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ANALYSIS READING MATERIALS ON LOOK AHEAD TEXTBOOK OF TENTH GRADE STUDENTS BY PT.

ERLANGGA
ANALYSIS READING MATERIALS ON LOOK AHEAD TEXTBOOKOF TENTH GRADE STUDENTS BY PT.ERLANGGA JOURNAL
By: NURI SYAFITRI F12105010

ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDI PROGRAM LANGUAGE AND ART DEPARTMENT TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY TANJUNGPURA UNIVERSITY 2013 ANALYSIS READING MATERIALS ON LOOK AHEAD TEXTBOOK OF TENTH GRADE STUDENTS BY PT.ERLANGGA JOURNAL
NURI SYAFITRI, CLARRY SADA, SUMARNI e-mail:nurisyafitri@ymail.com

ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDI PROGRAM LANGUAGE AND ART DEPARTMENT TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY TANJUNGPURA UNIVERSITY 2013
ANALYSIS READING MATERIALS ON LOOK AHEAD TEXTBOOK OF TENTH GRADE STUDENTS BY PT.ERLANGGA Nuri Syafitri, Clarry Sada, Sumarni Teacher Trainning and Education Faculty, Tanjungpura University in Pontianak

e-mail:nurisyafitri@ymail.com ABSTRAK : Penelitian ini di fokuskan pada materi bacaan dalam buku Look Ahead untuk siswa kelas sepuluh yang diterbitkan oleh PT. Erlangga. Tujuan yang terdapat di dalam penelitian ini adalah apakah materi bacaan yang terdapat di dalam buku ini sudah sesuai dengan kriteria materi bacaan yang baik atau tidak. Sehingga pada akhirnya materi bacaan di dalam buku ini dapat dikategorikan sebagai materi bacaan yang baikatau tidak. Variabel di dalam penelitian ini yaitu analisis materi bacaan di dalam buku Look Ahead untuk siswa kelas sepuluh dimana penulis menggunakan analisis isi. Table ceklist dipergunakan untuk menganalisa materi secara lebih mendalam dimana dari 27 materi bacaan yang ada di dalam buku ini, ada 10 materi bacaan yang diambil sebagai sampel. Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan pada sampel tersebut di dapatlah hasil bahwa materi bacaan dalam buku Look Ahead untuk siswa kelas sepuluh yang diterbitkan oleh PT.Erlangga sesuai dengan standar kriteria materi bacaan yang dikemukakan oleh Patel and Jain. Kata Kunci : Membaca, Kriteria, Buku teks ABSTRACT : This research is focused on the reading materials on Look Ahead textbook for tenth grade students published by PT.Erlangga. The purpose of this research is to get clear description about reading materials in this textbook fulfill as good reading materials or not. There is single variable in this research namely content analysis. Checklist table becomes the tool of data collection in this research. The reading materials in this textbook are 27 reading materials and the samples are 10 reading materials. Based on the findings of this research, the reading materials of Look Ahead textbook for tenth grade students published by PT.Erlangga fulfill as good reading materials based on the good reading materials criteria by Patel and Jain. Key Words : Reading, Criteria, Textbook eading is one of the language skills that must be developed besides listening, speaking and writing. Having a good reading ability will help students comprehend any written text materials and get a lot of information from them. When the people read a text, they read for variety purposes. They sometimes read to get main idea but not much more. Commonly they read the text to learn information and sometimes they are reading any kind of texts or from a longer chapter of a textbook in order to understand well about the information in it. Perhaps, most often the people read for general comprehension. Comprehension and comprehending have distinction, comprehension means as an outcome of our thinking. Then comprehending means as the active process of our thinking. From an outcome point of view, when the reading act has terminated, our understanding is represented in the knowledge we have gleaned from the reading experience. From a process point of view, the meaning making is still under construction after the act of reading, and comprehension depends on the problem-solving strategies that the reader uses to interpret what has been read. Murcia (2001:187) mentioned that purposes of reading for students are to search for information, for general comprehension, to learn new information, and to evaluate information. Although these purposes of reading might give the impression that there are very different ways to read a text, these differing purposes actually depend on a stable set of processes and skills that underlies all reading, though in differing combinations of relative importance. Grabe in Murcia (2001:188) mentioned that we can still talk about reading in the

singular and define it as such, as long as we recognize the processes and skills combine in differing ways depending on the readers purposes. The reading texts in the textbook become important thing in reading session. A textbook has an important role for teacher and students. It will help teacher to explain more detail and also help students to learn easily. Tomlinson (2003:39) mentioned that the role of textbook is guidance for teacher and students in teaching learning process. It helps teacher where he/she lacking in training and experience and then it very useful in classroom where English speaking environment. Many kinds of text that learned by the students in senior high school. The types of text that learned in tenth grade of students in senior high school are recount, narratives, procedures, description, and news item. In this research, the writer analyses English textbook Look Ahead for senior high school of tenth grade students published by PT. Erlangga as a subject of research. In this textbook, there are five kinds of text that learned by tenth grade students of senior high school. There are recount text, narrative text, procedure text, descriptive text, and news item text. All of the kind of texts learned by students into two semesters. The text of reading materials in this textbook analyzed based on reading materials criteria by Patel and Jain (2008). The first criteria mentioned that subject matter should be well graded, the second is the words and structures are carefully graded, and the last is clear and unambiguous instructions should be given along side the practice and exercise. The purpose of this research is to get clear description about reading teaching materials in the English textbook Look Ahead for senior high school of tenth grade students published by PT.Erlangga fulfill the criteria of reading materials or not. The good English textbook is a textbook that cover four language skills such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing. In reading skill, the students read any kind of texts and get much information from them to increase their knowledge. In senior high school level, of course the reading text more than just simple paragraph. The texts are complex that consist of set of vocabularies and long stories. METHOD The purpose of this research is to describe do reading teaching materials in English textbook Look Ahead for senior high school of tenth grade students fulfill the criteria of reading material or not. The appropriate method which is used by the writer in this research is descriptive method. According to Dawson (2009:111) descriptive method is a study which describes and interpret about condition or relationship that exist, opinion that are held, processes that are going on, effect that are evident, or trends that are developing. This method primary concern about past happening which is still relate to the current condition. Dawson (2009:122) mentioned that content analysis is method that works through each script assigning codes, which may be numbers or words, to specific characteristics within text. He also stated that the researcher may already have a list of categories or he/she may read through each transcript and let the categories emerge from the data. The content analysis applied in this research. The writer was took reading materials in English textbook Look Ahead for senior high school of tenth grade students as resource of data. The reading materials analyzed according to criteria of reading materials by Patel and Jain (2008:68). According to Danim (2002) population is the total value that are calculated or measured quantitatively or qualitatively from certain characteristics of complete and clear object. In this research the population is reading materials of English textbook Look Ahead for senior high school of tenth grade students. All of reading materials in this textbook are 27 reading texts that learned by students in two semesters. Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2000) mentioned that sample is small population or small group. The

writer takes purposive sampling in this research. The writer takes 10 reading materials as the samples of reading text materials from English textbook Look Ahead for senior high school of tenth grade students. In this research, the writer uses content analysis. Through this technique, the samples of reading materials in this textbook are analyzed by criteria of reading material from Patel and Jain (2008:68). The tool of data collecting in this research is checklist table. The checklist table helps writer to find specific items in the analysis. The complete content of checklist table follows five criteria of good reading materials by Patel and Jain (2008:68) are below: Table of Specification of Analysis Reading Materials based on Good Reading Materials Criteria
Criteria of Good Reading Materials Indicators

1. The subject matter should be well- Level of text from easy to difficult graded - The text give new knowledge for students - Suitable with the syllabus 2. The words and structure are carefully- The words and structure already learn graded are repeated in the coming pages so that the students could revise them making them stable in their memory 3. Clear and unambiguous instruction should be given along side thepractice and exercise The instruction of practice and exercise should be clear and unambiguous The level of questions in exercise consists of three level; literal, inferential, and critical question

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Findings The analysis of reading materials in English textbook Look Ahead for senior high school of tenth grade students was done according to good reading materials criteria by Patel and Jain (2008:68). In the first semester, the recount text, narrative text, and procedure text are materials that learned by students. According to syllabus for Senior High School students, one of the standard competences of reading mentioned that students hoped to understand meaning of functional text which is related to the students closest real life context. From this standard competence, the basic competence that the students have to develop that they are supposed to be able to respond the meaning and the rhetoric procedure of simple short essays which are based on students own real life context, in the form of recount, narrative, procedure, descriptive, and news item texts.
In recount texts, there are two types of recount texts that discussed in this textbook. The first is personal recount. In personal recount, the text tells about the authors experience when she was a child. In this text, the author is come from Sydney, Australia. So automatically the authors experience when she was a child has differences with the students from Indonesia. In general, this topic gives new knowledge to the students because the students can learn from her experience. The difficult words apply in this text in own column. The words apply as key words and the structure also put in front of reading material. This is recount text so the structure that used was past tense. In this text, the students were expected write down their understanding about the text into questions that asked to them.

The level of question was literal, inferential and critical question. In this case, the literal question in part A. in this part, the students hoped answer these question with true or false statement. Question number 1 on part A when she was a child she fell from a tree and broke her head. This was included as false statement because the true statement was when she was a child she fell from a tree and broke her hand. Her hand was broke not her head. Question number 2 on part A she was living outside Sydney when she was a child. This was included as false statementbecause the true statement was she was living in a suburb of Sydney when she was a child.Question number 3 on part A the teacher was very angry with the boy because he hit her. This was included as false statement because the true statement was his parents were very angry with her because she hit him. Next is inferential level. In this case, the inferential question in part B and part C. in part B, the students were expected to answer the question according to the instruction given. And then in part C, the students were expected to work inpairs to complete the answer of the following questions. The last is critical question. It is means the answer of question according to the students background knowledge and experience. This type of question was in part D. the students were expected to work in-pairs to tell each other about their experience when they were a child. The second is biographical recount. This reading topic was about important artist in paintings on the 1900 era. This included as difficult topic because many students do not know about the paintings. But from this topic, the students can get new knowledge about the paintings art. This reading material categorized as biographical recount. Recount text was included as one of kind text that learned by tenth grade students of senior high school. So this reading material was appropriate with the syllabus. In this text, unfortunately the difficult words were not input own column so the students get difficult to read the reading text. Structure in this text was appropriate with the criteria. The text was use simple past tense. And then orientation and events of the reading text was clear so that they can understand well the reading material. In this reading text also there was not practice. But the exercise was given in very clear and unambiguous instruction.

After recount text, the students learn about narrative texts. In this text, the topic was interesting. The text was told about narrative and this was categorized as tall tale or tale story. Tall tale or tall story is a story that makes events or things seem larger, better, or worse than then actually were. Based on this reading material, the students of course get new knowledge about the tall story. Tall story included as one kind of narrative text type. Narrative becomes one kind of type text that learned by students in tenth grade of senior high school students. So it can be summarized that this text appropriate with the first criteria of good reading material by Patel and Jain. In this narrative text, there were not key words from this text but the structure that used in this text was simple past tense. It was suitable with the criteria of good reading materials. In this text, there was not practice given. The exercise was give to students in 7 questions. Questions number 1, 2, 3 and 5 are categorized in inferential questions because the answers of the questions were not in the same sentences. The answer requires finding information in different parts of the text and putting the information together. Question number 4, 6 and 7 were categorized as critical level question because the answer relies mainly in the students background knowledge and experiences. There was not literal level question because this topic was categorized as difficult topic. The next is Fable. Fable was categorized as narrative story. In this text, the reading topic was summarized as simple topic. Fable entertains but they also tell important truths about the way people act. Some writers of fable state the lesson or the moral at the end of the story. Fable was included as type of narrative text. According to syllabus, the narrative text should be learned by students of tenth grade of senior high school. From this finding, the text was suitable with the first criteria of good reading materials by Patel and Jain. In this text, the difficult words were not put in own place as s key words so this was not suitable with the second criteria. But in structure, the reading text was simple past tense form. Before the students learn this reading text, they should be learning about thinking verbs, feeling verbs, and verbs of sense. In this material there was not practice and the level of question in the text were nothing. After read the text, students just answer by written form the thinking, feeling, saying verbs, and also verb of senses. The instruction of this question was clear and unambiguous.

In the second semester, descriptive texts and news item texts are reading materials that learned by students. Descriptive text in this textbook was categorized as an easy topic. From this topic, the students can get new knowledge and also the topic was appropriate with the first criteria. This reading text tells about the authors pet, the author describes his pet. The structure that uses in this text is simple present tense. Exercise in this text consists of three level questions. They were literal, inferential, and critical level. The inferential levels were in number 2 and number 3. Then critical levels were in number 1 and number 4. Another text about descriptive text also discuss in this textbook on page 133. The students get new knowledge from this text because this reading text describes as clear as possible about someone. Starts from her profession until her personality was describe clearly. The descriptive text was categorized as kind of text that should be learned by students of tenth grade in senior high school. So it is suitable with the syllabus. The second criteria stated that the words and structure are carefully graded. In this part, the text uses simple present tense. The exercise also was given in this text. Question number 1, 4, 5, and 6 were summarized as critical level questions. Then question number 2 and number 3 were summarized as inferential level question. After descriptive text, the students in tenth grade also learn about news item texts. The reading texts in this textbook were included as difficult topic. There is not a key word so that the students would difficult in understand about the news. But news item text included as reading material like recount, narrative, procedures, and descriptive text that should be learned by students in tenth grade of senior high school. The structure that used in this text was simple past tense. The instruction that give was categorized as ambiguous instruction because the students should find the surprising news from the text. If students get difficult in comprehend the text, difficult for them to find another aspect related to the reading material was given. Another news item was discussed in this textbook. This topic was categorized as simple topic and the structure that used in this text are simple past tense. The structures consists in this text are passive sentence, saying verbs, and action verbs. The instruction of exercise in this text was clear and unambiguous. Discussion This analysis was done according to good reading teaching materials criteria. There were 10 text reading materials were analyzed by the writer. The first text was appropriate with the criteria by Patel and Jain. The subject in this text told about her childhood moment and after that there were some questions n there. The questions consists of three level questions, they are literal, inferential, and critical level. Aspect of questions in this text was fulfilled the criteria of good reading materials and also the instruction of practice and exercise was clear and unambiguous. The second text was categorized as inappropriate with the criteria. The theme was difficult topic. The difficult words were not input in the own column so that the students will difficult to understand well about the topic and there was not practice. In the third and fourth samples, the text told about story and followed by some questions. These texts were categorized as narrative text. Narrative text is a text that should be learned by students in the tenth grade of senior high school. It is suitable with the syllabus. So the text was appropriate with the first criteria of good reading material. The question in that texts also appropriate with the three level questions. And then there were not printing mistake in that texts. Next the writer analyzed the fifth and sixth samples. The texts were mentioned in the syllabus. In the syllabus stated that the procedure text also should be learned by students in the tenth grade of senior high school. These themes were very closely with the students environment. The Hole Game was discussed in this part. This game was categorized as traditional game. The questions that consisted in the text also fulfill the criteria of good reading material. There were not printing mistake in that text. So the

text was appropriated with the good reading material criteria. The seventh and the eight of samples in the reading materials of Look Ahead were categorized as descriptive texts. Descriptive text also learned by students on tenth grade of senior high school. It was stated in syllabus. The themes of the text were pet and famous person. The questions in these texts consisted of three level questions so these texts appropriate with the criteria. There also no printing mistake. The last sample was news item texts. The news item text was kind of texts that learned by students in tenth grade of senior high school. The questioned that consisted in the text fulfilled the criteria of good reading material. These texts consist of three level questions and there is no printing mistake in these texts. In conclusion the reading materials in Look Ahead textbook of senior high school of tenth grade students published by PT.Erlangga fulfilled the criteria of good reading material from Patel and Jain(2008). CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION Conclusion The result of the findings show that reading teaching materials in the textbook appropriate with the criteria. There are five criteria of good reading materials, they are subject matter, vocabulary and structure, exercises, illustrations, and the last is physical make-up. According to those criteria, the result from the checklist table shows that the materials of reading in English textbook Look Ahead for senior high school of tenth grade students by PT.Erlangga are appropriate with the criteria of good reading materials. Suggestion
Understanding well about reading text is necessary in reading aspect. In this case, the students hoped to explore their comprehension in practice. For example when students can understand well about descriptive text, they expected to describe for example their classroom or any thing so that their understanding will be better. Practice is necessary beside exercise. Beside that the reading materials in this textbook were categorized as good reading materials so that the teachers can use this book in their teaching learning process. BIBLIOGRAPHY Celce-Murcia, Marianne. 2001. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. United States. Thomson Learning.

Cohen, Manion & Morisson. 2000. Research Methods in Education. New York: Taylor and Francis. Danim, Sudarwan. 2002. Menjadi Peneliti Kualitatif. Bandung: CV. Pustaka Setia. Dawson, Catherine. 2009. Practical Research Methods; A User-Friendly Guide to Mastering Research Technique and Projects. United Kingdom: How to Books. Ltd. Tomlinson, Brian. 2003. Teaching Developing Materials for Language. Great Britain: Cromwell Press. Patel and Jain. 2008. English Language Teaching. Jaipur: Sunrise Publisher.