where
and
Nt2 =
1
Nt
3
Nt4 1
12EI
KGA1
2
X
1
15
00 0(307)
0 0 o(3o8)
0 oo(3o9)
Also we can divided these shape functions into two parts, one for
bending contribution and the other due to shear deformation contribution.
[Nt],; [Nbt]+ [Nst]
Nlbt Nl t
1+$ s 1+$
N3bt N3st
N4bt =
N4st
the rotational shape function can be written as [23]
N rl L(1: / + 2)
Nr2 =L(1
(l+ 4>)
N rJ L(l $  2)
Nr4
(1 + $)
3.4 Fluid Film Bearing Element
.. . (3.10a)
(3.10b)
For the modeling of bearings, the classical linearized model with
eight spring and damping coefficients [26], [22], [27] is used, fig. 3.3. In
this model, the force at each bearings is obtained from,
... (3.11)
where C ij and Kij are the elements of damping and stiffness matrices for
the bearings and lFb J is the vector of baring forces.
16
z
Fig. 3.3. Modeling of bearings
The nonlinearity problems in this m o e l ~ the coefficients Kij, Cij
were a function of journal speed [27], [28], whereas, the values of Kij, Cij
varied with rotating speed and then the stiffness damping matrices become
a function to speed and that make a big problems for many investigations.
Many researchers tries to solve the previous problems and some of
them like ADAMS [9] and DIMAROGONAS [29]; their solutions were
closed for their case studies only and it cannot apply for the universal
studies.
The present work depend upon charts which gives by Rao [27]: this
chart give the direct and crosscoupled stiffness and damping coefficient
with different speed.
3.5 General Dynamic Equations
Consider engineering dynamic system, geometrically described by
means of a number of finite elements in the xyz Cartesian space, and it is
subjected to dynamic loading.
At any instance of time (t), the nodal displacement vector of the
structure is a function of time represented by o(t), in order to formulate the
17
dynamic equations for the system, the energy balance principle may be
employed.
This principle states that: At any instant of time the summation of the
system energies is stationary, that is the summation of the kinetic energy
KE, the dissipation energy DE, the strain energy U, and the potential
energy Vis stationary, or:
KE +ED+ U + V =Stationary ... (312)
If these energies are defined in terms of the nodal displacement vector o(t)
then:
00
.. . (313)
Each term in the previous equation will be discussed briefly, for a general
type of dynamic system.
3.5.a Strain Energy
Defining cr, e as the vectors of stress and strain components at any
point, inside a finite element, then for a linear elastic material, stress, strain
matrix D can be formulated, such that:
cr(t)= De(t)
Hence, the strain energy can be expressed as follows :
m m
U=t:L JJJ &
1
crdxydz=t:L JJJe
1
Dedxdydz
e=lelement e=le)ement
where m is the total number of elements.
If there exist a matrix of coordinates B(x,y,z) such that:
t(x,y,z,t)= B(x,y,z)o(t)
then the strain energy can be written in the following form:
u = to
1
[f JJJB
1
DBdxdydz]o
e=lelement
18
.. . (3.14)
... (3.15)
... (3.16)
... (3.17)
which can be reduced as follows:
where K represents the stiffness matrix of the system.
Hence, it can be deduced that: or its defined as:
m
K= L JfJBtDBdxdydz
e=l element .
au
=Ko(t)
ao
3.5.b Kinetic Energy
... (3.18)
. .. (318)
Defining the velocity vector of an infmitesimal mass dm inside the
system as q, then the total kinetic energy of the system can be explained as
follows:
m
KE=t f qtqdm=tr fffMqtqdxdydz
system e=lelement
If there exists a matrix of coordinate N, such that:
q(x,y,z, t) = N(x,
where 8(t)=
dt
... (3.19)
. . . (3.20)
Then the kinetic energy of the system can be written in the following
matrix form:
.. . (3.21)
Hence, it can be shown that:
... (3.22)
19
3.5.c Dissipation Energy
The dissipation energy depends upon the nature of the damping, and
for the case of viscous damping, a matrix C can be defmed, such that:
DE= to
1
(t)c8(t)
Hence, it can be deduced that:
aoE = c8(t)
ao
3.S.d Potential Energy
.. . (3.23)
... (3 .24)
In the absence of external fields, the potential energy of the system at
an instant of time (t) may be expressed in terms of the work done by the
applied forces at that instant, which are represented by an equivalent nodal
force vector, i.e.
V =WORK= o
1
(t)F(t) ... (3.25)
from the above eq. We can write:
av
ao = F(t) .. . (3.26)
Substituting Eqs. (3.18), (3.22), (3.24) and (3.26) in (3.13) gives;
M8(t)+CB(t)+Ko(t)=F(t) ... (3.27)
which is the dynamic finite element matrix equation of the system, and it
represents a system of simultaneous second order differential equation with
respect to time (t).
3.6 Element Equations for Finite Rotor Systems
3.6.a Kinetic Energy of Rotor Element
Figure 3.4 explained the differential disk located at (x) and the
crosssection spin about rotating references.
We can write the kinetic energy equation as:
~ ] [ ] d x ... (3.28)
I p (l)c
20
where 1
0
and Ip are the diametrical and polar inertia per unit length, J..l:
mass/length.
Fig. 3.4. Cross section spins about
rotating references.
z
To transfer from (abc) reference to (xyz) reference using Euler's
Angles formula:
by substituting Eqs. (3.6) and (3.28) in (3.29) we get:
dk = !J..L4 T[Ntf[Nt]qdx+!Ipro
2
dx +!Io4 T[Nrf[Nr]qdx
 rolpq T[N r Y f [NrP ]qdx
where:
[Nry]= [Nrl 0 0 Nr2 Nr3 0 0 Nr4]
[NrP]=[O Nr
1
Nr
2
0 0 Nr
3
Nr
4
0]
and by take the integration over the length of element to obtain:
K = !4 T [Mt]+ [Mr ]}q + Ipro
2
+roq T[R]q
21
... (3.29)
.. . (3.30)
... (3.31)
... (3.32)
where
 2
Ip = (112)mR
I
[M t) = J J.1 [N t JT [N t ]dx
0
I
[M rJ= Jio [N rJT [N r]dx
0
I
[ R ] = J I p [ N r y JT [ N r P ]dx where dx = ld
0
... (3.33) .
[Mt] and [Mr] are symmetric matrices, which are listed in Appendix A.
3.6.b Potential Energy with Internal Damping
In addition to external sources of damping there is very large number
of mechanism where by vibration e n e r ~ y can be dissipation, Ahid et. al.
[30] discussed large type of internal damping model in his books.
In present thesis we just take the final model of material damping for
two important type of dampings:
1. Viscous damping: this type due to internal viscosity of material which
discussed in Ahid [30] and it represented as a simple dashpot model
with a damping coefficient.
2. Hysteretic dampings the stress leads to corresponding strain by an
angle (YH) which is a material property. The hysteretic loop in the
stress strain plane is an ellipse whose area, proportional to sin YH .
Gives a measure of the dissipated energy such that:
EH
smyH= ~
vi+ ~
where EH is hysteretic loss factor, and for more information or details
about this type of damping, Ahid [30], Pao [27] gives a good investigations
about this subject in their researches.
22
Lund [31] described the relation of internal moments with internal
viscous and hysteric damping.
term+ dissipation term
where Bending term= EI[e
1
1[ ::]
Dissipation term= Ele
1
[N
1
1[ ::]
So the potential energy with damping effect:
d, =tEl{[ [.,1[ :ndx+ [ :J[,l( :}}
where,
[e2l=
[e
2
] = &
8
[I]+ eb[N2]
[N2J=[
23
. .. (3.34) .
. . . (3.35)
.. . (3.36)
. .. (3.37)
Substitute Eq. (3.37) into Eq. (3.36) then,
dp = { [ [1][ :ndx + { [N2l[
H :J [11[ ::Jdx +E.[ ::r [N2l[ ::Jdx J} .(J.J?)
By integrating Eq. (3.37),
where
then,
Pe = tUq T(Ea[kb]+ Eb[kcbllk + lq T(Ea[ks]+ Eb[kcsllh}
I
(Kcb]= El J(Nbtf(N2](Nbt]dx
0
I
[kcsl=
0
[kcb]= (N3](kb]
[kcsl= (N3][ks]
where [N
3
] is:
0 0 ' 1 0 0 0 0
[
N ]= . 0 ' 0, 0 _Q _
3
0 0 . 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
0 0 0) 0 ) 0 0  1
0, 0 0 0 1 0.
Substitute Eqs. (3.40), (3.41) in Eq. (3.38) then:
... (3.38)
. .. (3.39)
... (3.40)
. .. (3.41)
pe = t {lq T(Ea (Ikxs + Eb(N 3lllkb]+ lq T (ea (1]+ Eb(N 3llj(kJI} ... (3.42)
24
3.6.c Dissipation Function
We can write the Dissipation Function as a summation of dissipation
due to bending and dissipation due to shear,
and by integration ofEq. (3.43) gives:
D = !elq T (kb + ks)q
3. 7 Total energy of Rotor Element
Total Energy= Potential Energy+ Kinetic Energy
+ Dissipation Energy
substitute Eqs. (3.32), (3.42) and (3.44) in Eq. (3.45):
Total Energy [x] = fq T [Ea [I]+ &dN 3 ]]x [kb + ks]q
+t&Icl[kb +ksR +tqT(MT +MR]q
+!lpro
2
+roqT[R)q
Using Lagrangian equation to give the equation of motion [32]
So the differential equations of rotor element can be written as:
(M T + M R R + (& 1 [k b + k r) ro [G ]q +
[
a[I1xs+[elro+
}+&H } +&H
where G=[R][Rf.
25
. . . (3.43)
. . . (3.44)
. . . (3.45)
. .. (3.46)
... (3.47)
... (3.48)
3.8 Effect of Initial Apolied Force and Torgue
The potential energy due to initial force (P) is:
_
1
Rv']T[P O][v']
kp  dx
2
ro' 0 P ro'
0
and by using Eq. (3.6) in Eq. (3.49) we get:
kp =tqT(A)q
where [A] is described as follows:
I
(A]=P
0
The potential energy due to initial torque (T) is:
_
1
[w]T[T o][w]
kT  dx
2 o y' 0 T y'
Also using Eq. (3.7) in Eq. (3.52) we get:
kT = tq T(T]q
I
[T]=T
0
So the final differential equation is:
[MT ]+ [M R ll'i + [EI[kb + k
5
] ro[G llci +
. .. (3.49)
... (3.50)
... (3.51)
... (3.52)
... (3.53)
... (3.54)
[
a(kb +k
5
)(A)(T)+(g](NJkb +k5 ]lq =0 . .. (3.55)
}+f:H l+EH
And the all matrices that were denoted in the above equation are listed in
Appendix A.
26
3.9 Ridgid Disk Element
The kinetic energy and element matrix for ridgid disk element is
presented as follows:
lMd jqd  rolod Jl4d J= [o] ... (3.56)
where: [qd F = [vropy],
and lMd j and lad j matrices are listed in Appendix A.
3.10 Unbalance Force Vector
A For unbalance on rotor element, assuming a linear distribution of
the mass center location in rotor element, the mass eccentricities in y
direction is y(x) and in z direction is z(x), we can drive force nodal vector
from virtual work principle:
[Qun]=
... (3.57)
0
z(x)
0
y(x)
Eq. (3.57) can be written as the summation of two components:
[Qc]=
JrNtf[y(x)]dx
0
z(x)
[Q
5
]=
o y(x)
... (3.58)
Nevzat and Levent [24] take mass unbalance distribution over the element:
y(x) = YR
z(x) = zL(l
... (3.59)
where YL,YR,zL and zR are the mass eccentricities of the left and right
ends in Y and Z direction respectively.
B For unbalance on disk element we can write nodal force vector:
... (3.60)
27
So, Eq. (3.60) can b summarized as follows:
lo:!n J= o ~ Jcos rot+ o ~ Jsin rot
where y d and zd are the disk mass eccentricities in Y and Z direction
respectively.
3.11 Solution of System Equations
3.1l.a Whirl Speeds
Whirl speeds can be determined from the solution of the eigenvalue
problem resulting from the free vibration equation,
[M][q]+ [c][q]+ [K][q]= [o] . . . (3 .61)
We can write Eq. (3.61) as
[
[o] [Mn[[qn [[M] [ol][[qn
[M] [c] J [q]J+ [o] [K] [q]J = [o]
... (3.62)
Adams and Padovan [9] formed the quotient to solve the above
equation. It yields both forward and backward whirl speeds from the same
Eigenvector. In order to cut down the computation time and to guarantee
the right convergence, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the
corresponding undamped system are taken as the starting values for the
complex eigensolution iterations.
The eigenvalues are found in the form,
a= A.+iro
. . . (3.63)
where ro is the whirl speed.
3.11.b Unbalance Response
The unbalance response is come from solution of the equation (3.61)
after adding the forcing vector [F] which is the vector of unbalance forces
and can be written as the summation of two components,
(F] = (Qc]cosrot + (Q
5
]sinrot
. . . (3 .64)
28
where
... (3.65)
3.ll.c RungeKutta Scheme
The RungeKutta procedure applied to second order differential
equations. The following procedure can be applied to the finite element
dynamic matrix equation given as,
MX+Cx+Kx=F(t)
where F(t) is applied force vector.
. .. (3.66)
At initial time the following parameters are assumed to be known
initially:
x
1
(t
0
)=x
0
, x
1
(t
0
)=x
0
, F
1
(t
0
)=F
0
the equation (3.66) can be written as,
MX
1
=F
1
Cx
1
Kx
1
A vector g is defined, such that:
g = .:ltX or g
1
= .:ltx
1
then we can calculate:
29
. . . (3.67)
. . . (3.68)
where F
2
= F( t
0
+
from the above we find:
also,
X4 = X
0
+ X
0
+ g;)
x
4
= x
0
+g
3
, Mx
4
= F
4
Cx
3
Kx
3
g
4
=
where F
4
= F(t
0
+
At the last we can find the displacement as follows,
x = x
0
+
+i(g, + gz + g3)]
30
.. . (3.69)
... (3.70)
... (3.71)
4.1 Introduction
Chapter Four
PROGRAMMING
The cost of experimental testing makes it practical to consider computer
simulation to verify rotor bearing system designs without the necessity of
building each design variation considered.
During the past few years, a number of program packages have been
published, for example the thesis which is presented by Mushtaq [33] in
mechanical department, University of Basrah and NASTRAN package. In this
work a computer package program is developed in FORTRAN language which is
calculate the mass, stiffness and damping matrices then, using the another
programs, we can calculate the forward and whirl speeds forced and unbalance
response.
On the other hand, the package is presented in a way, which we can make
comparison between the results to make sure from the accuracy of the program.
4.2 Master Program
It is the main program, which calculate the mass, damping and stiffness
matrices of the rotor bearing system.
Master program divide into many subroutines which give the matrices of
all parameters that are considered and then assembly these matrices in form of
general matrices which represent as mass, damping and stiffness matrix.
These subroutines are listed as follows :
SMT and StviR are give the mass matrix of the rotor element. SKBKS
gives the stiffness matrix of the rotor element. STand SAM are give the matrix
which is add as shows in eq. (3 .55). These two subroutines are take into account
the effect of the axial torque and force respectively. SGB is subroutine to enter
31
effect of gyroscopic effect. SMTD and S.MRD are give the mass matrix for
element. SGB gives the damping matrix for disk element. SCB and SKB are
the damping and stiffness matrix for bearing element. Then after generated
these matrices, assembler is held and gives a general form of matrices.
These programs are carried out to calculate the whirl frequency for rotating
systems.
Gupta [34] and Chandrosekaran [35] and others are published many
researches about the stability and development of eigenvalues solver for structure
while in rotor dynamics solvers, it is found that 0 Sami et. al. [36] were the
recognized researches studied in that field where 0 Sami used undamped system
and isotropic bearing in his investigation.
In that program, it is prefer to select the QZ method [23] in order to find the
eigenvalues and this selection was success by giving high accuracy and ability to
separation between closed eigenvalues [33] .
4.4 Damping Vibration Program
This program is not different from the free vibration program in method of
solution, but before solving we made change on the differential equation which is
discussed in section (3.11.a).
This change gives a complex eigenvalues which are deals with the damping
critical speed for rotating systems. The complex eigenvalues refer to difficult in
solution after the change on the differential equation and nonsymmetric system
matrices. The select of QZ solver in order to find the eigenvalues is success to
solve this problem and give high accuracy complex eigenvalues.
4.5 Time Domain Response Program
These programs are developed to calculate the time response of rotating
system. These solver which used is RungeKutta scheme. It is discussed in
section (3 .ll .c ).
These solvers have very critical stability, which require small time
increment which take long calculation time. Response program di vided into two
32
subroutines. MA subroutine is format the matrices by product the initial
displacement with stiffness matrix and product the initial velocity with damping
matrix.
In the subroutine FI we can use it for forced vibration and also for
unbalance response in rotor or disk element.
4.6 Unbalance Response Program
Normally, these programs are developed to find the response of unbalanced
rotating systems. Its consists of two parts: Generation and assembler of matrices
system and solve this matrices. Mushtaq [33] used a complex static solver to find
the response. He is converted the complex equations as below:
where
let
[M][X]=[V]
[M] : Complex matrix
[X]: Complex variable
[V] : complex vector
[M] = [MR] + i [MI]
[X]= [XR] + i [XI]
[V] = [VR] + i [VI]
sub. In eq. 94.1)
... (4.1)
.. . (4.2)
~ f { [ R ] + i[MI]}CXR + iXI) = (VR + iVI) ... (4.3)
{[MR]XR [MI]}+i{[MR]XI + [MI]XR}= (VR + iVI) ... (4.4)
so,
[MR]XR [MI]XI = VR
[MR ]XI + [MI]XR = VI
then solving equations (4.5) to find [XR] and [XI] .
.. . (4.5)
In this work another method is take which can summarized by solving the
general matrix
Mx + Cx + Kx = F( t)
.. (4.6)
by take F(t) as unbalance forcewhich gives in section (J. ll .b).
33
(
Start
I
E
..
Generation [m], [c] and [k]
I
Matrices for rotor element
I
I
C)
l
e
Generation [ m] and [ c]
Matrices for disk element
!
a..
l
'
Generation [ c] and [k]
'Q)
Matrices for bearing element
! .......
I Ul
l
l ro
Assembly the all matrices
I:?!
In general form
I
1.5
 li
Q,
Nondamping system l
!
a
..
Q
Deferential equation
Make the matrices (QZ) solver
solver (Rungekutta)
scheme
as in eq.(3 .62) M=k
I
Tirhe response due to Calculation of
Time response due
unbalance in rotor or eigenvalues
to transient vibration
disk element and eigenvectors
End
34
Chapter Five
RESULTS & DISCUSSION
5.1 Introduction
The widely application of rotors in industry caused that the vectors
have many types, shapes, size, complexity, supporting methods, etc. Some
of rotors have a large length and high weight such as turbine's shafts and
power shafts, the other are have an intermediate length with small size like
in the small generators.
There is another kind of difference depends upon the type of loading
and operation condition. Some of rotors are exposed to high axial torque
and force such as power shafts but the other types does not effect by this
problem such as supported shafts.
In order to prove the rightful performance for the mathematical
model a modified comparisons were carried out, also for illustrate the
accuracy of the program developed and to investigate the combined effect
of crosscoupled s ~ i f f u s s and damping coefficients and whirl speed on the
instability of rotor.
5.2 Cases Study
5.2.1 Critical and Whirl Speeds
In order to illustrate the accuracy of the program developed and to
i_!?vestigate the effect of bearing properties on whirl speeds and instability
threshold, case (1) and case (2) is used.
As can be seen from table (5.1), a close agreement between the
values listed in the table and the corresponding values [24] demonstrates
the accuracy of the program in calculating the complex eigenvalues.
Furthermore, using 8element give a good results as shown in the table.
35
Also, the theoretical wliirl speed for case (1) is 568.1 rad/sec, which
is calculated from equations gives in [2'7] and this another .comparison to
show the accuracy of the program.
When the cross stiffness coefficients take into account we can
conclude from table (5.2) these coefficients are increase the whirl speeds.
Also the direct damping increased the whirl speeds, as a result the
combmed effect of direct damping and crosscoupled stiffness coefficient
are increase the whirl speeds.
Fig. 5.1 and Fig. 5.2 explain the first and second mode whirl speeds
and the effect of crosscoupled coefficients on it. Case (2) is used and the
following two cases are taken for analysis:
AI) Internal viscous damping E
1
= 0.0002 sec. with no bearing damping.
AII) Internal viscous damping E
1
=0.0002 sec. with bearing damping.
Fig. 5.1 illustrates the stability for case (AI). It is show the
instability of the first mode occurred at speed of 520.6 rad/sec and the
second occurred at speed of 1039.1 rad/sec. When the cross stiffness
coefficients taken into account the first and second mode occurred at
speeds of531.686 and 1504.9 rad/sec, respectively.
Fig. 5.2 illustrates the stability for case (AII). It shows that the direct
damping increase the whirl speed. From Fig. 5.1 and Fig. 5.2 we can
conclude that the crosscoupled coefficients improve the critical and
threshold speed for rotor bearing system and the table (5 .3) show the
threshold speed compared with references [5] and [33].
36
Table (5.1) Whirl frequencies of the simply supported beam (flexible
bearings) for case (1)
Whirl frequencies (rad/s)
c1 = 0.0002, cH = 0.0
Mode 2element
First (F) 535.0
First (B) 535.0
Second (F) 1607.5
Second (B) 1607.5
Third (F) 2250.3
F: Forward mode
B: Backward mode
5element 8element
500.0 512.9
500.0 512.9
1033.5 1050.0
1033.5 1050.0
2772.0 2291.7
Ref. [24]
520.1
521.8
1096.0
1095.3
2222.7
Table 5.2) Whirl frequencies and effect of crosscoupled coefficients
Mode Cross stiffuess Direct damping
First (F) 628.2 281.3
First (B)
628.2 281.3
Third (F) 1219.4 1601.2
Third (B)
1219.4 1601.2
Table (5.3) Threshold speed comparison
Threshold speed (rad/sec)
The source
942.47
Rouch and Kao [5]
1045.00
Mushtaq (33]
1279.8
Present Work case (AII)
37
\\
The critical speed is calculated by meet the synchronous line in
figures 5.1 and 5.2. From Fig. 5.2 the critical speed without cross
coefficient is 531.2 rad/sec while it is 564.9 rad/sec with cross coefficient.
The last value is true, but there is another critical speed which is . .found
531.686 rad/sec appear because the cross stiffness is negative , which give
instability in super synchronous condition. This result is similar to Rao's
study [16].
5.2.2 Unbalance Response
In reality, we cannot define critical speeds, as we do for a rigid
bearing rotors, because the bearing coefficients are function of the speed of
rotors. Consequently, it is always better to study the out of balance
response to locate the critical speed and to study the effect of bearing
properties on unbalance response.
Case (3) was considered for this purpose. Fig. 5.3 shows this effects.
From this figure, it is clear that the critical speed in damped case shifts
towards the right. In addition, the crosscoupled peak response is higher
than direct damping peak response. Similar results were found in (17]
and [27].
This case have a negative crosscoupled stiffness coefficient and for
a positive crosscoupled, Case (4) was considered, Fig. 5.4 shows the direct
bearing damping reduces the unbalance response in the region of the
critical speeds and the peaks are shifted to the right from these critical
speed. From the two damped response curves it is observed that the cross
coupled damping increase the response. This is because the predominant
crosscoupled damping is negative. Fig. 5.5, 5.6, 5.7 and 5.8 shows a
periodic response with time and effect of crosscoupled on it which
increase as shown Fig. 5.5 and Fig. 5.6 show the response in critical
speed where Fig. 5.7 and Fig. 5.8 show the response at speeds (3000 rpm
and 2000 rpm).
38
5.2.3 Forced Vibration Response
Fig. 5.9 shows the response of forced rotor in bearing position with
appsense of crosscoupled bearing coefficients. From the above figure we
conclude that the rotor is stable [33]. Fig. 5.10 and 5.11 illustrates the
response of the same rotor in disk and right bearing position. In fig. 5.12
illustrates the response of rotor when effect of crosscoupled is take into
account. Its show that the rotor is unstable and this result also clear in Fig.
5.13 and 5 .14. This result is true after we notice that the force frequency
(955 rpm) which is closed to the rotating speed ( 1000 rpm) also after the
calculation of the crosscoupled coefficients [27] we notice that the cross
coupled stiffness is negative, this gives another instability in this case as
shown in reference [16] which demonstrate that instability of a rotor can
occur under super synchronous whirl conditions.
Another forced case we take case ( 6). Fig. 5.15, 5. 16 and 5.1 7
illustrated the response of the rotor in bearing position without cross
coupled coefficients. Fig. 5.18, 5.19, 5.20 illustrated the response with
crosscoupled coefficients for the same case. From these figures it is clear
that the rotor is stable in the two states. The difference between them is the
response in first state (without crosscoupled) is less than the second state
(with crosscoupled). Also there are peaks in the second state which
di.sappear in first state. This gives another conclusion, that, when the cross
coupled damping is positive as in this case, the response is reduced as
shown in the above figures.
39
5.2.4 Transient Response
Case (1) is taken to study the transient response of the rotor bearing
system. Fig. 5.27 gives a response of the rotor with no crosscoupled while
fig. 5.22 gives a response with crosscoupled. Fig. 5.27 is similar to the
result of Ref. [32]. By observation of the two figures it can concluded that
the crosscoupled coefficients is made the rotor instable or on the other
hand it made a self excited which arising the response to instability. For the
seek of comparison, the result of fig. 5.23 have been compared with
Ref. [32] similar result which shows that the rotor also become instable,
fig. 5.24. fig. 5.25 and fig. 5.26 show the response of the rotor when is
loaded with axial torque.
Fig. 5.29 shows the response without shear deformation and with
crosscoupled coefficients. It can be observed that the crosscoupled is
reduce the time to reach the instability condition. In addition by
comparison of fig. 5.22 and fig. 5.29 we notice that the shear deformation
has no effect on the response, this is similar to the result which given by
references [27] and [33]. Figures 5.30, 5.32 and 5.31, 5.33 were compared
to show the effect of1tysteretic damping on the response of the rotor.
Which has no effect on the response in the two cases (without and with
cross coefficients).
After we calculate the whirl speed for this case, which is 4973.3 rpm,
while the rotating speed is (4000 rpm). Thus the speed 4973.3 rpm is
critical speed and the rotor is unstable because it runs near to the critical
speed as we show in the transient response.
40
5.3 Summary
It is clear that the analyzed case studies in this work have a proved
the accuracy of the results.
Section (5.2.1) shows the accuracy ofthe program by a test which
uses case (1) . for this purpose. The effect of the coefficients
which increase the whirl speed as found in table (5.2). From Fig. 5.1 and
Fig. 5.2 it can be concluded that the cross coefficients also increase the
critical speed, which increase directly the threshold speed.
In the unbalance response, Fig. 5.3 and 5.4, we can notice that the
positive crosscoupled damping reduce the response and the negative cross
coupled damping increase the response and this occur at the region of the
critical speed. Also, the positive cross stiffness increase the response while
the negative cross stiffness reduces the response. Figures 5.5 and 5.6 are
show the response of the rotor with time at the critical speed of (900 rpm)
and they shows the effect of the crosscoupled which reduce the response.
while figures 5.7 and 5.8 are show the response of the rotor at different
speed.
Section (5.2.3) shows the forced response of the rotor using two case
studies. We can concluded that the bearing coefficients made the rotor
unstable as shown in Figs. 5.12, 5.13 and 5.14. This for the fi rst case, but
for the second case we concluded that the stability of a rotor can be
improved by the use of anistropy of bearings. This is clear in Figs. 5 . 18,
5.19 and 5.20.
Section (5.2.4) shows the transient response and the effect of the
crosscoupled coefficients, which made the rotor unstable as shown in
Figs. 5.22, 5.23 and 5.24.
41
2000
*++>M< FIRST . MODE WITH CROSS COUPLED
SECOND MODE WITH CROSS COUPLED
(? 1750
1500
1250
(/) 1000
....
750
      fr       
SECOND MODE
 ..... 
_      FIRST MODE
250
200 260 320 380 440 500 560 620 680 740 800
ROTATING SPEED(RPM)
FIG.5.1 EFFECT OF CROSSCOUPLED CEFFICINTS
ON FIRST AND SECOND MODE OF ROTOR
2250,
2000
(? 1750
1250
(/) 1000
....
750
500
250
MODE WITH CROSS COUPED COUPLED
MODE WITH CROSS COUPLED COUPLED
 _ SECOND MODE _
  I:r       .....:. .
FIRST MODE
200 260 320 380 440 500 560 620 680 740 BOO
. ROTATING SPEED(RPM)
FIG.5.2 EFFECT OF CROSSCOUPLED AND DIRECT
DAMPING ON FIRST AND SECOND MODE OF ROTOR
42
.:... 1.5E003
....
(J
....
1.2E003
r.q
....
....
"'I
6.0E004
....;
II I
II I
It I
' ./1 I
fo,
I \
I
I ' 'ii
I '*'
\
""'=.._.
3.0E004
/ I
/"
 _ ...
390 490 590 690 790 890 990 1090 1190 1290
SPEED(RPM)
FIC.5.3 UNBALANCE RESPONSE OF
ROTOR IN BEARING POSITION
K+Kc
7
K
4
0irect stiffnes
KcCoupled stiffnes
C
4
0irect dampin9
C,Coupled dampmg
I '
0 1000 2000 3000 . 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
SPEED (RPM)
FIC.5.4 UNBALANCE RESPONSE OF ROTOR
IN BEARING POSITION
43
1
'
1.5E007
t . 3E007
 NO CROSSCOUPLED
!3I3BEIEl WITH CROSSCOUPLED
2. OE 007 .,..,..T"T"l'!T"TT,.,..,rrr"T"TT"TT"m""T"TmrrTTT"T"T""rTTT"T"lrrm..,..j
0.00 0.06 0. 12 0. 18 0.24 0.30 0.36 0.42 0.48
TIME( Sec.)
FIG.5. 5 UNBALANCE RESPONSE OF ROTOR
IN XDIRECTION RPM)
4 . BE008.
3 .4E008
Z.OE008
6. 0E009
B.OE009
2. 2 E008
3. 6E008
0. 00 0.06 0. 12 0. 18 0.24 0.30 0.36 0. 42 0. 48
TIME(Sec.)
FIC. 5.6 UNBALANCE RESPONSE OF ROTOR
IN YDIRECTJON {W=900 RPM)
44
s.oBoosr,.
( I   WITHOUT CROSSCOUPLED
I  WITH CROSSCOUPI.0
r
II
z.oBoo5
t.OB005
4.2E02f
.f,OE005
.Jl,OE005
I I
I I II I I
I I I I I
I I
I II
I
I I
1/
I
J I I
I I
I I
\I
J
I I
I I
II
\I
3.0E005 h"'T"T"..,..,,...,."'T"T"T"'f'rrr'T'T"rrrT"T"1rrrrrrrr.,..,...,nrTTlrr..nrrrrl
0.00 0.06 0.12 0.18 0.24 0.30 0.36 0.42 0.48
TIME (Sec.)
FIC.5. 7 EFFECT OF CROSSCOUPLED ON UNBALANCE
. RESPONSE OF ROTOR (W=3000 RPM)
3.0E005 .:
1.8E005
  WrTHOUT CROSSCOUPLED
 WrTH CROSSCOUPLED
I\
I I
I
r
I I
I I
I I
r 6.0E006
l
i 6.0E006
\ I
I I
t.BE005
\ I
\I
I
I I
I I
I I
v
I I
I I
I I
"
3.0E005 33 o 39 o 44
0.17 0.22 0.28 0. . .
0.00 0.06 0. f f TIME{Sec.)
OUPLED ON UNBALANCE
FIC.5.8 EFFECT OF CROSSC(WZOOO RPM)
RESPONSE OF ROTOR 
45
4.0E004,,
M
M
2. 4E004
)
1
B. OE005
....
B.OE005
I
2.4E004
v
4. 0 E 0 04 +r.,....,....,..,.,...,.,...,rrr.,.,......,.....,..,...,..,....,..rTO.,...,...,...,,,rro...,...,...,,J
0.00 0.05 0. 10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0. 30 0. 35 0.40
TIME( Sec.)
FIG. 5 . 9 FORCED RESPONSE OF ROTOR IN
BEARING( 1) WITHOUT CROSSCOUPLED
5. 5E004 .,
3.3E004
v N
v
v
I
t . tE004
: ...
....
(
3. 3E004
rv
5. 5E 0 04 .:tr.,....,..,.....,...,,T"T"1.,...,..,..rrr...,,.,....,..rrr...,,.,...,rrr.r"T""T""rT"""l.,..,.,
0. 00 0. 05 0.10 0. 15 0. 2 0 0. 2 5 0.30 0. 3 5 0. 4 0
TIME(Se c. )
FIC.5.10 FORCED RESPONSE OF ROTOR OF.
DISK WITHOUT CROSSCOUPLED
46
1
'
e.
.....
""'
..:
1
'
9.0E005
4.5E005
1\
N
N 1. 7E020
N
4.5E005
 9, 0 E 0 0 5 h...,..,,,,...,,T"T"'1rrT..,,T""T""'1nr"T""T""rrr..,,T"T"'1rT"T'"T'"m.rl
0.00 0.05 0.10 0. 15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40
TIME( Sec.)
FIG.S. 11 FORCED RESPONSE OF ROTOR IN
BEARING(2) WITHOUT CROSSCOUPLED
6.3E+OOO ...r,
4.3E+000
2.3E+000
e.
.....
a:!
::".'!
..:
t . 7E+OOO
v

3
7
E +
0 0
go .,..,o"T"o6rrn"TTTrro _,..,o,..t 2rrrr""TTT"rro .no tT'TB"TTTT'TT'1o"T" . rro2rr4""TTT"rrnorrl . o 3 o
TIME{ Sec.)
FIC.5. 12 FORCED RESPONSE OF BEARING( ! )
WITH CROSSCOUPLED
47
5. 60E+OOO
8.60E+OOO
1 1.60E+OOO
"
!...
4.00E001
2.40E+OOO
4.40E+OOO
6. 40E+ 000
0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0. 02 0. 02 0. 03 0.03
TIME( Sec.)
FIC.5.13 FORCED RESPONSE OF DISK
WITH CROSSCOPULED
3.5E+001 ......,.,
2.6E+00f
1 1.7E+00f
.........
!;:: 8. 3E+OOO
5.0E00f ]....
9.3E+OOO
v
 f. BE+ 00 f +nrrrrTTTorrrrrnnTTTTTT"rTTlTTTTTTrTTlrrTTTTTTTrrnTTTTTTrri
0.00 0.00 O.Ot 0.01 0.01 0. 02 0.02 0.02 0. 02 0. 03 0.03
TIME{Sec.)
FIG.5.14 FORCED RESPONSE OF BEARJNG(2)
WITH CROSSCOUPLED
48
2.4E005 r=::___,
t.OE005
14.0E006
..._
YDIRECTION
!::: t . BE005
Q:!
3.2E005
4.6E005 Z ..:.DIRECTION
 6 o 0 E 0 05 tr....,.,....,,..OT"'.,'T"T''T"T,,.,,....,,..rrT"T"T"T"rrrrT"T"',...,I
OoOOO 0. 025 Oo050 Oo075 0. 100 Oo125 0.150 0.175
TIME(Seco)
FIC.5. 15 RESPONSE OF ROTOR OF GRINDING
MACHINE WITHOUT CROSSCOUPLED(W=400 RPM)
7. 0E006
5.0006
YDIRECTION
1t. ?E005
..._
!::: 2o9E005
i:i:
::s
4o1E005
5.3005
Z DI RECTI ON
 6 o 5E 005 ..j..,......,..,....T'T',...,.I'T'l,...,....."T"Trr'T"T',...,.rrr...,:,..,....,..,rTrr..,.,
OoOO Oo02 Oo04 Oo06 OoOB 0010 Oof2 0. 14 0.16
TIME(Seco)
FIC.5o16 RESPONSE OF ROTOR OF GRINDING
MACHINE WITHOUT CROSSCOUPLED(W=600 RPM)
49
1.4E005
t.BE020
YDIRECTION
'?t.4E005
'
t; 2. 8E005
'"'l
.:
4.2E005
5.6E005
ZDIRECTION
 7. 0 E 0 0 5
0.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120
TIME(Sec.)
FIG.5. 17 RESPONSE OF ROTOR OF GRINDING
MACHINE WITHOUT CROSSCOUPLED(W= 1600 RPM)
3.0E006 ...,
2.1E021
'? 3.0E006
'
Pc:!
t; 6. 0E006
.:
9.0E006
t.ZE005
 1. SE 005
0. 00 0. 01 0.02 0. 03 0.04 0.05 0. 06 0. 07 0. 08 0.09 0.10
TIME( Sec.)
FIG
5 18 RESPONSE OF ROTOR OF GRINDING
MACHINE WITH CROSSCOUPLED(W=400 RPM)
50
6. 1E006 . . .                   ~
3.7E006
1 1.3E006
'
~
t; t.tE006
~
~
1
'
3.5E006
6.9E006
8. 3E0 0 6 .,..,...TrrTTT..r;'TT"1..,.,rrrTTT,,..,...,..,...,.,..,...,..,,rrr,...,.,..,...,.....,...,..j
0. 00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0. 04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0. 08 0. 09 0.10
TIME(Sec.)
FIC.5. 19 RSPONSE OF ROTOR OF GRINDING
MACHINE WITH CROSSCOUPLED (W= 1000 RPM)
7. 5E006 ...
5 . 5E006
3 . 5E006
t.SE006
Eo.
~
~ 5. 0E007
~
2.5E006
4.5E006
 6. 5E 0 0 6 lr,...,..,...,..,...,..,..,...,..T'T'TTTT'TT"1rrr"T'TTTTT'T'T'l'TT"1rTTrTTTTTTTTTTTrr1
0. 00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0. 04 0.05 0. 06 0.07 0. 08 0.09 0. 10
TIME{Sec .)
FIG.5.20 RESPONSE OF ROTOR OF GRINDING)
MACHINE WITH CROSSCOPULED(W= 1600 RPM
51
2.0E006
1.2E006

4.0E007
.;...
t: 4.0E007
.:
1.2E006
.2. 0E006
2. BE 0 0 6
0.00 0. 03 0.06 0.09 0. 12 0. 15 0. 18 0.21 0. 24 0. 27 0.30 0.33
TIME (Sec.)
FIG.5.21 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR IN
BEARING WITHOUT CROSSCOUPLED COEFFICIENT
1.2E+OOO..,...,
W=42DO RPM
W=4400 RPM
_......W=4600 RPM
B.OE001
1 4 . 0E001
..._
ZDIRECTION
t: 1. 1 E 016 .:a,__,......t...
"'l
e:
"""
.:
YDIRECTION
4.0E001
B.OE001
 1 . ZE + 0 0 0 .:trrrTT"rr'lrT""T"TTT'T'T'",..,.,nrr'rrrTT"rT'lrr::r"T"':':r'7'':':J
0. 000 0.008 0.005 0. 007 0. 010 0. 01 2 0. 015 0. 01 7
TIME(Sec .)
FIG.5.22 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR
WITH CROSSCOUPLED
52
2.4E+OOO
......,.W=4200 RPM
 W=4400 RPM
G99eEl W=4600 RPM
1
1. 6E+OOO
:s
B.OE001
ZDIRECTION
YDIRECTION
B.OE001
1 . 6E + 0 00 h...,.""T""T...,....,....,....r,,..,r.r,,,,,.,..,....,....,....,....,....,....rrrr..l
0. 00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18
TIME (Sec.)
FIG.5.23 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR INSIDE BEARLN
WITHOUT CROSS:COUPLED AND WITH INITIAL FORCE
1.2E+OOO
. 9.0E001
RPM
.....,W=4400 RPM
GBB8El W=4600 RPM
?
,.:. 6. 0E001
...
5!1 S.OE001
t3 ZDIRECTION
2 . BE 0 1 7 ........
YDIRECTION
3.0E001
6.0E001
0. 00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02
Tii.tE (Sec.)
FIG 5 24 DTNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR INSIDE BEARING
WI'FH. CROSS COUPLED COEFFICIENT AND INITIAL FORCE
53
t .t E+OOO ;:::1 1:::1::::1 "W:;:=::;4"2"'00:;;::;Rr;;PM..:,
7.3E00t
3.8E00t
3.2E001
6. 7E001
I3BE39El W=+400 RPM
W 4600 RPM
ZDIRECTION
YDfRECTION
 1 0 E + 0 0 0 jr,,rrrT""T"".,..,..rrT..,.r...,....,,,,,T""T'.......,..,..,.....,....,.,
0. 00 0. 00 0. 01 0.01 0. 01 0.01 0. 02 0.02
TIME (Sec.)
FIG.5.Z5 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR INSIDE BEARING
WITH CROSS COUPLED AND INITIAL TORQUE
5. 8E009
4.2E 009
2. 6E009
t.OE009
ti
6. 0E010
2.2E009
3.8E009
5.4E009
 7. 0 E 0 0 9
0.00 0.02 0. 04 0. 06 0. 08 0. 11 0. 18 0. 15 0. 17 0.19 0.2 1 0. 2 3
TIME( Sec.)
FIG.5.Z6 RESPONS OF ROTOR WITH CROSS COUPLED
AND INITIAL APPLIED TORQUE (20Kn.rn)
54
6.5Eooer ____________ .:....._ ___ ___,
4.5E008
2.5E'008
?
[ 5.0E009
::l
I ~ V V V V V v v vv vvv v v vv v
..
4
~ 1.5E008
"l
3.5E008
5.5E008
 7. 5E0 0 8 fr,...,.,..,.,..,..,.,...,.,,..,,..r,.,..,,..,.TTT..,...rrrTrl....,rrrrr...J
0.00 0.05 0.11 0. 17 0.22 0.28 0.33 0. 39 0.44 0. 50
TIME (Sec.)
FIC.5.27 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTGR INSIDE
BEARING WITH NO BEARING DAMPING .
1.4E001..,:,
9. 0E002
4.0E002
    ~ ~ ~ ~ (\
1. 0E002 V v
1
6. 0E002
v
1 . 1E001
1.6E00f
2. f E 0 0 f +,.."T""T''T"T"....r'T"T".,...,,.....,...,...,..,.....rr...,......rr,......,,..,......,.,....,....,
0.00 0.03 0. 06 0. 08 O. ff 0.14 0.17 0.20 0.22 0.25
TIME {Sec.)
FIC. 5.28 RESPONSE OF ROTOR INSIDE BEARING
WITH CROSSCOUPLED COEFFICIENT
55
W=4200 RPM
RPM
GI3I3ElEl W=4600 RPM
B.OE001
ZDIRECTION
YDIRECTION
B.OE001
 t . 2E + 0 0 0 tr"'r'T...,.,...'T"'T".,.rT"T"'T"T"'1r"'T"'!,,....,.,....,,,.,..T"T"'1,,.,,.'T"'T".,,T"T"'1rr1
0.000 0. 004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.020
TIME( Sec.)
FIG.5.29 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR WITH
NO SHEAR DEFORMATION AND CROSSCOUPLED
BE006..
5E006
f ZE 006
"''
r.q
t: fE00
.,.;j
....:
4E00
7E00
0. 00 0. tO 0. 20 0.30 0. 40 0.50
TIME{Sec.)
FIG.5.30 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR WITH
NO CROSSCOUPLED (EI=O.O)
. 56
5E006
'? 2E006
. '
t: tE00
'4
.:
4EOO
7EOO
0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50
TIME( Sec.)
FIG.5. 3t DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR WITH
CROSSCOUPLED(EI=O.O,EH=O. O)
5E006
'? 2E006
'
t: tE00
"1
.:
4E00
7E00
TIME( Sec.)
FIG.5.32 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR WITH
NO CROSSCOUPLED (EI=O. O,EH=O.O)
57
1
"
~
t E  0 0 5 ~                  
6E006
~
~  2E00
6E00
 t E  0 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
0.00 0.10 0.20 0. 30 0.40 0.50
. TIME( Sec.)
FIG.5. 33 DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROTOR WITH
CROSSCOUPLED (EI=O.O)
58
Chapter Six
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1 Introduction
The present work gave an investiagtion about the practical problems
and mathematical insights for Bearing rotor, which provide a developed
model for this system listed in details in chapter three. Also different type
of cases were presented in chapter five to give a distinct view about
programming package ability to solve Bearing rotor problems. This work
produced important results in system vibrative properties and the stability
of the rotor in fluid film bearings. Also it shown that the mathematical
model, programming procedure, and numerical methods that applied
successfully with this type of system.
6.2 Conclusions
We can summarized the conclusions as follows:
!. When the crosscoupled stiffness is negative the response is decrease
in the region of critical speed and it gives more instability to the rotor
which may occur under super synchronous condition. Also the direct
damping is shift the critical speed to the right in the region of critical
speed on the other hand it is increase the critical speed, and when
crosscoupled damping is negative the response is increase.
2. When the crosscoupled stiffness is positive the response is increase in
the region of critical speed and the direct damping shifted the critical
speed to the right and reduced the response of the rotor. The negative
( o \
~
crosscoupled damping increase the response.
59
3. The crosscoupled coefficients are very important factors because
these effects on stability, which related on whirl speed and critical
speed, and the response of the rotor.
4. This work proved that the stability of a tmbomachine can be improved
by the use of the anisotropy of bearings or bearing supports as in
case (5).
5. We can neglected the shear deformation and the hysteretic damping in
the time response studies.
6.3 Recommendation
For further work we can summarised the following points:
I . Develop a method to calculate the fluid film bearings coefficients with
different speeds.
2. Develop another model for bearing element.
3. We can use this work to study the fluid leakage which another
excitation.
4. Enter another factor to the mathematical model like misalignment and
its effect on rotor stability.
60
REFERENCE
[1] Lund, J. W., "Computer programs for unbalance response and
stability", Part V. AFAPL Technical report, TR6545, Wright
patterson Air Force base, Dayton ohio ( 1965).
[2] Zorzi, E. S. and Nelson, H., "Finite element simulation of rotor
bearing system with internal damping". ASME gas turbine conf.
Neworleans (1976).
[3] Ruhl, R. and Booker, J. F., "A Finite element model for distributed
parameter turborotor systems", ASME Journal of engineering for
Industry, vol. 94, 1972, p. 126.
[4] Lund, J. W., and Orcutt, F. k., "Calculation and experiments on the
unbalance of a flexible rotor", ASME J. of engineering for
industry, Vol. 89, No. 4, 1967, P.785.
[5] Rouch, K. E. and Kao, J. S., "Dynamic reduction in rotor dynamics by
the finite element methods", ASME, J. ofMechanical design,
vol. 102, 1980,p.360.
[6] Newkirk, B. L., and Taylor, H. D., "Oil film whirlAn investigation of
disturbances on oil films in journal bearings", General electric
review, vol. 28, 1925, p. 559.
[7] Adams, M. L., and j. Padvan, "Insights into linearized rotor
dynamics", J. of sound and vibration, vol. 76, No.1, 1981, p. l29
142.
[8] Morton, P. G., "Influence of coupled asymmetric bearings on the
motion of a massive flexible rotor", Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs. 182
(13), 255 (196768).
62
[9] Kirk; R. G. and Gunter, E. J., "The effect of flexibility and damping
on the Synchronous response of a single mass flexible rotor", J.
Eng. For industry, AS:ME 94, 221 (1972).
(10] Rao, J. S., "Conditions for backward synchronous whirl of a flexible
rotor in hydrodynamic bearings", mechanism and machine theory
17 (2), 143 (1982).
[11] Rao, J. S; Bhat, R. B. and Sankar, "Effect of damping on the
synchronous whirl of a rotor in hydrodynamic bearings. Trans.
CS:ME 6(3), 155 (1981).
(12] Rao, J. S., "Out of balance response of turbo alternator rotors",
computer programs, Bharat heavy, Electricals limited,
Hyderabad, India (1980).
(13] Rao, J. S. Rao, "Instability of rotors in fluid film bearings", ASME, J.
of vibration, Acoustics, Stress, and Reliability in design, vol.
105, July, 1983.
(14] Rieger, N. F. and Cundiff, R. A., "Discussion of paper by Morton, P.
G., "Influence of coupled asymmetric bearings on the motion of
a massive flexible rotor", Proc. Inst. Mech. Engineers. 182 (13),
217 (19671968).
[ 15] Bhat, R. B., "Unbalance response of a single mass rotor on fluid film
bearings using modal analysis", conf. Orlando, Florida ( 1982).
[16] Rao, J. S., "Instability of rotors mounted in fluid film bearings with a
negative crosscoupled coefficient", Mechanism and Machine
theory. Vol. 20, No.1, p. 181187, 1985.
[17] Sharan, A. M. and Rao, J. S., "Unbalance response of rotor disks
supported by fluid film bearings with a negative crosscoupled
stiffness using influence coefficient method", Mechanism and
Machine theory. Vol. 20, No.5, p. 415426, 1985.
63
[18] Wang, J. H., and, Shih, F. M., "Improve the stability of rotor subjected
to fluid leakage by optimum diameters design", ASME, J. of
vibration and Acoustics, Vol. 112, January 1990.
[19] Ruhl, R. L., "Dynamics of distributed parameter rotor system:
Transfer matrix and fmite Element Techniques", Ph. D.
dissertation cornell university, 1970.
[20] Thorkildsen, T., "Solution of a distributed mass and unbalance rotor
system using a consistent mass matrix approach", MSE
Engineering Report, Arizona state university, June 1972.
[21] Polk, S. R., "Finite element formulation and solution of flexible rotor
rigid disk systems for natural frequencies and critical speeds",
MSE Engineering Report, Arizona state university, May 1974.
[22] Nelson, H. D., "Finite rotating shaft element using Timoshenko beam
theory", ASME, J. ofMechanical design, Vol. 102, 1980.
[23} Hashish, E., and Snakar, T. S., "Finite element and modal analysis of
rotorbearing systems under stochastic loading conditions",
ASME, J. of vibration, Acoustics, stress, and Reliability in
Design, Vol. 106, January, 1984.
[24] Nevzat, Ozguven, H., and Levent Ozkan, Z., "Whirl speeds and
unbalance response ofmultibearing rotors using finite elements".
ASME, J. of vibration, Acoustics, stress, and Reliability in
Design, Vol. 106, January 1984.
[25] Clive L. Dym, and Irving H. shames, "Solid mechanics: a variational
approach", McGraw Hill, New York, P. 370377, 1973.
[26] Soni, A. H., and Srinivasan, V., "Seismic analysis of a gyroscopic
mechanical system", ASME, J. of vibration, Acoustics, stress,
and Reliability in Design, Vol. 105, October 1983.
[27] Rao, J. S., "Rotor dynamics", Wiley Eastern limited, India, 1985.
64
[28] Bhat, R. B., and Sankar, T. S., "Dynamic behaviour of a simple rotor
with dissimilar hydrodynamic bearing by modal analysis",
ASME, J. of vibration, Acoustics, stress, and Reliability in
Design, Vol. 107, April1985.
[29] Dimarognas, A. D., "Interval analysis of vibrating systems", J. of
sound and vibration, vol. 183, No.4, P. 739749, 1995.
[30] Ahid, D. N., David, I. G., John, P. H., "Vibration damping", John
Wiley and sons, New York, 1985.
[31] Lund, J. W., "Stability and damped critical speeds of a flexible rotor
in fluid film bearings", J. ofEng. For industry, Vol., 96, No.2,
1974.'
[32] Rao, S. S., "The finite element method in engineering", Pergamon
press., U.S. A., 1982.
[33] Mushtaq, K. A., "A programming package for vibration analysis in
rotating ports system", M. Sc. Thesis, university of Basrah,
October 1999.
[34] Gupta, K. K., "Development of a unified numerical procedure for free
vibration analysis of structural", International journal for
numerical method in engineering, vol. 17, No. 2, 1981.
[35] Chandrosekaran, A. R., Pall, D. K., and Agarwal, B. L., "Complex
enginproblem for flutter analysis of structures", J. of structures,
vol. 43, No.4, 1992.
[36] Osami Matsushita, et a!., "Solution method for eigenvalue problem of
rotor bearing system", Bulletin ofthe JSME, Vol. 23, No. 185,
1980.
65
S stem Matrices Com onents
The general form of differential equation of rotating system in matrices form is;
~ M T +(M.J)q + (E,(k, + k,)ro(GJ)q +
[
R(k, + k,](AJ(T)+(&, ro+ ~ &
11
1
J(N,](k, +k,]lq =(OJ
l+&n l+&n
ich these"matrices came form system elements;
1 Rotor element.
2 Disk element.
3 Bearing element.
1Rotor element matrices
i Mass matrix components
he matrices [MT],[M,] is symmetric
omponents of [MT]
MT(1,1)= KMt(156+294<j>+ 140<!>
2
)
MT(2,1)= 0.0
MT(3,1)= 0.0 .
MT(4,1)= KMt(22L+38.5L<fJ+l7.5L<fJ
2
)
MT(5,1)= KMt(54+126<fJ+70<fJ
2
)
MT(6,1)= 0.0
MT(7,1)= 0.0
rvh(8,1)= KMt(13L+31.5L<fJ+ 17.5L<fJ
2
)
MT(2,2)= KMt(156+294<fJ+ 140<!>
2
)
MT(3,2)= KMt(22L+38.5L<fJ+ 17.5L<fJ
2
)
MT( 4,2)= 0.0
MT(5,2)= 0.0
MT(6,2)= KMt(54+ 126<!>+70<!>
2
)
MT(7,2)= KMt(13L+31.5L<fJ+l7.5L<fJ
2
)
MT(8,2)= 0.0
MT(3,3)= KMt(4L
2
+7L
2
<!>+3.5L
2
<!>
2
)
MT(4,3)= 0.0
MT(5,3)= 0.0
Mt6 3)= KM
1
(13L+31.5L<fJ+l7.5L<fJ
2
)
T\> 2 2 22
MT(7,3)= KM
1
(3L +7L <fJ+3.5L <!> )
MT(8,3)= 0.0 2
MT(4,4)= KMt(4L
2
+7L
2
<!>+3.5L
2
<!>) 2
MT(5,4)= KMt(13L+31.5L<fJ+l7.5L<I>)
MT(6,4)= 0.0
MT(7,4)= 0.0 2 2
MT(8,4)= KMt(3L
2
+7L
2
<!>+3.5L <I>)
AI
Mr(5,5)= KM
1
(156+294<j>+ 140<!>
2
)
Mr(6,5)= 0.0
Mr(7,5)= 0.0 .
Mr(8,5)= KM
1
(22L+ 38.5L<j>+ 17 .5L<j>
2
)
Mr( 6, 6)= KMt( 15 6+ 294<1>+ 140<1>
2
)
Mr(7,6)= KMt(22L+38.5L<j>+ 17.5L<j>
2
)
Mr(8,6)= 0.0
Mr(7,7)= KM
1
(4L
2
+7L
2
<j>+3.5L
2
<j>
2
)
Mr(8, 7)= 0.0
Mr(8,8)= KMt( 4L
2
+7L
2
<1>+ 3 .5L
2
<j>
2
)
Components of [M,]
Mr(1,1)= 36KMr
M,(2,1)= 0.0
M,(3,1)= 0.0
M,(4,1)= KMr(3L15L<j>)
M,(5,1)= 36KMr
M,(6,1)= 0.0
M,(7,1)= 0.0
M,(8, 1 )= KMr(3L15L<j>)
M,(2,2)= 36KMr
M,(3,2)= KM.(3L15L<j>)
M,( 4,2)= 0.0
M,(5,2)= 0.0
M,(6,2)= 36KMr
M,(7,2)= KM,(3L15L<j>)
M,(8,2)= 0.0
M.(3,3)= KMr(4L
2
+5L
2
<j>+10L
2
<j>
2
)
M,(4,3)= 0.0
M,(5,3)= 0.0
M,( 6,3 )= KMr(3 L15L<j>)
M,(7,3)= KMr(L
2
5L
2
<j>+5L
2
<!>
2
)
M,(8,3)= 0.0
M,(4,4)=
M,(5,4)= KMr(3L15L<j>)
M,(6,4)= 0.0
M,(7,4)= 0.0
M,(8,4)= KMr(L
2
5L
2
<j>+5L
2
<j>
2
)
M,(5,5)= 36KMr
M,(6,5)= 0.0
M,(7,5)= S<j>KMr
M,(8,5)= KMr(3L15L<j>)
M,(6,6)= 36KMr
M,(7,6)= KM,(3L15L<I>)
M,(8,6)= 0.0 .
A2
Mr(7,7)=
M,(8,7)= 0.0  _
M,(8,8)=
2
<j>+IOL
2
<j>
2
)
IlL J.lr2
Where KM
1
, and KMr !:..:..:
420(1 + <1>)
2
120L(l + <1>)
2
'ii stiffuess matrix components
The matrices [Kb],[K
1
],[A]and [T] is symmetric
Components of [Kb]
Kb( 1,1 )=
Kb(2,1)=0.0
Kb(3,1)=0.0
Kb( 4,1
Kb( 5, 1
Kb(6,1)=0.0
Kb(7,1)=0.0
Kb(8, 1
Kb(2,2)=
Kb(3 ,2)=6LKI<b
Kb( 4,2)=0.0
Kb(5,2)=0.0
Kb(8,2)=0.0
Kb(3,3)=4L
2
Kkp
Kb(4,3)=o.o
Kb(5,3)=0.0
Kb( 6,3
Kb(7 ,3 )=2L
2
((kb
Kb(8,3)=0.0
Kb( 4,4)=4L
2
Kkb
Kb(5,4)=6LKI<b
Kb(6,4)=0.0
Kb(7,4)=0.0
Kb(5,5)=12Kkb
Kb(6,5)=0.0
Kb(7,5)=0.0
Kb(8,5)=6LKkb
Kb(6,6)=12Kkb
Kb(7 ,6)=6LKkb
Kb(8,6)=0.0
Kb(7, 7)=4L
2
Kkb
Kb(8,7)=0.0
A3
Components of [Ks]
K.(1,1)=0.0
Ks(2, 1 )=0.0
K,(3,1)=0.0
Ks( 4,1 )=0.0
K.(S,l)=O.O
K.(6,1)=0.0
Ks(7,1)=0.0
K.(8,1)=0.0
Ks(2,2)=0.0
K.(3,2)=0.0
Ks( 4,2)=0.0
K.(5,2)=0.0
K.(6,2)=0.0
K.(7,2)=0.0
K,(8,2)=0.0
K,(3 ,3 )=L
2
Kks
Ks( 4,3)=0.0
K,(5,3)=0.0
K,(6,3)=0.0
K.(7 ,3 )=L
2
Kks
K.(8,3)=0.0
K.(5,4)=0.0
K,(6,4)=0.0
K.(7,4)=0.0
K.(5,5)=0.0
K.(6,5)=0.0
K,(7,5)=0.0
Ks(8,5)=0.0
K.(6,6)=0.0
K,(7,6)=0.0
K.(8,6)=0.0
K,(7, 7)=L
2
Kks
. K
5
(8,7)=0.0
K,(8,8)= L
Kb(8,8)=4L
2
K.cb
EI EI q,
Where Kkb ,
L
3
(1+<1) L
3
1+<1>
Components of[A]
A( I, 1 )=KA(36+60<j>+ 30<j>
2
)
A(2,1)=0.0
A(3,1)=0.0
A(4,1)=3LKA
A(S, 1 )=KA(36+60<j>+ 30<j>
2
)
A(6,1)=0.0
A(7,1)=0.0
A(8, 1 )=3LKA
A(2,2)=KA(36+60<j>+30<j>
2
)
A(3,2)=3LKA
A(4,2)=0.0
A(5,2)=0.0
A( 6,2)=KA(36+60<j>+ 30<j>
2
)
A(7,2)=3LKA
A(8,2)=0.0
A(3,3)=KA( 4L
2
+5e<j>+2.5L
2
<j>
2
)
A(4,3)=0.0
A(5,3)=0.0
A(6,3)=3LKA
A(7 ,3)=KA(L
2
+5L
2
<j>+2.5L
2
<j>
2
)
A(8,3)=0.0
A( 4,4)=KA(4L
2
+5L
2
<j>+2.5L
2
<j>
2
)
A(6,4)=0.0
A(7,4)=0.0 . . .
A(8,4)=KA(L
2
+5L
2
<j>+2.5L
2
<j>
2
)
A(5,5)=KA(36+60<j>+30<j>
2
)
A(6,5)=0.0
A(7,5)=0.0
A(8,5)=3LKA
A( 6,6)=KA(3 6+60<j>+ 30<j>
2
)
A(7,6)=3LKA
A(8,6)=0.0
A(7, 7)=KA( 4L
2
+5L
2
<j>+2.5L
2
<!>
2
)
A(8,7)=0.0
A(8,8)=KA( 4L
2
+5L
2
<j>+2.5L
2
<!>
2
)
Where KA p
30L(l +<1)
2
A4
Components of [T]
T(l,l)=l2KT
T(2,1)=0.0
T(3,1)=0.0
T(4,1)=6LKr
T(5,1)=12KT
T(6,1)=0.0
T(7,1)=0.0
T(_8, 1 )=6LKT
T(2,2)=12KT
T(3,2)=6LKT 
T(4,2)=0.0
T(5,2)=0.0
T(6,2)=12KT
T(7,2)=6LKT
T(8,2)=0.0
T(3,3)=KT( 4L
2
+2L
2
P+L
2
q,
2
)
T(4,3)=0.0
T(5,3)=0.0
T(6,3)=6LKT
T(7,3)=KT(2L
2
2eq,L
2
P
2
) .
T(8,3)=0.0
tc 4,4)=KTC 4L
2
+2eq,+L
2
P
2
>
T(5,4)=6LKT
T(6,4)=0.0
T(7,4)=0.0
T(8,4)=KT(2L
2
2L
2
PL
2
P
2
)
T(5,5)=12KT
T(6,5)=0.0
T(7,5)=0.0
T(8,5)=6LKT
T(6,6)=12KT
T(7,6)=6LKT
T(8,6)=0.0
T(7,7)=KT(4L
2
+2L
2
P+L
2
P
2
)
T(8,7)=0.0
T(8,S)=KT(4L'2+2L
2
P+L
2
P
2
)
T .
WhereKr
2 3
L (1+<1>)
A5
iii Damping matrix components
The matrix [G] is skew symmetric
G(l,l)=O.O
G(4,1)=0.0
G(5,1)=0.0
G(7, 3L+ 15L<j>)
G(8,1)=0.0
G(2,2)=0.0
G(3,2)=0.0
G( 3L+ 15L<j>)
0(6,2)=0.0
G(7,2)=0.0
15L<j>)
G(3,3)=0.0
G(4,3)=Ka(4L
2
+5L
2
<j>+IOL
2
<j>
2
)
0(5,3)=K
0
(3L+ 15L<j>)
G(6,3)=0.0
G(7,3)=Q.O
G(4,4)=0.0
0(5,4)=0.0
G(7 L
2
5L
2
<j>+SL
2
<1>
2
)
G(8,4)=0.0
0(5,5)=0.0
G(6,5)=36Ka
15L<j>)
0(8,5)=0.0
G(6,6)=0.0
G(7,6)=0.0
3L+ 15L<I>)
G(7,7)=0.0
G(8,
2
+5L
2
<1>+ 10L
2
<1>
2
)
acs,s)='o.o
IJ.r2
WhereKa=
60L
A6
2Disk element matrices
iMass matrix
md
0.0 0.0
0.0] [0.0
d
0.0
md
0.0
0.0 [ M ~ ] = 0.0
[MT]=
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
iiDamping matrix
0.0 0.0
d 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
[G ]=
0.0 0.0
IPd
0.0
[0.0
0.0 0.0
IPd
0.01
0.0
3Bearing element matrices
i Stiffuess matrix
[
Kyy Kyz
Kzy Kzz
(Kb] = 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
iiDamping matrix
[c"
Cyz
[Cb]= Czy
Czz
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.01
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0
0.01
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
A7
0.0 0.0
0.0]
0.0 0.0 0.0
md
0.0
0.0
0.0 0.0
md
A.2 Unbalance Nodal Force Vector
For linear mass unbalance distribution on rotor element nodal force vector was;
2
[Qc] = J.U:O
Z L ZRL
7 /20(ZLL) 3/20(ZRL) + <I>(_L + )
3 6
Y L YRL
7 /20(YLL) + 3/20(YRL) +<I>(}+ 
6
)
y L2 y L2
1/20(YLL
2
)1/30(YRL
2
)+<1>( ~
4
 ~
4
)
Z L
2
Z L
2
1/20(ZLL
2
)1/30(ZRL
2
)+<1>( ~
4
 ~
4
)
[Qsl= J.10l
2
Z L ZRL
 3/20(ZLL) 7/20(ZRL) +<I>({+ 
3
)
y L YRL
3/20(YLL) + 7/20(YRL) +<I>(++ 
3
)
y L2 y L2
1/30(YLL2)+1/20(YRL2)+<1>( ~ 4 + ~ 4 ) .
Z L
2
ZRL
2
1/30(ZLL
2
)+1/20(ZRL
2
)+<1>( ~
4
+ ~
AS
APPENDIXB
The cases, which are used in chapter five, are listed with their details
and figures in the present appendix.
Case (1)
supported on fluid film bearing:
E = 2.068 * 10
11
N/m
2
10.16 em
To o
p = 7833 kg/m
3
G = 7.9538 * 10
10
N/m
2
ro = 4000 rpm
Isotropic bearing with coefficient:
Kyy = Kzz = 1.7513 * 10
7
N/m
Kyz = Kzy = 1.6 * 10
7
N/m
Cyy = Czz = 1.7513 * 10
3
N.s/m
The internal damping of rotor material is:
Internal viscous damping
0.0002 (s).
This case used by Nevzat and Levant [24] .
Case (2) three
Supported on fluid film bearing.
I 127 em Ill
E = 2.068 * 10
11
N/m
2
p = 7680 kg/m
3
10 o 111m
To o
I 127 em Ill
lsotropic bearing with coefficients: oefficients:
Kyy = Kzz = 1.75 * 10
7
N/m
Kyz = 1.7 * 10
7
N/m
Kzy = 1.7 * 10
7
N/m
Cyy = Czz = 1.75 * 10
3
N.s/m
Internal viscous 0.0002 (s)
Bl
Internal Hysteretic damping (EH)= 0.0002
This case used by Rouch [5], Kirk [9] and Mushtaq [33] .
Case (3)
supported on fluid film bearing
E = 20 * 10
10
N/m
2
(1)
G = 80 * 10
9
N/m
2
0
p = 7800 kg/m
3
0
Disk element
I.
MD=24000kg
lp = 4570 kg. m
2
1
0
= 3600 kg. m
2
Eccentricity in disk element (e) = 0.1 mm
Orthotropic bearing with coefficients:
Bearing (1)
Kyy
~ /
5.98 * 10HN/m
Kyz Q
5.1 * 0 ~ N/m
Kzy (Y
1 .29 * 0 ~ N/m
Kzz ~ )
1.87 * 0 ~ N/m
Cyy
C!)
1.87 * 10
9
N.s/m
Cyz c9
2.8 * 10 N.s/m
Czy Q
4.1 * 10' N.s/m
Czz ( 4)
1.17 * 10' N.s/m
4.52 m
 This case used by Soni and Srinivasan [26].
B2
.
(2)
0
0
'
.I
.. ,4
4.74 m
Bearing (2)
6.76 * IOHN/m
2.16 * 10
7
N/m
1.49 * !OVN!m
2.27 * I 0V Nl m
3.1 * !OON.s/m
5 * 10 ' N.s/m
5 * 1 0 ~ > N.s/m
1.37*10 N.s/m
Case (4)
supported on fluid film bearing:
E = 3.534 * 10
12
N/m
2
G = 13.598 * 10
12
N/m 2.54cm
To
~
c.o = 4500 rpm
Isotropic bearing with coefficient
. 7
Kyy = 1.01 * 10 N/m Cyy = 1930 N.s/m
Kzz = 4.16 * 10
1
N/m
Kyz = 4.16 * 10
5
N/m
Kzy = 3.12* 10
7
N/m
This case used by Rao [27].
Case (5)
Czz = 70000 N.s/m
Cyz = 4100 N.s/m
Czy = 4000 N.s/m
1000 m
 supported on fluid film bearing
E = 20 * 10
10
N/m
2
F = 10 sin (100 t) kN
G = 80 * 10
10
N/m
2
p = 7800kg/m
3
c.o = 1 000 rpm
Disk element
:MD= 14.5 kg
Ip = 7.31 kg.m
2
1
0
= 5.25 kg.m
2
 Istropic bearing with coefficients:
Kyy = Kzz = 4.378 * 10
7
N/m
Kyz = 2189 * 10
4
N/m
Kzy = 81 * 10
6
N/m
Cyy = Czz = 1.752 * 10
3
N.s/m
Cyz = Czy = 1.752 * 10
3
N.s/m
This case used by Mushtaq [33] .
0.6
83
0
0
.. I
Case (6)
 Supported on fluid film bearings
E = 20 * 10
10
N/m
2
.
G = 80 * I 0
9
N/m
2
p = 7800kg/m
3
Disk Element:
MD=2kg
Ip = 0.01388 kg.m
2
In= 0.02122 kg.m
2
0.1
 Orthotropic bearing with coefficients:
ro = 2400 rpm
Bearing (1)
Kyy 15374 * 10
3
N/m
K12 21256 * IOTN/m
Kyz 33300 * I 0T N/m
Kzy 14431 * I OJ N/m
Cyy 238 * 10
3
N.s/m
c72 I97 * 10
3
N.s/m
Cyz 124 * 10
3
N.s/m
Czy
94 * toj N.s/m
B4
(I)
(2)
[==:J
c:::J
Wheel
c:::::;::::]
c:::J Element
I 1 ~
0.215
0.075 i : 0.09 !
T I )=,
0.02
Bearing (2)
7028 * I Oj N/m
I5573 * IOj N/m
23272 * I Oj N/m
I7092 * IO' N/m
155 I0
3
N.s/m
I95 IO N.s/m
76 * IO:r N.s/m
57* I0
3
N.s/m
ro = 6000 rpm
Bearing (1) Bearing (2)
Kyy
10396 * 10j N/m 6043 * 1 o' N/m
K7Z
19555 * to N/m t2901 * I 0' N/m
Kyz 47085 * 10
3
N/m 4t557 *to' N/m
Kzy
39765 * 10j N/m 4t262 * 1 Q' N/m
Cyy
144 * 10j N.s/m t24 10
3
N.s/m
143 * tOj N.s/m 144 JO N.s/m
Cyz
42 * 10j N.s/m 25 * JO' N.s/m
Czy
32 * 10j N.s/m t8 * JO N.s/m
ro = 9600 rpm
Bearing (1)
Bearing (2)
Kyy
tOOOO * tOj N/m 6185 * JO N/m
K7Z
19776 * tOj N/m
12592 * 10 N/m
Kyz
677t5 * 10j N/m
63582 * 1 o N/m
Kzy
63172 * 1 Oj N/m 63172 * I 0 N/m
Cyy
132 * 10j N.s/m 122
10' N. s/m
133 * 10j N.s/m
135
JO' N.s/m
Cyz
26 * t0
3
N.s/m
15 * 10 N.s/m
Czy
20 * tOj N.s/m
11 * JO ' N.s/m
This case used by Hashish and Sankar [23].
B5
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