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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

LAB SHEET
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

EME 3046

TRIMESTER 2 (2012/2013)

Experiment 1: Experi e!" 2#

Fatigue Testing B$%&'i!( )* S"r$"+

N)"e # S"$,e!"+ -re -,.i+e, ") re-, "/r)$(/ "/i+ '-0 +/ee" 0e*)re ,)i!( experi e!"1

Experiment 1: Fatigue Testing

Programme Outcome (PO):


PO1: Ability to acquire and apply fundamental principles of science and engineering PO : !apability to communicate effecti"ely# PO$ % Acquisition of tec&nical competence in specialised areas of engineering discipline# PO' % Ability to (or) effecti"ely as an indi"idual* and as a member+leader in a team#

,earning Outcome (,O):


,O : Apply "arious failure criteria to predict t&e be&a"ior of materials under multiaxial stress states# (cogniti"e % applying* le"el $)#

Ob-ecti"e
To study the influence of endin! st"ess on the f#ilu"e of test s$eci%ens&

T&e Experiment
1# .pecimens In this e'$e"i%ent( "ot#tin! c#ntile)e" s$eci%ens %#de of Alu%inu%( *"#ss #nd Mild steel +ill e used& E#ch student !"ou$ +ill e #ssi!ned s$eci%ens of # sin!le %#te"i#l& E'$e"i%ents +ill e conducted #t diffe"ent lo#din!s& E'$e"i%ent#l d#t# on othe" %#te"i#ls +ill e sh#"ed #%on! !"ou$s&

# Apparatus The e,ui$%ent is desi!ned to study the effects of f#ti!ue usin! # "ot#tin! c#ntile)e" s$eci%en& S$indle s$eci%en is #tt#ched to one end of # "ot#tin! sh#ft held to the #se y self-#li!ned e#"in!s& Lo#d is #$$lied on the s$indle $"oducin! # sinusoid#l endin! st"ess& .i!it#l "e)olution counte" /ee$s #ccount of nu% e" of "e)olution +hen f#ilu"e occu"s& A li%it s+itch is $"o)ided to sto$ the "ot#tion +hen s$eci%en f#ils&

Figure 1# Fatigue Testing Apparatus

$# Tec&nical /ata Moto" Re)olution counte" Lo#din! %ech#nis% 3o+e" su$$ly 0100 "$%( 0&2 H3 1 di!its S$"in! #l#nce( 30 /! 000 4( 5 3h&( 20 H6

0# Ot&ers The use of co%$ute" soft+#"e #$$lic#tions to note do+n the d#t# #"e encou"#!ed( e&!& E'cel( . #se etc etc&

1et&odology
5& In this e'$e"i%ent( you #"e su$$osed to co%$lete the follo+in! deli)e"# les7#& Find out the f#ti!ue st"en!th #nd f#ti!ue life8endu"#nce li%it of the s$eci%ens !i)en the diffe"ent endin! st"ess #$$lied & 4e"ify if the f#ti!ue cu")e %#/es sense f"o% theo"etic#l $e"s$ecti)e

0& 9nde"st#nd +h#t di%ensions of the s$eci%en need to e %e#su"ed fo" c#lcul#tions in this e'$e"i%ent& :h#t #"e the i%$o"t#nt e,u#tions th#t you h#)e le#"ned in the cl#ss th#t #"e "ele)#nt to this l# ; 3& 9nde"st#nd ho+ the #$$#"#tus +o"/& <ou %#y s$end # out 00 %inutes to set u$ the e'$e"i%ent #s sho+n in Fi!u"e 5( #nd consult the l# technici#n sh#ll you encounte" #ny difficulties& M#/e su"e th#t you %#/e $"o$e" effo"ts to "eco"d the net lo#d th#t "e$"esents ONL< the endin! lo#d on the s$eci%en& <ou c#n #chie)e this y h#)in! # $"o$e" set-u$ of the e'$e"i%ent& Thin/ c#"efully # out ho+ diffe"ent lo#ds %#y h#)e een #$$lied on you" s$eci%en( if you #"e not c#"eful& A lot of students %#/e %ist#/es in !ettin! the net lo#d& 4& Once you #"e f#%ili#" +ith the o$e"#tion of the #$$#"#tus( c#""y out the e'$e"i%ent to o t#in the d#t# "e,ui"ed fo" #n#lysis& Test should e!in #t hi!h lo#d such #s 02 /! in o"de" to /no+ the s$eci%en f#ti!ue st"en!th then !"#du#lly "educe the lo#d& 2& :hen s$eci%en f#ils( "e$e#t the e'$e"i%ent +ith # f"esh s$eci%en& 6& Sh#"e you" d#t# +ith othe" student !"ou$s so th#t you h#)e co%$lete d#t# fo" diffe"ent %#te"i#ls7 =5> Alu%inu%( =0> *"#ss #nd =3> Mild steel( "es$ecti)ely( efo"e le#)in! the l# &

Analysis
5& Chec/ th#t the d#t# you o t#ined f"o% the e'$e"i%ent #"e sufficient fo" you" #n#lysis #nd +ill hel$ you to $"o)ide e)idence fo" you conclusion& 0& 3l#n you" #n#lysis ste$ y ste$& 3& Reduce you" d#t# to the #$$"o$"i#te fo"%#t "e,ui"ed fo" #n#lysis& 4& A$$ly the theo"y le#"nt in the cl#ss #nd $"o)e th#t the theo"y is co""ect& In c#se of disc"e$#ncy( e'$l#in the e""o"s in)ol)ed +ith st"on! ?ustific#tion& Me"ely l#%in! hu%#n e""o"s o" e,ui$%ent +ithout $"o)idin! e)idence is un#cce$t# le& 2& Co%%ent on the "el#tionshi$ #%on! #ll d#t# =lo#d( nu% e" of "e)olution to f#il( #lte"n#tin! st"ess #nd endu"#nce st"ess>& .iscuss the effect of endin! st"ess on f#ilu"e& :h#t #"e the $#"#%ete"s th#t #ffect the f#ilu"e of the s$eci%en; E'$l#in&

6& .iscuss if the"e e'ists # theo"etic#l %odel #!#inst +hich the e'$e"i%ent#l f#ilu"e st"ess c#n e co%$#"ed; Is the"e #n e%$i"ic#l %odel; 3le#se do so%e lite"#tu"e study& @& E'$l#in the diffe"ences in endu"#nce li%it of the diffe"ent %#te"i#ls& :h#t( if #ny( does endu"#nce li%it tell you # out the f#ti!ue st"en!th; 1& :h#t #"e the $"o le%s( if #ny( encounte"ed +hile doin! the e'$e"i%ent; Ho+ do the $"o le%s #ffect you" %e#su"e%ents #nd8o" "esults; :h#t #"e the ste$s you t#/e to o)e"co%e o" %ini%i6e the i%$#ct of such $"o le%; A& .oes it %#/e sense to "e$o"t the f#ti!ue st"en!th of # %#te"i#l +ithout "e$o"tin! the nu% e" of f#ti!ue cycle; :hy #nd +hy not; 50& .esi!n #nothe" e'$e"i%ent to test the f#ti!ue li%it of # %#te"i#l& :h#t +ill e the #$$#"#tus #nd ste$s in)ol)ed( #nd ho+ +ill you #n#ly6e the d#t# t#/en f"o% such e'$e"i%ent;

2eport
5& M#/e su"e th#t you" "e$o"t is self-st#ndin! #nd it %ust #t le#st cont#in the follo+in!7 #& 3u"$ose of the e'$e"i%ent & Methodolo!y you used c& Results #nd d#t# "eduction d& An#lysis e& .iscussion f& Conclusion 0& <ou" "e$o"t %ust e ty$ed on A4 si6e $#$e" +ith no"%#l %#"!ins usin! Ti%es Ro%#n font 50& All di#!"#%s #nd $hotos %ust e $#"t of the "e$o"t =not $#sted on to the "e$o"t>& 3& <ou" "e$o"t %ust h#)e # co)e" +ith the n#%e of the cou"se #nd the e'$e"i%ent to$ic +ell dis$l#yed on the f"ont co)e"& 4& In +"itin! the %ethodolo!y( use $#st tense #nd $#ssi)e sentence st"uctu"e& 2& <ou" #n#lysis should co)e" #ll the deli)e"# les s$ecified in ite% 5> of Methodolo!y section&

6& Re$o"t is due one +ee/ f"o% the d#te +hen the e'$e"i%ent is conducted&

:ARNINB7 If you #"e found to $l#!i#"i6e othe"sC "e$o"ts o" you" "e$o"t +#s ein! $l#!i#"i6ed ec#use you did not s#fe!u#"d you" Dintellectu#l $"o$e"tiesE( oth the $l#!i#"i6e"Cs #nd the $l#!i#"i6eeCs "e$o"ts +ill e !i)en FERO !"#de& 3mportant notes: 5& If you do not su %it you" "#+ d#t# efo"e l# session ends( conside" th#t you +ill !et 6e"o %#"/s fo" the "esults& 0& Refe" to the inst"uctions( "e!ul#tions #nd %#"/in! sche%e efo"e you st#"t +"itin! you" "e$o"t& 56 Octo e" 0053

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

LAB SHEET
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

EME 3046

TRIMESTER 2 (2012/2013)

Experi e!" 1# Experiment 2:

F-"i($e Te+"i!( Buckling of Struts

N)"e # S"$,e!"+ -re -,.i+e, ") re-, "/r)$(/ "/i+ '-0 +/ee" 0e*)re ,)i!( experi e!"1

Experiment

: 4uc)ling of .truts

Programme Outcome (PO):


PO1: Ability to acquire and apply fundamental principles of science and engineering PO : !apability to communicate effecti"ely# PO$ % Acquisition of tec&nical competence in specialised areas of engineering discipline# PO' % Ability to (or) effecti"ely as an indi"idual* and as a member+leader in a team#

,earning Outcome (,O):


,O5: /etermine t&e critical loading of columns (it& different end conditions before buc)ling ta)es place# (cogniti"e % applying* le"el $)#

Ob-ecti"es
5& To dete"%ine the deflections fo" st"uts of diffe"ent %#te"i#ls( len!ths #nd c"oss sections& 0& To co%$#"e the e'$e"i%ent#l #nd theo"etic#l c"itic#l lo#d )#lues fo" uc/lin! of st"uts&

T&e Experiment
1# .pecimen In this e'$e"i%ent( diffe"ent st"uts %#de of Alu%inu%( *"#ss #nd Mild steel +ill e used& E#ch student !"ou$ %ust use #ll the th"ee %#te"i#ls to co%$lete the e'$e"i%ent& # Apparatus The #$$#"#tus is used to de%onst"#te uc/lin! unde" diffe"ent lo#ds #nd end conditions& I%$o"t#nt $#"ts of the #$$#"#tus #"e det#iled in Figure 1 #nd consist of7 5& T+in !uide colu%ns on # #se $l#te +ith to$ c"oss he#d& 0& A lo#din! c"oss #" +hich c#n e #d?usted #lon! the !uide colu%ns& 3& A lo#din! sc"e+ #$$lyin! lo#d th"ou!h # !uide "od( +hich is # #ll ushin!& 4& A lo#d cell fo" lo#d indic#tion +ith soc/et #tt#ch%ent to su$$o"t "od end& 2& A di#l !#!e fo" %e#su"e%ent of s$eci%en side deflection&

6& A side lo#din! de)ice consistin! of # $ulley( lo#d h#n!e" #nd +ei!hts& @& To$ #nd otto% s$eci%en holde"s fo" /nife-ed!e #nd uilt-in %ountin!&

St"ut =test s$eci%en>

Figure 1# 4uc)ling of .truts Apparatus

$# Tec&nical /ata .ist#nce et+een colu%ns Lo#d cell c#$#city .i#l !#u!e "#n!e M#'i%u% st"o/e of lo#din! sc"e+ Len!th of st"uts - Mild steel 7 - *"#ss 7 - Alu%iniu%7 4-notch cylinde"s fo" $i)ot su$$o"ts =These #"e the to$ #nd otto% s$eci%en holde"s #s e'$l#ined in Fi!u"e 5> 200( 220( 600( 620( @00( @20 %% @20 %% @20 %% 0 units 020 %% 520 /! 0-02 %% =0&05 %% "esolution> 50 %%

0# Ot&ers The use of co%$ute" soft+#"e #$$lic#tions to note do+n the d#t# #"e encou"#!ed( e&!& E'cel( . #se etc etc&

1et&odology
5& In this e'$e"i%ent( you #"e su$$osed to co%$lete the follo+in! deli)e"# les7#& An in)esti!#tion of the effects of %#te"i#ls( !eo%et"y of s$eci%ens( ound#"y conditions =$inned end )e"sus fi'ed end> #nd the $"esence of side lo#din!s on the c"itic#l uc/lin! lo#d( 3c"& 3le#se desi!n you" e'$e"i%ent $"o$e"ly #nd dete"%ine +hich sets of e'$e"i%ents +ill le#d you to unde"st#ndin! of such effects& E#ch effect should e in)esti!#ted +ith #t le#st one set of d#t#& & 3lot !"#$h of lo#d )e"sus the deflection& c& 3"esent you" d#t# in t# ul#" #nd !"#$hic#l fo"%s to sho+ co%$#"#ti)e )#lues fo" the theo"etic#l #nd e'$e"i%ent#l )#lues of 3c" #nd G e""o"& d& 4e"ify the uc/lin! lo#ds +ith those c#lcul#ted y Eule"Cs theo"y& 0& 9nde"st#nd +h#t di%ensions of the st"uts need to e %e#su"ed fo" c#lcul#tions in this e'$e"i%ent& :h#t #"e the i%$o"t#nt e,u#tions th#t you h#)e le#"ned in the cl#ss th#t #"e "ele)#nt to this l# ; 3& 9nde"st#nd ho+ the #$$#"#tus +o"/& <ou %#y s$end # out 00 %inutes to set u$ the e'$e"i%ent #s sho+n in Fi!u"e 5( #nd consult the l# technici#n sh#ll you encounte" #ny difficulties& Note th#t you need to #li!n the st"ut #nd #d?ust the lo#din! sc"e+ until the st"ut fits in $l#ce +ithout co%$"ession lo#d& Inst#ll the di#l !#!e #nd #ll necess#"y #ccesso"ies to co%$lete you" e'$e"i%ent& 4& Once you #"e f#%ili#" +ith the o$e"#tion of the #$$#"#tus( c#""y out the e'$e"i%ent to o t#in the d#t# "e,ui"ed fo" #n#lysis& A$$ly lo#d !"#du#lly #nd "eco"d the lo#d #$$lied #nd deflections #t #$$"o$"i#te inte")#ls& 2& Re$e#t the e'$e"i%ent fo" the othe" st"uts of diffe"ent end conditions( diffe"ent len!ths( #nd diffe"ent %#te"i#ls( +ith8+ithout side lo#din!&

Analysis
5& Chec/ th#t the d#t# you o t#ined f"o% the e'$e"i%ent #"e sufficient fo" you" #n#lysis #nd +ill hel$ you to $"o)ide e)idence fo" you conclusion& 0& 3l#n you" #n#lysis ste$ y ste$&

3& Reduce you" d#t# to the #$$"o$"i#te fo"%#t "e,ui"ed fo" #n#lysis& 4& A$$ly the theo"y le#"nt in the cl#ss #nd $"o)e th#t the theo"y is co""ect& In c#se of disc"e$#ncy( e'$l#in the e""o"s in)ol)ed +ith st"on! ?ustific#tion& Me"ely l#%in! hu%#n e""o"s o" e,ui$%ent +ithout $"o)idin! e)idence is un#cce$t# le& 2& :h#t #"e the $"o le%s( if #ny( encounte"ed +hile doin! the e'$e"i%ent; Ho+ do the $"o le%s #ffect you" %e#su"e%ents #nd8o" "esults; :h#t #"e the ste$s you t#/e to o)e"co%e o" %ini%i6e the i%$#ct of such $"o le%; 6& .esi!n #nothe" e'$e"i%ent to test the c"itic#l uc/lin! lo#d of # %#te"i#l& :h#t +ill e the #$$#"#tus #nd ste$s in)ol)ed( #nd ho+ +ill you #n#ly6e the d#t# t#/en f"o% such e'$e"i%ent;

2eport
5& M#/e su"e th#t you" "e$o"t is self-st#ndin! #nd it %ust #t le#st cont#in the follo+in!7 #& 3u"$ose of the e'$e"i%ent & Methodolo!y you used c& Results #nd d#t# "eduction d& An#lysis e& 3"o le%s encounte"ed +ith #nd +hile doin! the e'$e"i%ent f& .iscussion !& Conclusion 0& <ou" "e$o"t %ust e ty$ed on A4 si6e $#$e" +ith no"%#l %#"!ins usin! Ti%es Ro%#n font 50& All di#!"#%s #nd $hotos %ust e $#"t of the "e$o"t =not $#sted on to the "e$o"t>& 3& <ou" "e$o"t %ust h#)e # co)e" +ith the n#%e of the cou"se #nd the e'$e"i%ent to$ic +ell dis$l#yed on the f"ont co)e"& 4& In +"itin! the %ethodolo!y( use $#st tense #nd $#ssi)e sentence st"uctu"e&

2& <ou" #n#lysis should co)e" #ll the deli)e"# les s$ecified in ite% 5> of Methodolo!y section& 6& Re$o"t is due one +ee/ f"o% the d#te +hen the e'$e"i%ent is conducted& :ARNINB7 If you #"e found to $l#!i#"i6e othe"sC "e$o"ts o" you" "e$o"t +#s ein! $l#!i#"i6ed ec#use you did not s#fe!u#"d you" Dintellectu#l $"o$e"tiesE( oth the $l#!i#"i6e"Cs #nd the $l#!i#"i6eeCs "e$o"ts +ill e !i)en FERO !"#de& 3mportant notes: 5& If you do not su %it you" "#+ d#t# efo"e l# session ends( conside" th#t you +ill !et 6e"o %#"/s fo" the "esults& 0& Refe" to the inst"uctions( "e!ul#tions #nd %#"/in! sche%e efo"e you st#"t +"itin! you" "e$o"t& 56 Octo e" 0053