFECT OF CROSS-COUPLED CEFFICINTS
ON FIRST AND SECOND MODE OF ROTOR
2250,---------------------------------------
2000
(? 1750



1250

(/) 1000
....

750
500
250
MODE WITH CROSS COUPED COUPLED
MODE WITH CROSS COUPLED COUPLED
- _ SECOND MODE _-
- - -I:r- - - - - - - .....:.- .
FIRST MODE

200 260 320 380 440 500 560 620 680 740 BOO
. ROTATING SPEED(RPM)
FIG.5.2 EFFECT OF CROSS-COUPLED AND DIRECT
DAMPING ON FIRST AND SECOND MODE OF ROTOR
42
.:... 1.5E-003
....
(J
....

1.2E-003

r.q


....
....
"'I
6.0E-004
....;
II I
II I
It I
' ./1 I
fo,
I \
I
I ' 'ii
I '*'
\
-""'=-.._.
3.0E-004
/ I
/"
--- _ ...
390 490 590 690 790 890 990 1090 1190 1290
SPEED(RPM)
FIC.5.3 UNBALANCE RESPONSE OF
ROTOR IN BEARING POSITION

K+Kc
7
K
4
-0irect stiffnes
Kc-Coupled stiffnes
C
4
-0irect dampin9
C,-Coupled dampmg
I '

0 1000 2000 3000 . 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
SPEED (RPM)
FIC.5.4 UNBALANCE RESPONSE OF ROTOR
IN BEARING POSITION
43
1
'--

1.5E-007
-t . 3E-007
-- NO CROSS-COUPLED
!3I3BEIEl WITH CROSS-COUPLED
-2. OE- 007 .,..,..T"T"l'!T"TT,.,..,rrr"T"TT"TT"m""T"Tm-rr-TTT"T"T""rTTT"T"l-rrm..,..j
0.00 0.06 0. 12 0. 18 0.24 0.30 0.36 0.42 0.48
TIME( Sec.)
FIG.5. 5 UNBALANCE RESPONSE OF ROTOR
IN X-DIRECTION RPM)
4 . BE-008.-------------------
3 .4E-008
Z.OE-008
6. 0E-009


-B.OE-009

-2. 2 E-008
-3. 6E-008

0. 00 0.06 0. 12 0. 18 0.24 0.30 0.36 0. 42 0. 48
TIME(Sec.)
FIC. 5.6 UNBALANCE RESPONSE OF ROTOR
IN Y-DIRECTJON {W=900 RPM)
44
s.oB-oosr,------------------.
( I - - WITHOUT CROSS-COUPLED
I - WITH CROSS-COUPI.0
r
II
z.oB-oo5
t.OB-005
4.2E-02f
.f,OE-005
.Jl,OE-005
I I
I I II I I
I I I I I
I I
I II
I
I I
1/
I
J I I
I I
I I
\I
J
I I
I I
II
\I
-3.0E-005 -h-"'T"T"..,..,,...,."'T"T"T"'f'rrr'T'T"rr-rT"T"1r-rr-rrr-rr.,..,...,n-rTTl-r-r..-n-r-rr-r-l
0.00 0.06 0.12 0.18 0.24 0.30 0.36 0.42 0.48
TIME (Sec.)
FIC.5. 7 EFFECT OF CROSS-COUPLED ON UNBALANCE
. RESPONSE OF ROTOR (W=3000 RPM)
3.0E-005 -.----------------------:
1.8E-005
- - WrTHOUT CROSS-COUPLED
- WrTH CROSS-COUPLED
I\
I I
I
r
I I
I I
I I
r 6.0E-006
l
i -6.0E-006
\ I
I I
-t.BE-005
\ I
\I
I
I I
I I
I I
v
I I
I I
I I
"
-3.0E-005 33 o 39 o 44
0.17 0.22 0.28 0. . .
0.00 0.06 0. f f TIME{Sec.)
OUPLED ON UNBALANCE
FIC.5.8 EFFECT OF CROSS-C(W-ZOOO RPM)
RESPONSE OF ROTOR -
45
4.0E-004,--------------------,
M
M
2. 4E-004
)
1
B. OE-005


....

-B.OE-005
I
-2.4E-004


v
-4. 0 E- 0 04 +-r.,....,....,..,.,...,.,...,rr-r.,-.,......-,.....-,..,...,..,....,..r-TO.,...,...,..-.,-,-,rro...,...,...,--,J
0.00 0.05 0. 10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0. 30 0. 35 0.40
TIME( Sec.)
FIG. 5 . 9 FORCED RESPONSE OF ROTOR IN
BEARING( 1) WITHOUT CROSS-COUPLED
5. 5E-004 -.----------------------,
3.3E-004
v N
v
v
I
t . tE-004

: ...
....


(
-3. 3E-004
rv
-5. 5E- 0 04 .:t-r.,....,..,.....,...,-,-T"T"1.,...,..,..rr-r...,-,-.,....,..rrr...,-,-.,...,--rr-r-.-r"T""T""rT"""l.,..,.,
0. 00 0. 05 0.10 0. 15 0. 2 0 0. 2 5 0.30 0. 3 5 0. 4 0
TIME(Se c. )
FIC.5.10 FORCED RESPONSE OF ROTOR OF.
DISK WITHOUT CROSS-COUPLED
46
1
'-


e-.
.....
""'

-..:
1
'-
9.0E-005
4.5E-005

1\




N


N 1. 7E-020





N


-4.5E-005
- 9, 0 E- 0 0 5 -h-...-,..-,-,-,-,...,--,T"T"'1rr-T..,--,T""T""'1n-r"T""T""rr-r..,--,T"T"'1-rT"T'"T'"m---.---rl
0.00 0.05 0.10 0. 15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40
TIME( Sec.)
FIG.S. 11 FORCED RESPONSE OF ROTOR IN
BEARING(2) WITHOUT CROSS-COUPLED
6.3E+OOO ...r-------------------,
4.3E+000
2.3E+000

e-.
.....
a:!
::".'!
-..:
-t . 7E+OOO
v
-
3

7
E +
0 0
go .,..,o"T"o6rrn"TTTrro _,..,o,..t 2rrrr""TTT"rro .no tT'TB"TTTT'TT'1o"T" . rro2rr4""TTT"rrno-rrl . o 3 o
TIME{ Sec.)
FIC.5. 12 FORCED RESPONSE OF BEARING( ! )
WITH CROSS-COUPLED
47
5. 60E+OOO
8.60E+OOO
1 1.60E+OOO
"-


!...
-4.00E-001


-2.40E+OOO
-4.40E+OOO
-6. 40E+ 000
0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0. 02 0. 02 0. 03 0.03
TIME( Sec.)
FIC.5.13 FORCED RESPONSE OF DISK
WITH CROSS-COPULED
3.5E+001 ......--------------------,.,
2.6E+00f
1 1.7E+00f
.........


!;:: 8. 3E+OOO


-5.0E-00f ]----------------....
-9.3E+OOO
v
- f. BE+ 00 f +nrrrrTTTorrrrrn-nTTTTTT"rTTlTTTTTTrTTl-rrTTTTTTTrrnTTTTTTrri
0.00 0.00 O.Ot 0.01 0.01 0. 02 0.02 0.02 0. 02 0. 03 0.03
TIME{Sec.)
FIG.5.14 FORCED RESPONSE OF BEARJNG(2)
WITH CROSS-COUPLED
48
2.4E-005 r----------=--:--:-----___,
t.OE-005
1-4.0E-006
..._
Y-DIRECTION


!::: -t . BE-005
Q:!

-3.2E-005
-4.6E-005 Z ..:.DIRECTION
- 6 o 0 E- 0 05 -t-r....,.,....,,..-OT"'.,'T"T''T"T-,-,.-,-,....,,..-r-r-T"T"T"T"r-r-r-r-T"T"',...,I
OoOOO 0. 025 Oo050 Oo075 0. 100 Oo125 0.150 0.175
TIME(Seco)
FIC.5. 15 RESPONSE OF ROTOR OF GRINDING
MACHINE WITHOUT CROSS-COUPLED(W=400 RPM)
7. 0E-006
-5.0-006
Y-DIRECTION
1-t. ?E-005
..._


!::: -2o9E-005
i:i:
::s

-4o1E-005
-5.3-005
Z -DI RECTI ON
- 6 o 5E- 005 ..j..,......,..,....T'T',...,.-I'T'l,...,....."T"T-rr'T"T',...,.-rr-r...,:,..,....,..,-rT-rr..,.-,-
OoOO Oo02 Oo04 Oo06 OoOB 0010 Oof2 0. 14 0.16
TIME(Seco)
FIC.5o16 RESPONSE OF ROTOR OF GRINDING
MACHINE WITHOUT CROSS-COUPLED(W=600 RPM)
49
1.4E-005
t.BE-020
Y-DIRECTION
'?-t.4E-005
'-


t; -2. 8E-005
'"'l

--.:
-4.2E-005
-5.6E-005
Z-DIRECTION
- 7. 0 E- 0 0 5
0.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120
TIME(Sec.)
FIG.5. 17 RESPONSE OF ROTOR OF GRINDING
MACHINE WITHOUT CROSS-COUPLED(W= 1600 RPM)
3.0E-006 ...----------------------,
2.1E-021
'? -3.0E-006
'-
Pc:!

t; -6. 0E-006


--.:
-9.0E-006
-t.ZE-005
- 1. SE- 005
0. 00 0. 01 0.02 0. 03 0.04 0.05 0. 06 0. 07 0. 08 0.09 0.10
TIME( Sec.)
FIG
5 18 RESPONSE OF ROTOR OF GRINDING
MACHINE WITH CROSS-COUPLED(W=400 RPM)
50
6. 1E-006 . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
3.7E-006
1 1.3E-006
'--
~

t; -t.tE-006
~
~
1
'--
-3.5E-006
-6.9E-006
-8. 3E-0 0 6 .,..,...T-r-rTTT..-r;'TT"1..,.,-rrrTTT-,-,..,...,..,...,.-,..,...,..,-,-rrr,...,.-,..,...,.....,...,..j
0. 00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0. 04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0. 08 0. 09 0.10
TIME(Sec.)
FIC.5. 19 RSPONSE OF ROTOR OF GRINDING
MACHINE WITH CROSS-COUPLED (W= 1000 RPM)
7. 5E-006 .---------------------..
5 . 5E-006
3 . 5E-006
t.SE-006
Eo.
~
~ -5. 0E-007
~
-2.5E-006
-4.5E-006
- 6. 5E- 0 0 6 -l-r-,...,..,...,..,...,..,..,...,..T'T'TTTT'TT"1rrr"T'TTTTT'T'T'l'TT"1rTTrTTTTTTTTTTT-rr1
0. 00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0. 04 0.05 0. 06 0.07 0. 08 0.09 0. 10
TIME{Sec .)
FIG.5.20 RESPONSE OF ROTOR OF GRINDING)
MACHINE WITH CROSS-COPULED(W= 1600 RPM
51
2.0E-006
1.2E-006
--
4.0E-007
-.;...


t: -4.0E-007


-.:
-1.2E-006
-.2. 0E-006
-2. BE- 0 0 6
0.00 0. 03 0.06 0.09 0. 12 0. 15 0. 18 0.21 0. 24 0. 27 0.30 0.33
TIME (Sec.)
FIG.5.21 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR IN
BEARING WITHOUT CROSS-COUPLED COEFFICIENT
1.2E+OOO..,...-------------------,
-W=42DO RPM
-W=4400 RPM
_......W=4600 RPM
B.OE-001
1 4 . 0E-001
..._


Z-DIRECTION
t: 1. 1 E- 016 .:a--,__,..-...----.t--...
"'l
e:
"""
-.:
Y-DIRECTION
-4.0E-001
-B.OE-001
- 1 . ZE + 0 0 0 .:t-r-rrTT"rr'l-rT""T"TTT'T'T'",..,.,n-r-r'r-rrTT"rT'lrr::r"T"':':r'7'':':J
0. 000 0.008 0.005 0. 007 0. 010 0. 01 2 0. 015 0. 01 7
TIME(Sec .)
FIG.5.22 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR
WITH CROSS-COUPLED
52

2.4E+OOO
......,.W=4200 RPM
- W=4400 RPM
G99eEl W=4600 RPM
1
1. 6E+OOO


:s


B.OE-001
Z-DIRECTION
Y-DIRECTION
-B.OE-001
-1 . 6E + 0 00 -h...,.""T""T...,....,....,....--r-,-,-..,--r-.--r--,-,--,-,,.,..-,....,....,....,....,....,....r-r-r-r-..-l
0. 00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18
TIME (Sec.)
FIG.5.23 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR INSIDE BEARLN
WITHOUT CROSS-:-COUPLED AND WITH INITIAL FORCE
1.2E+OOO
. 9.0E-001
RPM
.....,W=4400 RPM
GBB8El W=4600 RPM
?
,.:. 6. 0E-001
...

5!1 S.OE-001
t3 Z-DIRECTION
2 . BE- 0 1 7 ........
Y-DIRECTION

-3.0E-001
-6.0E-001

0. 00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02
Tii.tE (Sec.)
FIG 5 24 DTNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR INSIDE BEARING
WI'FH. CROSS COUPLED COEFFICIENT AND INITIAL FORCE
53
t .t E+OOO ;:::1 1:::1::::1 "W:;:=:-:;4"2"'00:;-;::;Rr;;PM..--------:--------,
7.3E-00t
3.8E-00t
-3.2E-001
-6. 7E-001
I3BE39El W=+400 RPM
W- 4-600 RPM
Z-DIRECTION
Y-DfRECTION
- 1 0 E + 0 0 0 -j-r-,-,--r-rr-T""T"".,..,.-.-r-rT..,.--r...,....,-,-,,-,-T""T'.-......,..,..,.....,....,.,
0. 00 0. 00 0. 01 0.01 0. 01 0.01 0. 02 0.02
TIME (Sec.)
FIG.5.Z5 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR INSIDE BEARING
WITH CROSS COUPLED AND INITIAL TORQUE
5. 8E-009
4.2E- 009
2. 6E-009

t.OE-009
ti
-6. 0E-010
-2.2E-009
-3.8E-009
-5.4E-009
- 7. 0 E- 0 0 9
0.00 0.02 0. 04 0. 06 0. 08 0. 11 0. 18 0. 15 0. 17 0.19 0.2 1 0. 2 3
TIME( Sec.)
FIG.5.Z6 RESPONS OF ROTOR WITH CROSS- COUPLED
AND INITIAL APPLIED TORQUE (20Kn.rn)
54
6.5E-ooer ____________ .:....._ ___ ___,
4.5E-008
2.5E-'008
?
[ 5.0E-009
::l
I ~ V V V V V v v vv vvv v v vv v
..
4
~ -1.5E-008
"l
-3.5E-008
-5.5E-008
- 7. 5E-0 0 8 -f-r,...,.,..,.,..,..,.,...,.,,..,-,.-.r,.,..,,..,.TTT..,...r-r-rT-rl....,r-rr-rr-.-.-.J
0.00 0.05 0.11 0. 17 0.22 0.28 0.33 0. 39 0.44 0. 50
TIME (Sec.)
FIC.5.27 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTGR INSIDE
BEARING WITH NO BEARING DAMPING .
1.4E-001..,-------------:---------,
9. 0E-002
4.0E-002
- - - - ~ ~ ~ ~ (\
-1. 0E-002 V v
1
-6. 0E--002
v
-1 . 1E-001
-1.6E-00f
-2. f E- 0 0 f +-,.."T""T''T"T"....-r'T"T".,...,-,.....-,...,...,..,.....-r-r...,......-rr,.....-.-,-,..,......,.,....,....,
0.00 0.03 0. 06 0. 08 O. ff 0.14 0.17 0.20 0.22 0.25
TIME {Sec.)
FIC. 5.28 RESPONSE OF ROTOR INSIDE BEARING
WITH CROSS-COUPLED COEFFICIENT
55
-W=4200 RPM
RPM
GI3I3ElEl W=4600 RPM
B.OE-001
Z-DIRECTION
Y-DIRECTION
-B.OE-001
- t . 2E + 0 0 0 -t-r"'r'T...,.,...'T"'T".,.-r-T"T"'T"T"'1r"'T"'!-,--,....,.,....,-,-,.,..T"T"'1-,-,.-,--,.'T"'T".,-,-T"T"'1r-r1
0.000 0. 004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.020
TIME( Sec.)
FIG.5.29 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR WITH
NO SHEAR DEFORMATION AND CROSS-COUPLED
BE-006.------------------------------------.
5E-006
f ZE- 006
"'-'
r.q

t: -fE-00
.,.;j

....:
-4E-00
-7E-00

0. 00 0. tO 0. 20 0.30 0. 40 0.50
TIME{Sec.)
FIG.5.30 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR WITH
NO CROSS-COUPLED (EI=O.O)
. 56

5E-006
'? 2E-006
. '--


t: -tE-00
'-4

--.:
-4E-OO
-7E-OO
0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50
TIME( Sec.)
FIG.5. 3t DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR WITH
CROSS-COUPLED(EI=O.O,EH=O. O)

5E-006
'? 2E-006
'--


t: -tE-00
"-1

--.:
-4E-00
-7E-00


TIME( Sec.)
FIG.5.32 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR WITH
NO CROSS-COUPLED (EI=O. O,EH=O.O)
57
1
"-
~

t E - 0 0 5 ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
6E-006
~
~ - 2E-00
-6E-00
- t E - 0 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
0.00 0.10 0.20 0. 30 0.40 0.50
. TIME( Sec.)
FIG.5. 33 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR WITH
CROSS-COUPLED (EI=O.O)
58
Chapter Six
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1 Introduction
The present work gave an investiagtion about the practical problems
and mathematical insights for Bearing rotor, which provide a developed
model for this system listed in details in chapter three. Also different type
of cases were presented in chapter five to give a distinct view about
programming package ability to solve Bearing rotor problems. This work
produced important results in system vibrative properties and the stability
of the rotor in fluid film bearings. Also it shown that the mathematical
model, programming procedure, and numerical methods that applied
successfully with this type of system.
6.2 Conclusions
We can summarized the conclusions as follows:-
!. When the cross-coupled stiffness is negative the response is decrease
in the region of critical speed and it gives more instability to the rotor
which may occur under super synchronous condition. Also the direct
damping is shift the critical speed to the right in the region of critical
speed on the other hand it is increase the critical speed, and when
cross-coupled damping is negative the response is increase.
2. When the cross-coupled stiffness is positive the response is increase in
the region of critical speed and the direct damping shifted the critical
speed to the right and reduced the response of the rotor. The negative
( o \
~
cross-coupled damping increase the response.
59
3. The cross-coupled coefficients are very important factors because
these effects on stability, which related on whirl speed and critical
speed, and the response of the rotor.
4. This work proved that the stability of a tmbomachine can be improved
by the use of the anisotropy of bearings or bearing supports as in
case (5).
5. We can neglected the shear deformation and the hysteretic damping in
the time response studies.
6.3 Recommendation
For further work we can summarised the following points:
I . Develop a method to calculate the fluid film bearings coefficients with
different speeds.
2. Develop another model for bearing element.
3. We can use this work to study the fluid leakage which another
excitation.
4. Enter another factor to the mathematical model like misalignment and
its effect on rotor stability.
60
REFERENCE
[1] Lund, J. W., "Computer programs for unbalance response and
stability", Part V. AFAPL Technical report, TR65-45, Wright
patterson Air Force base, Dayton ohio ( 1965).
[2] Zorzi, E. S. and Nelson, H., "Finite element simulation of rotor-
bearing system with internal damping". ASME gas turbine conf.
Neworleans (1976).
[3] Ruhl, R. and Booker, J. F., "A Finite element model for distributed
parameter turborotor systems", ASME Journal of engineering for
Industry, vol. 94, 1972, p. 126.
[4] Lund, J. W., and Orcutt, F. k., "Calculation and experiments on the
unbalance of a flexible rotor", ASME J. of engineering for
industry, Vol. 89, No. 4, 1967, P.785.
[5] Rouch, K. E. and Kao, J. S., "Dynamic reduction in rotor dynamics by
the finite element methods", ASME, J. ofMechanical design,
vol. 102, 1980,p.360.
[6] Newkirk, B. L., and Taylor, H. D., "Oil film whirl-An investigation of
disturbances on oil films in journal bearings", General electric
review, vol. 28, 1925, p. 559.
[7] Adams, M. L., and j. Padvan, "Insights into linearized rotor
dynamics", J. of sound and vibration, vol. 76, No.1, 1981, p. l29-
142.
[8] Morton, P. G., "Influence of coupled asymmetric bearings on the
motion of a massive flexible rotor", Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs. 182
(13), 255 (1967-68).
62
[9] Kirk; R. G. and Gunter, E. J., "The effect of flexibility and damping
on the Synchronous response of a single mass flexible rotor", J.
Eng. For industry, AS:ME 94, 221 (1972).
(10] Rao, J. S., "Conditions for backward synchronous whirl of a flexible
rotor in hydrodynamic bearings", mechanism and machine theory
17 (2), 143 (1982).
[11] Rao, J. S; Bhat, R. B. and Sankar, "Effect of damping on the
synchronous whirl of a rotor in hydrodynamic bearings. Trans.
CS:ME 6(3), 155 (1981).
(12] Rao, J. S., "Out of balance response of turbo alternator rotors",
computer programs, Bharat heavy, Electricals limited,
Hyderabad, India (1980).
(13] Rao, J. S. Rao, "Instability of rotors in fluid film bearings", ASME, J.
of vibration, Acoustics, Stress, and Reliability in design, vol.
105, July, 1983.
(14] Rieger, N. F. and Cundiff, R. A., "Discussion of paper by Morton, P.
G., "Influence of coupled asymmetric bearings on the motion of
a massive flexible rotor", Proc. Inst. Mech. Engineers. 182 (13),
217 (1967-1968).
[ 15] Bhat, R. B., "Unbalance response of a single mass rotor on fluid film
bearings using modal analysis", conf. Orlando, Florida ( 1982).
[16] Rao, J. S., "Instability of rotors mounted in fluid film bearings with a
negative cross-coupled coefficient", Mechanism and Machine
theory. Vol. 20, No.1, p. 181-187, 1985.
[17] Sharan, A. M. and Rao, J. S., "Unbalance response of rotor disks
supported by fluid film bearings with a negative cross-coupled
stiffness using influence coefficient method", Mechanism and
Machine theory. Vol. 20, No.5, p. 415-426, 1985.
63
[18] Wang, J. H., and, Shih, F. M., "Improve the stability of rotor subjected
to fluid leakage by optimum diameters design", ASME, J. of
vibration and Acoustics, Vol. 112, January 1990.
[19] Ruhl, R. L., "Dynamics of distributed parameter rotor system:
Transfer matrix and fmite Element Techniques", Ph. D.
dissertation cornell university, 1970.
[20] Thorkildsen, T., "Solution of a distributed mass and unbalance rotor
system using a consistent mass matrix approach", MSE
Engineering Report, Arizona state university, June 1972.
[21] Polk, S. R., "Finite element formulation and solution of flexible rotor-
rigid disk systems for natural frequencies and critical speeds",
MSE Engineering Report, Arizona state university, May 1974.
[22] Nelson, H. D., "Finite rotating shaft element using Timoshenko beam
theory", ASME, J. ofMechanical design, Vol. 102, 1980.
[23} Hashish, E., and Snakar, T. S., "Finite element and modal analysis of
rotor-bearing systems under stochastic loading conditions",
ASME, J. of vibration, Acoustics, stress, and Reliability in
Design, Vol. 106, January, 1984.
[24] Nevzat, Ozguven, H., and Levent Ozkan, Z., "Whirl speeds and
unbalance response ofmultibearing rotors using finite elements".
ASME, J. of vibration, Acoustics, stress, and Reliability in
Design, Vol. 106, January 1984.
[25] Clive L. Dym, and Irving H. shames, "Solid mechanics: a variational
approach", McGraw Hill, New York, P. 370-377, 1973.
[26] Soni, A. H., and Srinivasan, V., "Seismic analysis of a gyroscopic
mechanical system", ASME, J. of vibration, Acoustics, stress,
and Reliability in Design, Vol. 105, October 1983.
[27] Rao, J. S., "Rotor dynamics", Wiley Eastern limited, India, 1985.
64
[28] Bhat, R. B., and Sankar, T. S., "Dynamic behaviour of a simple rotor
with dissimilar hydro-dynamic bearing by modal analysis",
ASME, J. of vibration, Acoustics, stress, and Reliability in
Design, Vol. 107, April1985.
[29] Dimarognas, A. D., "Interval analysis of vibrating systems", J. of
sound and vibration, vol. 183, No.4, P. 739-749, 1995.
[30] Ahid, D. N., David, I. G., John, P. H., "Vibration damping", John
Wiley and sons, New York, 1985.
[31] Lund, J. W., "Stability and damped critical speeds of a flexible rotor
in fluid film bearings", J. ofEng. For industry, Vol., 96, No.2,
1974.'
[32] Rao, S. S., "The finite element method in engineering", Pergamon
press., U.S. A., 1982.
[33] Mushtaq, K. A., "A programming package for vibration analysis in
rotating ports system", M. Sc. Thesis, university of Basrah,
October 1999.
[34] Gupta, K. K., "Development of a unified numerical procedure for free
vibration analysis of structural", International journal for
numerical method in engineering, vol. 17, No. 2, 1981.
[35] Chandrosekaran, A. R., Pall, D. K., and Agarwal, B. L., "Complex
enginproblem for flutter analysis of structures", J. of structures,
vol. 43, No.4, 1992.
[36] Osami Matsushita, et a!., "Solution method for eigenvalue problem of
rotor bearing system", Bulletin ofthe JSME, Vol. 23, No. 185,
1980.
65
S stem Matrices Com onents
The general form of differential equation of rotating system in matrices form is;
~ M T +(M.J)q + (E,(k, + k,)-ro(GJ)q +
[
R-(k, + k,]-(AJ-(T)+(&, ro+ ~ &
11
1
J(N,](k, +k,]lq =(OJ
l+&n l+&n
ich these"matrices came form system elements;
1- Rotor element.
2- Disk element.
3- Bearing element.
1-Rotor element matrices
i- Mass matrix components
he matrices [MT],[M,] is symmetric
omponents of [MT]
MT(1,1)= KMt(156+294<j>+ 140<!>
2
)
MT(2,1)= 0.0
MT(3,1)= 0.0 .
MT(4,1)= KMt(22L+38.5L<fJ+l7.5L<fJ
2
)
MT(5,1)= KMt(54+126<fJ+70<fJ
2
)
MT(6,1)= 0.0
MT(7,1)= 0.0
rvh(8,1)= -KMt(13L+31.5L<fJ+ 17.5L<fJ
2
)
MT(2,2)= KMt(156+294<fJ+ 140<!>
2
)
MT(3,2)= KMt(22L+38.5L<fJ+ 17.5L<fJ
2
)
MT( 4,2)= 0.0
MT(5,2)= 0.0
MT(6,2)= KMt(54+ 126<!>+70<!>
2
)
MT(7,2)= KMt(13L+31.5L<fJ+l7.5L<fJ
2
)
MT(8,2)= 0.0
MT(3,3)= KMt(4L
2
+7L
2
<!>+3.5L
2
<!>
2
)
MT(4,3)= 0.0
MT(5,3)= 0.0
M-t6 3)= -KM
1
(13L+31.5L<fJ+l7.5L<fJ
2
)
T\> 2 2 22
MT(7,3)= -KM
1
(3L +7L <fJ+3.5L <!> )
MT(8,3)= 0.0 2
MT(4,4)= KMt(4L
2
+7L
2
<!>+3.5L
2
<!>) 2
MT(5,4)= KMt(13L+31.5L<fJ+l7.5L<I>)
MT(6,4)= 0.0
MT(7,4)= 0.0 2 2
MT(8,4)= -KMt(3L
2
+7L
2
<!>+3.5L <I>)
AI
Mr(5,5)= KM
1
(156+294<j>+ 140<!>
2
)
Mr(6,5)= 0.0
Mr(7,5)= 0.0 .
Mr(8,5)= -KM
1
(22L+ 38.5L<j>+ 17 .5L<j>
2
)
Mr( 6, 6)= KMt( 15 6+ 294<1>+ 140<1>
2
)
Mr(7,6)= KMt(22L+38.5L<j>+ 17.5L<j>
2
)
Mr(8,6)= 0.0
Mr(7,7)= KM
1
(4L
2
+7L
2
<j>+3.5L
2
<j>
2
)
Mr(8, 7)= 0.0
Mr(8,8)= KMt( 4L
2
+7L
2
<1>+ 3 .5L
2
<j>
2
)
Components of [M,]
Mr(1,1)= 36KMr
M,(2,1)= 0.0
M,(3,1)= 0.0
M,(4,1)= KMr(3L-15L<j>)
M,(5,1)= -36KMr
M,(6,1)= 0.0
M,(7,1)= 0.0
M,(8, 1 )= KMr(3L-15L<j>)
M,(2,2)= 36KMr
M,(3,2)= -KM.(3L-15L<j>)
M,( 4,2)= 0.0
M,(5,2)= 0.0
M,(6,2)= -36KMr
M,(7,2)= -KM,(3L-15L<j>)
M,(8,2)= 0.0
M.(3,3)= KMr(4L
2
+5L
2
<j>+10L
2
<j>
2
)
M,(4,3)= 0.0
M,(5,3)= 0.0
M,( 6,3 )= KMr(3 L-15L<j>)
M,(7,3)= KMr(-L
2
-5L
2
<j>+5L
2
<!>
2
)
M,(8,3)= 0.0
M,(4,4)=


M,(5,4)= -KMr(3L-15L<j>)
M,(6,4)= 0.0
M,(7,4)= 0.0
M,(8,4)= KMr(-L
2
-5L
2
<j>+5L
2
<j>
2
)
M,(5,5)= 36KMr
M,(6,5)= 0.0
M,(7,5)= S<j>KMr
M,(8,5)= -KMr(3L-15L<j>)
M,(6,6)= 36KMr
M,(7,6)= KM,(3L-15L<I>)
M,(8,6)= 0.0 .
A2
Mr(7,7)=


M,(8,7)= 0.0 - _
M,(8,8)=


2
<j>+IOL
2
<j>
2
)
IlL J.lr2
Where KM
1
, and KMr -----!:..:..:--
420(1 + <1>)
2
120L(l + <1>)
2
'ii- stiffuess matrix components
The matrices [Kb],[K
1
],[A]and [T] is symmetric
Components of [Kb]
Kb( 1,1 )=
Kb(2,1)=0.0
Kb(3,1)=0.0
Kb( 4,1
Kb( 5, 1
Kb(6,1)=0.0
Kb(7,1)=0.0
Kb(8, 1
Kb(2,2)=
Kb(3 ,2)=6LKI<b
Kb( 4,2)=0.0
Kb(5,2)=0.0


Kb(8,2)=0.0
Kb(3,3)=4L
2
Kkp
Kb(4,3)=o.o
Kb(5,3)=0.0
Kb( 6,3
Kb(7 ,3 )=2L
2
((kb
Kb(8,3)=0.0
Kb( 4,4)=4L
2
Kkb
Kb(5,4)=-6LKI<b
Kb(6,4)=0.0
Kb(7,4)=0.0


Kb(5,5)=12Kkb
Kb(6,5)=0.0
Kb(7,5)=0.0
Kb(8,5)=-6LKkb
Kb(6,6)=12Kkb
Kb(7 ,6)=-6LKkb
Kb(8,6)=0.0
Kb(7, 7)=4L
2
Kkb
Kb(8,7)=0.0
A3
Components of [Ks]
K.(1,1)=0.0
Ks(2, 1 )=0.0
K,(3,1)=0.0
Ks( 4,1 )=0.0
K.(S,l)=O.O
K.(6,1)=0.0
Ks(7,1)=0.0
K.(8,1)=0.0
Ks(2,2)=0.0
K.(3,2)=0.0
Ks( 4,2)=0.0
K.(5,2)=0.0
K.(6,2)=0.0
K.(7,2)=0.0
K,(8,2)=0.0
K,(3 ,3 )=L
2
Kks
Ks( 4,3)=0.0
K,(5,3)=0.0
K,(6,3)=0.0
K.(7 ,3 )=-L
2
Kks
K.(8,3)=0.0


K.(5,4)=0.0
K,(6,4)=0.0
K.(7,4)=0.0


K.(5,5)=0.0
K.(6,5)=0.0
K,(7,5)=0.0
Ks(8,5)=0.0
K.(6,6)=0.0
K,(7,6)=0.0
K.(8,6)=0.0
K,(7, 7)=L
2
Kks
. K
5
(8,7)=0.0
K,(8,8)= L
Kb(8,8)=4L
2
K.cb
EI EI q,
Where Kkb ,
L
3
(1+<1) L
3
1+<1>
Components of[A]
A( I, 1 )=KA(36+60<j>+ 30<j>
2
)
A(2,1)=0.0
A(3,1)=0.0
A(4,1)=3LKA
A(S, 1 )=-KA(36+60<j>+ 30<j>
2
)
A(6,1)=0.0
A(7,1)=0.0
A(8, 1 )=3LKA
A(2,2)=KA(36+60<j>+30<j>
2
)
A(3,2)=-3LKA
A(4,2)=0.0
A(5,2)=0.0
A( 6,2)=-KA(36+60<j>+ 30<j>
2
)
A(7,2)=-3LKA
A(8,2)=0.0
A(3,3)=KA( 4L
2
+5e<j>+2.5L
2
<j>
2
)
A(4,3)=0.0
A(5,3)=0.0
A(6,3)=3LKA
A(7 ,3)=-KA(L
2
+5L
2
<j>+2.5L
2
<j>
2
)
A(8,3)=0.0
A( 4,4)=KA(4L
2
+5L
2
<j>+2.5L
2
<j>
2
)

A(6,4)=0.0
A(7,4)=0.0 . . .
A(8,4)=-KA(L
2
+5L
2
<j>+2.5L
2
<j>
2
)
A(5,5)=KA(36+60<j>+30<j>
2
)
A(6,5)=0.0
A(7,5)=0.0
A(8,5)=-3LKA
A( 6,6)=KA(3 6+60<j>+ 30<j>
2
)
A(7,6)=3LKA
A(8,6)=0.0
A(7, 7)=KA( 4L
2
+5L
2
<j>+2.5L
2
<!>
2
)
A(8,7)=0.0
A(8,8)=KA( 4L
2
+5L
2
<j>+2.5L
2
<!>
2
)
Where KA p
30L(l +<1)
2
A4
Components of [T]
T(l,l)=l2KT
T(2,1)=0.0
T(3,1)=0.0
T(4,1)=6LKr
T(5,1)=-12KT
T(6,1)=0.0
T(7,1)=0.0
T(_8, 1 )=6LKT
T(2,2)=12KT
T(3,2)=-6LKT -
T(4,2)=0.0
T(5,2)=0.0
T(6,2)=-12KT
T(7,2)=-6LKT
T(8,2)=0.0
T(3,3)=KT( 4L
2
+2L
2
P+L
2
q,
2
)
T(4,3)=0.0
T(5,3)=0.0
T(6,3)=6LKT
T(7,3)=KT(2L
2
-2eq,-L
2
P
2
) .
T(8,3)=0.0
tc 4,4)=KTC 4L
2
+2eq,+L
2
P
2
>
T(5,4)=-6LKT
T(6,4)=0.0
T(7,4)=0.0
T(8,4)=KT(2L
2
-2L
2
P-L
2
P
2
)
T(5,5)=12KT
T(6,5)=0.0
T(7,5)=0.0
T(8,5)=-6LKT
T(6,6)=12KT
T(7,6)=6LKT
T(8,6)=0.0
T(7,7)=KT(4L
2
+2L
2
P+L
2
P
2
)
T(8,7)=0.0
T(8,S)=KT(4L'2+2L
2
P+L
2
P
2
)
T .
WhereKr
2 3
L (1+<1>)
A5
iii- Damping matrix components
The matrix [G] is skew symmetric
G(l,l)=O.O


G(4,1)=0.0
G(5,1)=0.0

G(7, -3L+ 15L<j>)
G(8,1)=0.0
G(2,2)=0.0
G(3,2)=0.0
G( -3L+ 15L<j>)

0(6,2)=0.0
G(7,2)=0.0
15L<j>)
G(3,3)=0.0
G(4,3)=Ka(4L
2
+5L
2
<j>+IOL
2
<j>
2
)
0(5,3)=K
0
(-3L+ 15L<j>)
G(6,3)=0.0
G(7,3)=Q.O


G(4,4)=0.0
0(5,4)=0.0

G(7 -L
2
-5L
2
<j>+SL
2
<1>
2
)
G(8,4)=0.0
0(5,5)=0.0
G(6,5)=36Ka
15L<j>)
0(8,5)=0.0
G(6,6)=0.0
G(7,6)=0.0
-3L+ 15L<I>)
G(7,7)=0.0
G(8,
2
+5L
2
<1>+ 10L
2
<1>
2
)
acs,s)='o.o
IJ.r2
WhereKa=-
60L
A6
2-Disk element matrices
i-Mass matrix
md
0.0 0.0
0.0] [0.0
d
0.0
md
0.0
0.0 [ M ~ ] = 0.0
[MT]=
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
ii-Damping matrix
0.0 0.0
d 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
[G ]=
0.0 0.0
IPd
0.0
[0.0
0.0 0.0
-IPd
0.01
0.0
3-Bearing element matrices
i- Stiffuess matrix
[
Kyy Kyz
Kzy Kzz
(Kb] = 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
ii-Damping matrix
[c"
Cyz
[Cb]= Czy
Czz
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.01
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0
0.01
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
A7
0.0 0.0
0.0]
0.0 0.0 0.0
md
0.0
0.0
0.0 0.0
md
A.2 Unbalance Nodal Force Vector
For linear mass unbalance distribution on rotor element nodal force vector was;
2
[Qc] = J.U:O
Z L ZRL
-7 /20(ZLL)- 3/20(ZRL) + <I>(_L + --)
3 6
Y L YRL
7 /20(YLL) + 3/20(YRL) +<I>(-}-+ -
6
-)
y L2 y L2
-1/20(YLL
2
)-1/30(YRL
2
)+<1>( ~
4
- ~
4
)
Z L
2
Z L
2
-1/20(ZLL
2
)-1/30(ZRL
2
)+<1>( ~
4
- ~
4
)
[Qsl= J.10l
2
Z L ZRL
- 3/20(ZLL) -7/20(ZRL) +<I>(--{-+ -
3
-)
y L YRL
3/20(YLL) + 7/20(YRL) +<I>(++ -
3
-)
y L2 y L2
1/30(YLL2)+1/20(YRL2)+<1>(- ~ 4 + ~ 4 ) .
Z L
2
ZRL
2
1/30(ZLL
2
)+1/20(ZRL
2
)+<1>(- ~
4
+ ~
AS
APPENDIXB
The cases, which are used in chapter five, are listed with their details
and figures in the present appendix.
Case (1)
supported on fluid film bearing:
E = 2.068 * 10
11
N/m
2
10.16 em
To o
p = 7833 kg/m
3
G = 7.9538 * 10
10
N/m
2
ro = 4000 rpm
Isotropic bearing with coefficient:
Kyy = Kzz = 1.7513 * 10
7
N/m
Kyz = Kzy = 1.6 * 10
7
N/m
Cyy = Czz = 1.7513 * 10
3
N.s/m
The internal damping of rotor material is:
Internal viscous damping

0.0002 (s).
This case used by Nevzat and Levant [24] .
Case (2) three
Supported on fluid film bearing.
I 127 em Ill
E = 2.068 * 10
11
N/m
2
p = 7680 kg/m
3
10 o 111m

To o
I 127 em Ill
lsotropic bearing with coefficients: oefficients:
Kyy = Kzz = 1.75 * 10
7
N/m
Kyz = -1.7 * 10
7
N/m
Kzy = 1.7 * 10
7
N/m
Cyy = Czz = 1.75 * 10
3
N.s/m
Internal viscous 0.0002 (s)
Bl
Internal Hysteretic damping (EH)= 0.0002
This case used by Rouch [5], Kirk [9] and Mushtaq [33] .
Case (3)
supported on fluid film bearing
E = 20 * 10
10
N/m
2
(1)
G = 80 * 10
9
N/m
2
0
p = 7800 kg/m
3
0
Disk element
I.
MD=24000kg
lp = 4570 kg. m
2
1
0
= 3600 kg. m
2
Eccentricity in disk element (e) = 0.1 mm
Orthotropic bearing with coefficients:
Bearing (1)
Kyy
~ /
5.98 * 10HN/m
Kyz Q
5.1 * 0 ~ N/m
Kzy (Y
-1 .29 * 0 ~ N/m
Kzz ~ )
1.87 * 0 ~ N/m
Cyy
C!)
1.87 * 10
9
N.s/m
Cyz c9
2.8 * 10 N.s/m
Czy Q
-4.1 * 10' N.s/m
Czz ( 4)
1.17 * 10' N.s/m
4.52 m
- This case used by Soni and Srinivasan [26].
B2
.--
(2)
0
0
'--
.I
.. ,4
4.74 m
Bearing (2)
6.76 * IOHN/m
2.16 * 10
7
N/m
-1.49 * !OVN!m
2.27 * I 0V Nl m
3.1 * !OON.s/m
-5 * 10 ' N.s/m
-5 * 1 0 ~ > N.s/m
1.37*10 N.s/m
Case (4)
supported on fluid film bearing:
E = 3.534 * 10
12
N/m
2
G = 13.598 * 10
12
N/m 2.54cm
To
~
c.o = 4500 rpm
Isotropic bearing with coefficient
. 7
Kyy = 1.01 * 10 N/m Cyy = 1930 N.s/m
Kzz = 4.16 * 10
1
N/m
Kyz = 4.16 * 10
5
N/m
Kzy = 3.12* 10
7
N/m
This case used by Rao [27].
Case (5)
Czz = 70000 N.s/m
Cyz = 4100 N.s/m
Czy = -4000 N.s/m
1000 m
- supported on fluid film bearing
E = 20 * 10
10
N/m
2
F = 10 sin (100 t) kN
G = 80 * 10
10
N/m
2
p = 7800kg/m
3
c.o = 1 000 rpm
Disk element
:MD= 14.5 kg
Ip = 7.31 kg.m
2
1
0
= 5.25 kg.m
2
- Istropic bearing with coefficients:
Kyy = Kzz = 4.378 * 10
7
N/m
Kyz = -2189 * 10
4
N/m
Kzy = 81 * 10
6
N/m
Cyy = Czz = 1.752 * 10
3
N.s/m
Cyz = Czy = 1.752 * 10
3
N.s/m
This case used by Mushtaq [33] .
0.6
83
0
0
.. I
Case (6)
- Supported on fluid film bearings
E = 20 * 10
10
N/m
2
.
G = 80 * I 0
9
N/m
2
p = 7800kg/m
3
Disk Element:
MD=2kg
Ip = 0.01388 kg.m
2
In= 0.02122 kg.m
2
0.1
- Orthotropic bearing with coefficients:
ro = 2400 rpm
Bearing (1)
Kyy 15374 * 10
3
N/m
K12 21256 * IOTN/m
Kyz 33300 * I 0T N/m
Kzy -14431 * I OJ N/m
Cyy 238 * 10
3
N.s/m
c72 I97 * 10
3
N.s/m
Cyz 124 * 10
3
N.s/m
Czy
94 * toj N.s/m
B4
(I)
(2)
[==:J
c:::J-
Wheel
c:::::;::::]
c:::J Element
I 1 ~
0.215
0.075 i : 0.09 !
T I )=,
0.02
Bearing (2)
7028 * I Oj N/m
I5573 * IOj N/m
23272 * I Oj N/m
-I7092 * IO' N/m
155 I0
3
N.s/m
I95 IO N.s/m
76 * IO:r N.s/m
57* I0
3
N.s/m
ro = 6000 rpm
Bearing (1) Bearing (2)
Kyy
10396 * 10j N/m 6043 * 1 o' N/m
K7Z
19555 * to N/m t2901 * I 0' N/m
Kyz 47085 * 10
3
N/m 4t557 *to' N/m
Kzy
-39765 * 10j N/m -4t262 * 1 Q' N/m
Cyy
144 * 10j N.s/m t24 10
3
N.s/m

143 * tOj N.s/m 144 JO N.s/m
Cyz
42 * 10j N.s/m 25 * JO' N.s/m
Czy
32 * 10j N.s/m t8 * JO N.s/m
ro = 9600 rpm
Bearing (1)
Bearing (2)
Kyy
tOOOO * tOj N/m 6185 * JO N/m
K7Z
19776 * tOj N/m
12592 * 10 N/m
Kyz
677t5 * 10j N/m
63582 * 1 o N/m
Kzy
-63172 * 1 Oj N/m -63172 * I 0 N/m
Cyy
132 * 10j N.s/m 122
10' N. s/m

133 * 10j N.s/m
135
JO' N.s/m
Cyz
26 * t0
3
N.s/m
15 * 10 N.s/m
Czy
20 * tOj N.s/m
11 * JO ' N.s/m
This case used by Hashish and Sankar [23].
B5
_,- :"='i . ;.
... _-,