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CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P.

CORTES

CHAPTER I THE NATURE OF SYSTEM


What is a SYSTEM?
It is the integration of related parts which perform a specific task. It is a regular interacting or interdependent group of elements forming a unified whole.

CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEM
1. usiness System - collection of procedures! policies! methods! people! machines and other elements which interact and ena"le the organi#ation to reach its goals. - It is profit oriented

$. Information System - collection of procedures! programs! e%uipment and methods that process data and make it a&aila"le to help the management for decision making. - It is knowledge oriented

FUNDAMENTAL PARTS OF A SYSTEM

()*I+,)-(). S/S.(S/S.(- I)01.


su"syste m su"syste m su"syste m

S/S.(- ,1.01.

S/S.(,1)DA+/

Subsyste E!"i#$! e!t Syste %$u!&a#y

' ' '

smaller interrelated systems ser&ing speciali#ed functions the people! facilities! rules! policies and regulation that surround a system the perimeter! or line of demarcation! "etween a system and the en&ironment

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

Syste

I!'ut

' '

item that enters the "oundary of the system from the en&ironment and is manipulated "y the system also called #a( &ata con&ersion of inputs to outputs if nothing is changed! then you may not "e identifying a process

Syste Syste

P#$)ess Out'ut '

' '

the product that results from processing or manipulating raw data ' also called i!*$# ati$!

+ENERAL SYSTEM PRINCIPLES

The more specialized a system is, the less able it is to adapt to different circumstances.
' In house software 2customi#ed3 &s. Commercially a&aila"le 2general3

The larger the system is, the more of its resources that must be devoted to its everyday maintenance. , longer source code is much more difficult to de"ug and maintain

System are always part of larger systems, and they can always be partitioned into smaller systems. ' a system is di&ided into smaller su"systems which performs specific functions

System grows
' there is no perfect system! it is always "ound to some re&isions or modifications ' "ecause of newer technologies a&aila"le in the market! systems are also upgrading

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

PLAYERS IN THE SYSTEM +AME

1S(+
'

Communication 5ap

0+,5+A--(+

A communication gap separates the user from the programmer

1S(+
'

S/S.(- A)A6/S.

0+,5+A--(+

.he system analyst translates user needs into the technical specifications needed "y the programmer

-A)A5(-().

1S(+
Syste Use# P#$.#a e# ' A!a-yst

S/S.(- A)A6/S.
' ' '

0+,5+A--(+

deals concurrently with the user group! technical professionals and management anyone who interacts with an information system in the conte4t of his or her work in the organi#ation concerned with the technical aspect of the de&elopment of the system

Ma!a.e e!t

concerned with the +eturned ,f In&estment 2+,I3 and the de&elopment of schedules system designer! encoder! operator! technician! de"ugger! tester! trainer

Othe# Pe$'-e '

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

E/ERCISES0
1. Define the term system.

$. 6ist fi&e common e4amples of a system.

7. Differentiate a "usiness system from an information system.

4. Compare and contrast data and information.

8. Discuss one general system principle.

9. :ow does a system analyst resol&e the gap "etween the users and the programmers;

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CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

CHAPTER II SYSTEM ANALYSIS


What is ANALYSIS?
' study of a pro"lem! prior to taking some action study of "usiness area and application 2to a new system3 re%uires a .arget Document

Su))ess*u- A!a-ysis Phase C$ '-eti$!

ea!s0

1. Selecting an optimal target $. 0roducing detailed documentation of target 7. 0roducing accurate predictions of the important parameters

Cha#a)te#isti)s $* A!a-ysis
1. $. 7. 4. .he work is reasona"ly straightforward .he interpersonal relationships are not &ery complicated .he work is &ery definite .he work is satisfying

Ma1$# P#$b-e s $* A!a-ysis


1. Communication 0ro"lems instead of te4t! graphics are used to communicate point of &iew and orientation of the users and system analyst

$. Changing )ature of Computer System +e%uirements at least two years for any changes trying to free#e a target document means holding or ignoring any changes

.wo +easons <hy -anagers =ree#e .arget Document a. -anagers want to ha&e a sta"le target to work toward ". A large amount of cost and effort in updating a specification 7. 6ack of .ools an analyst must work with (its 2 'a'e# 2 'e!)i-

4. 0ro"lems on the .arget Document 2.D3 the larger the system! the more comple4 the analysis solution: partition the .D "reaking down into component process 2modules3

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES 8. <ork Allocation 9. 0olitics a. analyst?s political situation complicated "y communication failures or inade%uacies of his methods solution: tools of structured analysis 2e4. Inter&iews! %uestionnaires! etc.3 ". changing distri"ution of power and autonomy more manpower>people! more complicated large systems re%uires more screening! more thoughts! more time consuming

What is a TAR+ET DOCUMENT 3TD4?


' ' principal product of analysis description of a system to "e implemented ser&es as the model of the new system

S'e)i*i)ati$! $* Ta#.et D$)u e!t


1S(+ S/S.(- A)A6/S. D(*(6,0-(). .(A"ridging the gap with the use of .arget Document &isually represented "y te4tual > graphical description the "usiness of putting .arget Document together and getting it accepted "y all parties it should "e transparent to the reader it should help the &endor product the system?s "eha&ior

ESTIMATION
5 Ma1$# Thi!.s that Nee&s Esti ati$!0 1. 0eople ' :ow many;20rogrammers>system analyst>designers>etc.3 $. Schedule ' :ow long; 2.ime =actor3 7. Staffing Schedule ' <hen needed; 4. udget ' :ow much it will cost; +ui&e-i!es i! Ma6i!. Esti ati$!s0 1. $. 7. 4. -ake estimate units as small as possi"le 2one week>work unit3 -ake work units as independent as possi"le Consider communication factors 2independent work units communication Distinguish "etween new work and "orrowed work @ 0oor estimation can lead to proAect downfall @ )o"ody is an e4pert in estimation @ 5antt Chart a scheduling tool used to estimate time

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

SYSTEM ANALYSIS What is SYSTEM ANALYSIS?


the scientific study of the systems process! including in&estigation of inputs and outputs! in order to find "etter! more economical and more efficient means of processing to impro&e the producti&ity of the system

A&"a!ta.es $* Syste
1. $. 7. 4. 8. 9. B.

A!a-ysis

5reater (fficiency -a4imi#ing 0rofits +esources used to the "est ad&antage +eduction of human effort =aster turnaround +educing or eliminating errors in data and information Consistent operations and procedures

Li itati$!s $* Syste
1. $. 7. 4.

A!a-ysis

Some "usiness pro"lems are "eyond the scope of system analyst techni%ues System analysis efforts cost time and money .he human element can cause complications (ffort is re%uired to sell a system

What is a SYSTEM ANALYST?


the one who uses his knowledge and skills to sol&e computer pro"lems and helps an organi#ation to reali#e the ma4imum "enefit from its in&estment in e%uipment! personnel and "usiness process.

7ua-ities $* a Syste
1. $. 7. 4. 8.

A!a-yst

0ro"lem sol&er 5ood Communicator 2"oth written and &er"al3 Systematic .echnically updated <illingness to work with others

Ma1$# D$ ai! S6i--s $* the Syste

A!a-yst

1. Cnowledge of usiness ' an analyst must possess a solid foundation in "usiness principles! concepts and theories

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES $. .echnical Skills - an analyst must "e aware of modern computer systems! programming and software concepts and the kinds of personnel needed to staff computer and information systems 7. -anagement and Interpersonal Skills - an analyst must ha&e good communication skills and "e a"le to articulate concepts clearly. :e must also "e a"le to put ideas and concepts in writing in a clear and understanda"le form.

8!$(-e&.e $* %usi!ess
usiness 0ractices and 0rocedures

Te)h!i)a- S6i--s
:ardware! Software and 0rogramming Concepts

Ma!a.e e!t 9 I!te#'e#s$!aS6i--s


Communication D Super&ision Concepts

Res'$!sibi-ities $* the Syste


1. 1ser 6iaison $. .echnical =easi"ility 7. (conomic =easi"ility 4. ,perational =easi"ility 8. (stimation ' ' ' '

A!a-yst
he makes aware how the system will work he studies the specifications>re%uirements "oth for hardware and software he studies the relati&e cost and "enefit of the system he studies the possi"ility of implementation he assesses the cost! duration and manpower needed in the proAect

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

E/ERCISES0
1. Discuss the importance of the analysis phase in system de&elopment.

$.

<hat are the maAor pro"lems encountered during the analysis phase; (4plain each.

7.

5i&e an e4ample of a .arget Document.

4.

<hat is the importance of good estimation in system de&elopment;

8.

Discuss some ad&antages and limitations of system analysis.

9.

<hat %ualities do a system analyst should possess; (4plain each.

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CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

CHAPTER III TOOLS OF THE SYSTEM ANALYST

Syste
-

De"e-$' e!t Li*e Cy)-e 3SDLC4


A step "y step approach to sol&ing "usiness pro"lems

1.

Identifying problems, Opportunities, nd Ob"e#ti$es

2. Determining Inform tion re!uirements

7% Implementing nd e$ lu ting system

3. &n ly'ing t(e system needs

4. Designing t(e re#ommended system 6% )esting nd * int ining )(e system 5. De$eloping nd Do#umenting +oft, re

8e!&a-- a!& 8e!&a--:s Syste s De"e-$' e!t Li*e Cy)-e


PHASE Identifying 0ro"lems! ,pportunities and ,"Aecti&es Determining Information +e%uirement ACTI;ITIES o"ser&ing! inter&iewing summari#ing the knowledge o"tained estimating the scope of proAect documenting the result sampling! in&estigating hard data > company reports conduct inter&iews > administer %uestionnaires PEOPLE IN;OL;ED - system analyst - users management OUTPUT 0ro"lem Definition

1.

$.

system analyst users operations manager

the details of the current system functions of the "usiness under

1-

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES study 2how; <here; when; <hat; who;3 7. Analy#ing System )eeds 4. Designing the +ecommend' ed System De&eloping D Documenting Software preparation of system proposal that summari#es what has "een found pro&ides cost > "enefit analysis of alternati&es analy#e data flow > work flow de&ising the user interface! files and data"ases that will store much of the data needed coding of programs > modules de&elopment of documentation 2procedural manuals! online help! Eread me filesF series of tests to pinpoint pro"lems with the sample data first e&entually with the actual data from the current system updating of programs in&ol&es training the users to handle the new system con&erting files from old formats to new one installing e%uipment e&aluation of the new system system analyst System -odels

system analyst system designer

' 1ser Interface 2%uestions D answers! on screen menus! graphics3 0rograms -odules -anuals > >

8.

system analyst programmer

9.

.esting D -aintaining the System

system analyst programmer de"ugger tester

>

re&ised codes > modules > programs

B. Implementing D (&aluating the System -

system analyst users management system trainers

' 1GGH system

running

St#u)tu#e& Syste
-

A!a-ysis

a method for descri"ing system using figures and flow lines rather than written narrati&es.

T$$-s $* St#u)tu#e& A!a-ysis


1. $. 7. 4. -odeling System =unctions e4. Data =low Diagram -odeling Stored Data e4. (ntity +elation Diagram -odeling 0rogram Structure e4. 0rogram =lowchart -odeling .ime e4. 5antt Chart

11

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

Syste
-

M$&erepresentation of an in placed system or proposed system that descri"es the data flow throughout the structure

Uses $* Syste

M$&e-i!. T$$-s

1. .o focus on important system features $. .o discuss changes and corrections to the user?s re%uirements with low cost and minimal risk 7. .o &erify that the system analyst understand the user?s en&ironment and has documented it for the system designers and programmers can "uild it.

Syste

M$&e-i!. T$$-s
3DFD4

<. Data F-$( Dia.#a -

a modeling tools use to descri"e the transformation of inputs into outputs a graphic illustration that shows the flow of data and logic within the system

N$tati$!s = Sy b$-s Use&0 a. (ntity 2.erminator3 a s%uare "o4 specifies either the source or the destination of data ". 0rocess 2"u""les3 represents the transformation or processing of information within the system c. Data Store a point in a system where information is permanently or temporarily stored or held.

d. =low line > Information pipes connect e4ternal entities! process and data store elements ' can "e one way or two ways

N$tati$!

Na e (ntity

E>a '-e Student Student )o!

=low 6ine

0rocess

Data Store

1.G

Sa&e +ecord

12

D1

Student =ile

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

+ui&e-i!es *$# C$!st#u)ti!. a C$!siste!t DFD a. A&oid infinite sinks "u""le process that has inputs "ut no outputs.

0roces s

". A&oid spontaneous generation processes processes that ha&e outputs "ut no inputs

0rocess

c.

eware of unla"eled flow lines and unla"eled processes and data store

d. A&oid hanging flow lines e. A&oid connecting the entity with the data store! entity with another entity and data store with data store

(ntity

Data Store

(ntity

(ntity

Data Store

Data Store

De"e-$'i!. Data F-$( Dia.#a s Usi!. T$' D$(! A''#$a)h 3+e!e#a- t$ S'e)i*i)4 1. -ake a list of "usiness acti&ities and use it to determine the: (4ternal entities Data =lows 0rocesses Data Store

13

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

$. Create a Conte4t Diagram which shows (4ternal (ntities and Data =lows to and from the system. Do not show any detailed processes or data stores. 7. Draw a 0arent Diagram! the ne4t le&el. Show processes! "ut keep them general. Show data stores at this le&el. 4. Create a Child Diagram for each of the processes in the 0arent Diagram 8. Check for errors and make sure the la"els you assign to each process and data flow are meaningful C$!te>t Dia.#a 3Le"e- ?4 An o&er&iew! which includes "asic input! the general system and the output! ird?s eye &iew of data mo&ement on the system and the "roadest possi"le conceptuali#ation of the system .he highest le&el in a data flow diagram and contains one process! representing the entire system .he process is gi&en the num"er G 2#ero3. E>'-$&e& Dia.#a -ore detailed than the Conte4t Diagram "y Ee4ploding the diagramsF a. Pa#e!t Dia.#a 3The Ne>t Le"e-4 Inputs and outputs in the first diagram remains constant! howe&er the rest of the original diagram is e4ploded into close ups in&ol&ing 7 to I processes and showing data stores and new lower le&el data flows (ach process is num"ered with an integer. b. Chi-& Dia.#a 3M$#e Detai-e& Le"e-4 (ach process in 0arent Diagram may in turn "e e4ploded to create a more detailed child diagram .he processes on the child diagram are num"ered using the parent process num"er! a decimal point and a uni%ue num"er for each child process @0rimiti&e 0rocess a process that cannot "e e4ploded anymore E>a '-e $* Data F-$( Dia.#a

Su

a#y $* %usi!ess A)ti"ities *$# C$ 'ute#i@e& E!-ist e!t Syste

A. .he student encodes his student num"er and password which will "e &erified in the Student Data"ase. . .he a&aila"le su"Aects are then displayed which are located at the Su"Aect Schedule Data"ase C. .he student chooses his su"Aects which is stored in the (nlist Data"ase D. .he student has the option of canceling his enlisted su"Aects. .he cancellation is sa&ed in the (nlist Data"ase (. .he printed form which contains the su"Aects enlisted is gi&en to the student.

14

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

The C$!te>t Dia.#a

Student . Student information

0rinted
Student

Computeri#e d (nlistment

form

System

The E>'-$&e& Dia.#a

D1 Student =ile

Student information 1.G *erify 6ogin


*alid password

D$ Su"A. Sched =ile Schedule of Su"Aects

Student

Student information

$.G Display A&aila"l e Su"Aects

0rinted

form 4.G Cancel Su"Aect (nlisted su"Aects

A&aila"le su"Aects 7.G

8.G 0rint =orm

(nlist Su"Ae ct
(nlisted su"Aects

(nlisted su"Aects

Cancelled su"Aects
D7 (nlist =ile

A. ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIA+RAM 3ERD4

15

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES Depicts the relationship "etween data o"Aects. A notation that is used to conduct data modeling acti&ity .he attri"utes of each data o"Aect noted in the (+D can "e descri"ed using data o"Aect description. E!tity , , (4ample: the element that makes up an organi#ational system may "e a person! a place! a thing! an e&ent. passenger on an airplane! a destination! a plane! sales period Student

Re-ati$!shi' , the association that descri"es the interaction among the entities

teac h

Di**e#e!t Ty'es $* Re-ati$!shi' a. one to one

(mployee

has

(mployee )um"er

". one to many

.eacher

teach es

Student

c.

many to one
0rogrammer

Is assign ed

0roAect

d. many to many
Destination

<ill "e &isited

0assenger

Di**e#e!t Ty'es $* E!tities a. =undamental (ntity usually a real entity: a person! place! or thing
=undamental (ntity

16

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

(4.
makes a reser&ation makes a "ooking for

0atron

Concert>Show

".

Associati&e (ntity something created that Aoints two entities


Ass$)iat i"e E!tity

(4.
makes a reser&ation Is for a Rese #, "ati$ n holds

0atron

makes a "ooking

Concert>Show

c.

Attri"uti&e (ntity something useful in descri"ing attri"utes! especially repeating groups

(4.
makes a reser&ation

Attri"uti&e (ntity

Is made for Rese #, "ati$ n has

0atron

makes a "ooking

0erformanc e

elongs to has

Concert > Show

B. DATA DICTIONARY , a repository that contains description of all o"Aects consumed or produced "y software. , ' it is an organi#ed listing of all data elements that are pertinent to the system! with precise! definitions so that "oth user and system analyst will ha&e common understanding of inputs! outputs! component of stores and intermediate calculations created "y e4amining and descri"ing the contents of the data flow! data stores and processes.

Sy b$-s use& i! )$!st#u)ti!. a Data Di)ti$!a#y Sy b$- Na e (%ual 0lus races rackets N$tati$! J K LM NOP Mea!i!. Is composed of And )th +epetition (ither > ,r Situation

17

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES 0arenthesis E>a '-e0 1. Student Information J Student )um"er K Student 0assword $. (nlisted Su"Aect J Su"Aect Code K Su"Aect Description K Su"Aect Schedule 7. Su"Aect Schedule J Su"Aect .ime K Su"Aect +oom 23 ,ptional (lement

5. FLOWCHART , a graphic representation of the steps in the solution of a pro"lem in which sym"ols represent operations! data flow! hardware and the system plan.

Ty'es $* F-$()ha#t a. Syste F-$()ha#t C diagrams illustrate the mo&ement of data in an organi#ation. .hey show the se%uence of process through which information mo&es. ' documents the o&erall system b. P#$.#a F-$()ha#t C shows the se%uence of steps performed in a computer program ' deals with the information flow through the computer $!-y Use& Sy b$-s Sy b$Use Computer 0rocess E>a '-e
Compute )et 0ay

M$st C$

0redefined 0rocess

Call Compute (arnings +outine

Input > ,utput

+ead a record

Decision

QR 1G

.erminator

(5I)

Connector
A

-anual 0rocess

6og name

18

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

=low 6ines

0rinter 2document > report3 Secondary storage > Data"ase

Daily .ime sheets

(mployee Data"ase

E>a '-e $* Syste

F-$()ha#t

(5I) 0A/+,66 S/S.(-

Super&isor su"mit time sheets

.ime Sheets

0roduce payroll checks and register

(mployee Data"ase

0ayroll register

0ayroll checks

6og num"er of last check

Distri"ute checks to employe es

()D 0A/+,66 S/S.(-

19

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

E>a '-e $* P#$.#a

F-$()ha#t

(5I) 0A/+,66 C:(CC 0+,5+A-

Call Input Data

Call Compute )et 0ay

Call Compute 5ross (arnings

Call ,utput

()D 0A/+,66 C:(CC 0+,5+A-

+ead (mployee +ecord

Compute gross pay 2hours @ rate3

Calculate Deductions

1pdate (mployee Data"ase

(nd of =ile;

(QI.

Compute net pay 2gross pay deductions3

0rint 0ayroll Check

(QI. (QI. (QI.

2-

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

D. Hie#a#)hi)a- I!'ut P#$)ess Out'ut 3HIPO4 C an attempt to pro&ide programmers with "etter structured tools for dealing with systems TYPES0 a. ;isua- Tab-e O* C$!te!ts 3;TOC4 chart shows a hierarchy in which le&el of detail increases from the top of the chart to the "ottom! mo&ing from general to specific. .his is called .opDown De&elopment bE I!'ut C P#$)ess C Out'ut 3IPO4 , chart shows the processing acti&ity for any gi&en module in the *isual .a"le ,f Contents. b.<. IPO O"e#"ie( Dia.#a b.A. IPO Detai-e& Dia.#a C shows the general se%uence of step C detailed *.,C chart

). Wa#!ie# C O## Dia.#a , named after Sean Domi%ue <arnier and Cen ,rr. - the diagram resem"les a *isual .a"le of Content placed on its side. .he maAor or general modules are listed at the left of the page! while the right shows the detailed modules. E>a '-e0 C#eate the Hie#a#)hi)a- I!'ut C Out'ut P#$)ess *$# MS WORD

MS WORD =I6( )ew


,pen Sa&e 0rint (4it

(DI. 1ndo Copy


Cut 0aste

*I(< .ool"ar )ormal Toom

=,+-A.

:(60
A"out

=ont
.a"s

A! e>a '-e $* a ;TOC

G MS WORD

1.G FILE

$.G EDIT

7.G ;IEW

4.G FORMAT

8.G HELP

21

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

1.G FILE

1.1 NEW

1.$ OPEN

1.7 SA;E $.G EDIT

1.4 PRINT

1.8 E/IT

$.1 UNDO

$.$ COPY 7.G ;IEW

$.7 CUT

$.4 PASTE

7.1 TOOL%AR

7.$ NORMAL 4.G FORMAT

7.7 FOOM

4.1 FONT

4.$ TA%S 22

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

8.G HELP 8.1 A%OUT


E>a '-e $* a! I!'ut C P#$)ess C Out'ut A. IPO O"e#"ie( Dia.#a INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

Cey"oard -ouse Click Data

Automated <ord 0rocessing

Document 6etters -emos

%.

IPO Detai-e& Dia.#a

0rogram: -odule:

MSWORD <.? FILE

Author:

Mi)#$s$*t C$#'.

Date Created: Ma#)h AGE A??B PROCESS 6oad > Display =ile Su" -enu OUTPUT =ile Su"menu ' )ew ' ,pen ' Sa&e ' 0rint ' (4it Mi)#$s$*t C$#'.

INPUT -ouse Click ,n E=ileF ,r Cey 0ress EAlt K =F

0rogram: -odule:

MSWORD <.< NEW

Author:

Date Created: Ma#)h AGE A??B PROCESS OUTPUT

INPUT -ouse Click ,n E)ewF ,r Cey 0ress E)F

,pen )ew Document

)ew Document 23

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

E>a '-e $* a Wa#!ie# C O## Dia.#a

=I6(

)(< ,0() SA*( 0+I). (QI.


1)D, C,0/ C1. 0AS.( .,,6 A+ ),+-A6 T,,-

(DI.

MS WORD
*I(<

=,+-A.

=,). .A S

:(60

A ,1.

H. +ANTT CHART ' ' ' introduced "y :enry 6. 5antt a scheduling tool that diagrams starting and ending dates of tasks marks off time periods in days! weeks or months! thus the system de&elopers can see at a glance what acti&ities are to "e performed! when each "egins and when each terminates

(4ample of a 5antt Chart


AC.I*I.I(S Sept ,ct )o& Dec San =e" -ar Apr -ay Sun Sul Aug

1 $ 7 4 1 $ 7 4 1 $ 7 4 1 $ 7 4 1 $ 7 4 1 $ 7 4 1 $ 7 4 1 $ 7 4 1 $ 7 4 1 $ 7 4 1 $ 7 4 1 $ 7 4 <eeks .opic Appro&al 5athering Information Su"missions of Chapters

24

CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES


1!$!7 0rogram 0lanning 0rogram 6isting 0rogram De"ugging +e&ision +e&ision ,ral Defense =inal +e&ision

E/ERCISES0
Create the different system modeling tools for the gi&en 0ayroll System. 1. $. 7. 4. Data =low Diagram 2conte4t and e4ploded diagram3 Data Dictionary System =lowchart 0rogram =lowchart

List $* %usi!ess A)ti"ities $* a Pay#$-- Syste A. . C. D. (. =. (ach employee has an (mployee .ime +ecord which will "e stored in an (mployee .ime =ile. (mployee .ime =ile and (mployee -aster =ile is then looked up to calculate the 5ross 0ay. Calculate the <ithholding Amount "y getting the total num"er of dependents that an employee has and the <ithholding +ate as input. Calculate the )et 0ay "y using the data o"tained from computing the 5ross 0ay and the <ithholding Amount. .he (mployee 0aycheck is printed which includes the 5ross 0ay Amount! <ithholding Amount and the )et 0ay. (mployee is gi&en his 0aycheck and the (mployee +ecord is updated.

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CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

NAME0 INSTRUCTOR0

SECTION0 DATE0

CHAPTER I; FEASI%ILITY STUDY


A feasi"ility study "egins with pro"lems or with opportunities for impro&ement within a "usiness that often comes up as the organi#ation adapts to change.

A. P#$b-e s (ithi! the O#.a!i@ati$!


T$ i&e!ti*y P#$b-e s Check output against performance criteria L$$6 *$# S'e)i*i) Si.!s0 ' .oo many errors ' <ork completed slowly ' <ork done incorrectly ' <ork done incompletely ' <ork not done at all ' :igh a"senteeism ' :igh Ao" dissatisfaction ' :igh Ao" turno&er ' Complaints ' Suggestions for impro&ements ' 6ower sales ' 6oss of sales

,"ser&e "eha&ior of employees 6isten to e4ternal feed"ack ' *endors ' Customers ' Suppliers

%. O''$#tu!ities *$# I '#$"e e!ts


1. Speeding up a process $. Streamlining a process elimination of unnecessary or duplicated steps 7. Com"ining processes 4. +educing errors in inputs through changes of forms and display screens 8. +educing redundant output 9. Impro&ing integration of systems and su"systems B. Impro&ing worker satisfaction with system U. Impro&ing ease of customer! supplier>&endor interaction with the system

Dete# i!i!. Feasibi-ity FEASI%ILITY


-

ea!s that the P#$'$se& Syste 0

:elps the organi#ation attain o&erall o"Aecti&es

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CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES Is possi"le to accomplish with present organi#ational resources in the following three areas: Te)h!i)a- Feasibi-ity Add on to present system .echnology a&aila"le to meet user?s needs E)$!$ i) Feasibi-ity Systems analysts? time Cost of systems study Cost of employees? time for study (stimated cost of hardware Cost of packaged software>software de&elopment O'e#ati$!a- Feasibi-ity <hether the system will operate when installed <hether the system will "e used

FORMAT OF FEASI%ILITY STUDY


.itle 0age Acknowledgement Dedication .a"le of Contents Chapter I: Introduction 1.1 ackground of the study 1.$ System ,&er&iew 1.7 Statement of the 0ro"lem 1.4 ,"Aecti&es of the Study 1.4.1 5eneral ,"Aecti&e 1.4.$ Specific ,"Aecti&e 1.8 Scope and Delimitation System Analysis $.1 Data =low Diagram $.$ System =lowchart System Design 7.1 :ierarchical Input 0rocess ,utput 7.1.1 *isual .a"le of Contents 7.1.$ Input 0rocess ,utput 7.$ 0rogram =lowchart 7.7 Screen Design > Sample ,utput Cost enefit Analysis Summary! Conclusion and +ecommendation 5antt Chart 0rogram 6isting 5roup 0ictures Curriculum *itae

Chapter II:

Chapter III:

Chapter I*: Chapter *: Appendices

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CSCI14 System Analysis and Design Instructor: MELJUN P. CORTES

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