Anda di halaman 1dari 10

Digital Re-print November | December 2013

FEED FOCUS: Animal feeding in the future: reaching genetic potential through smarter nutrition?
Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872

Animal feeding in the future:

reaching genetic potential through smarter nutrition?
by Aidan Connolly, Vice President, Alltech Inc. and Dr Alexis Kiers, poultry health consultant, Washington, DC, USA


Feed focus

n the last decade, animal protein production has faced all-time record high commodities prices, the occurrence of serious diseases such as avian influenza (e.g. H7N9), porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED), food scares, salmonella in dairy farming and campylobacter in chickens. Each of which is related to the increased intensification of farming, but can be mostly attributed to authorities' ability to analyse for contaminents at even lower levels. Indeed, the ability to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals and mycotoxins in feedstuffs has never been more sensitive, making us aware of risks we never used to imagine. Against this backdrop, the increased restriction on the use of growth promoting compounds such as subtherapeutic antibiotics (AGPs) has been a worldwide phenomenon. New limits on the incluson of AGPs in animal diets are now in place in the 28 European Union countries, the Middle East, Turkey, Japan, Chile, India and South Korea, and the United States will soon follow. Its Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is on course to implement restrictions in late 2016, either by removing antibiotic compounds from the market completely or by requiring their re-registration for therapeutic use, with veterinary oversight and prescription. It may seem that the only constant for those involved in the production of meat, milk and eggs is that these changes will continue to occur at an even greater rate. In the meantime, the genetic improvements in animals continue to astonish even the hardiest of observers. While farm productivity yields have improved in the last seven years at half the rate of the previous 50 years, we continue to see extraordinary leaps in the ability to get more from less. Historically, broiler producers talked

about the ideal of '2:2:42', which meant profits, that target may be difficult to envigrowing a two kilogram bird, with a feed sion. Animal protein producers are already conversion ratio of 2:1, in 42 days. With efficient; for example, broiler integrated continued genetic advances, and a rhythm of operations are reaching two kilogram marimprovements of 50 grammes or 2 percent ket weight in 36 days, attaining an 85 extra weight for the same age per year, will it percent yield, and achieving a 1.45 FCR. be possible to achieve that same weight with So where are the gaps between genetic potential and real animal performance? Is just one kilo of feed by 2025? In a global context, this means we could reaching a 1:1 FCR by 2025 in poultry, or use 30 percent less grain to produce 100 2:1 in pigs a dream, or a reality? The possibility of a 1:1 FCR was first probillion tonnes of broiler meat, or produce 45 percent more meat with the same feed, posed by Foulds in 20052, and more recently making chicken meat even more economi- by Brazilian nutrition and feed management cal, and thereby assuring its availability to consultant Ronei Gauer. The industry is, a growing population. When we look at however, still struggling to reach that taregg, turkey, duck, pork, dairy and even beef get. At Alltech's 29th Symposium, speakers production, we see similar advances, albeit highlighted five obstacles in poultry that are sometimes harder to quantify because of estimated to represent as many as 40 points the multitude of feed sources used, and the of lost feed conversion (0.40) in poultry. less homogenised nature of their production systems. If genetic improvements can bring Gut health about a 30 percent reduction of the entire Gut health plays a vital role in poulindustrial feed market approaching one bil- try production. Dr Peter Ferket of North lion tonnes', they have significant implications for the sustainability and availability of affordable food. With the world's population closing in on eight billion by 2025, and set to exceed nine billion by 2050, the critical importance of continuing to improve food production efficiencies is clear. Sometimes, however, the short-term focus takes precedence. Amid our current state of battling $350 per ton Figure 1: US agricultural output, inputs, and total factor productivity, 1948-2011 (USDA, Economic feed costs, and downResearch Service) ward pressure on bird prices pulling down

20 | November - December 2013


POULTRY Carolina State University pointed out that only a healthy gut can digest and absorb the maximal amount of nutrients. If the digestive system is compromised, its requirements for energy and protein increase sharply. This can severely diminish the nutrients available to the bird for growth, slowing weight gain and leaving a plunge in feed efficiency. In addition, most intestinal challenges will lead to reduced feed intake that can further impact bird performance. Three components are important for a healthy gut and improving FCR: ecological environment, nutrient balance and symbiotic microbial stability. Poor intestinal health can increase moisture content of the excreta, negatively affecting litter conditions, increasing ammonia levels in the house and leading to respiratory problems. Wet litter has also been shown to increase footpad dermatitis, hock burns, processing downgrades and condemnations. Runting, stunting and other viral diseases can also be exacerbated by a poor house microflora. With these repercussions, every poultry operation should be fine-tuning their gut flora management programmes. Recommended steps include seeding the gut with favourable organisms, preparing the environment for digestion, excluding pathogens, enhancing resilience and decreasing feed passage. This involves applying a probiotic or competitive exclusion product as soon as possible after hatching. In the absence of antibiotics, a key factor in maintaining an optimal gut microflora is to control the flow of nutrients down the gastrointestinal tract. Diet digestibility should be maximised by ingredient choice and enzyme use, thus avoiding excessive substrate for bacterial growth. Also, consider the use of an appropriate organic acid in the diet and drinking water. Application in water can specifically address critiFigure 2: Recent FCR evolution of broilers cal phases, such as brooding (Ronei Gauer, 2013) or later in production, when the risk of necrotic enteritis is particularly high. Lastly, the gut flora management programme should ery to seed the gut, while feeding beneficial include blocking the attachment mechanism bacteria with organic acids in the water, as of unfavourable organisms with a type-1 fim- well as enzymes to reduce non-digestible feed bria blocker, thereby reducing their ability to fractions that may cause the proliferation of contend with favourable organisms within clostridia, and weeding harmful type 1 fimbria the gut. The Alltech gut health programme bacteria (such as E.coli and salmonella) using is now being implemented by 25 companies a mannan-rich fraction of yeast carbohydrates worldwide, with half of those participating in (ActigenTM). In the absence of antibiotics, a key factor in maintaining an optimal gut microNorth America. D Steve Collett of the University of Georgia flora is to control the flow of nutrients down demonstrated the advantages of a program the gastrointestinal tract. called 'Seed, Feed and Weed' in improving gut health and FCR. The programme consists Quality control of using lactobacillus probiotics in the hatchConsidering the implications of poor



November - December 2013 | 21

Anatomy of Tapco Food Grade Nylon Elevator Bucket

FDA-Compliant Resins
Nonmetallic resin will never oxidize or corrode. Will not leach into or affect the integrity of * ingredients used for food products.

Unequaled Strength
Style CC-XD is molded with 35-50% more resin throughout the entire bucket not just at critical wear points for superior strength and long life.

Minimal Cross Contamination

Precision molds create smooth non-porous surfaces and seamless construction.

Nutrients Stay Intact

Straight sides, high end CC design and rounded front lip provide clean discharge with less damage to the commodity.

Impact-Modified Nylon Elevator Bucket

Ease of Maintenance
Lighter weight aids in mounting buckets and reduces load on belt and running components.

Wears Better, Lasts Longer

Highest grade prime virgin resins for unequaled impact strength and superior abrasion resistance.

Accurate Capacity Ratings

Equal or greater carrying capacity of equivalent size steel buckets. Engineered design allows close bucket spacing for more product delivery per hour.

Tough & Flexible

Prime virgin resins give or yield to bypass obstructions in your elevator, allowing the bucket to return to its original shape.

FDA-compliant Polyethylene and Urethane resin is standard. FDA-compliant Nylon resin available by special request. Over 900,000 buckets in 93 sizes, 6 materials, 12 styles -- plus 15 million elevator bolts in stock.


Tel.: +1 314 739 9191

+1 800 AT TAPCO (+1 800 288 2726)

Fax: +1 314 739 5880
*Statement based on our current level of knowledge and covers the above mentioned material produced by Tapco Inc. at the date of issue. Since conditions of use are outside of Tapcos control, Tapco makes no warranties, express or implied, and assumes no liability in connection with any use of this information. Tapco Nylon resin meets U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Regulations Title 21 CFR177.1500, 21 CFR175.105, 21 CFR178.2010 and 21 CFR177.300. 2013 Tapco Inc. All rights reserved.

Table 1: Summary of live performance results from broiler trials with negative control (nCON) versus Actigen-supplemented (ACT) diets Age days

Actigen g/tonne

Body wt or gain, kg FCR or F/G ratio nCON ACT nCON ACT

Mortality, % nCON ACT

Reference (Year)

42 42 42 42 40 42 42 42 35 49 42 42 42 42 42 42 34 34 42 52 42 32 49 42 42 42 42 52 35

800/400/200 400 400/200 200 800/400/200 200 400 800 400/200 400 400 400/200 200 200 400 800 800/500/300
6 5 4 3

2.382 2.081 2.763 2.37 2.37 2.37 3.317 2.066 2.066 2.066 2.521 1.877 2.515 2.515 2.515 1.6 2.743 2.469 2.469 2.469 2.165 2.118 2.79 2.349 2.349 2.397 2.397

2.501 2.134 2.865 2.516 2.552 2.441 3.437 2.065 2.234 2.151 2.657 1.901 2.847 2.677 2.749 1.65 2.825 2.478 2.468 2.451 2.2 2.135 2.799 2.346 2.264 2.383 2.392 2.992 2.699 29 2.476a

1.947 1.825 1.872 1.74 1.74 1.74 1.746 2.02 2.02 2.02 1.636 1.658 1.741 1.741 1.741 1.89 1.942 1.79 1.79 1.79 1.52 1.61 1.96 1.75 1.75 1.83 1.83 1.846 1.494 29 1.792a

1.852 1.784 1.82 1.66 1.66 1.7 1.708 2.01 1.95 1.96 1.603 1.654 1.694 1.729 1.725 1.87 1.939 1.75 1.75 1.77 1.49 1.56 2.02 1.72 1.76 1.83 1.79 1.772 1.481 29 1.759b

4.83 3.69 5.6 13.9 13.9 13.9 5.56 6.25 6.25 6.25 4.3 4 6.67 6.67 6.67 5 3.34 8.51 8.51 8.51 5 3.9 6.3 5.3 5.3 4.39 4.39 0.83 8.3 29 6.41a

4.46 4.77 3.8 12.5 11.5 17.4 3.89 6.25 2.3 4.93 6.2 4 6.67 3.33 5 5 5.5 4.07 5.99 4.46 6.4 3.3 7.6 3.79 3.79 3.72 2.7 1.04 8.3 29 5.61b

Mathis (2009) Kill et al. (2010) Kill et al. (2010) Kill et al. (2010) Nollet and Kay (2010) Peri et al. (2010) Peri et al. (2010) Peri et al. (2010) Venkatesh (2010) Corneille (2011) Gernat (2011) Gernat (2011) Gernat (2011) Lea et al. (2011) Lea et al. (2011) Lea et al. (2011) Lausten et al. (2011) Lausten et al. (2011) Mathis (2011a) Mathis (2011b) Munyaka et al. (2011) Nollet (2011) Sasou & Corneille (2011) Guo et al. (2012) Guo et al. (2012) Ivkovic et al. (2012) Ivkovic et al. (2012) Mathis (2012) Swick et al. (2012)

800/500/3006 800/400/2007 400 800/400/200 400 800/400/2005 400 800/400/2008 200 400 800/200

2012 was a precursor for Aspergillus, the mould responsible for aflatoxins. If the corn was further damaged or stressed by insects or hail, the chance of aflatoxin contamination is greater still. Poor feed quality will always negatively impact intestinal health and overall efficiency of the digestive tract. Feed quality is affected by many factors, including the way the grains and proteins have been grown and processed, and the way in which feed is manufactured. For example, more than 500 types of mycotoxin are known to induce signs of toxicity in avian species, and it is estimated that 25 percent of the world's crop production is contaminated. Gary Gladys, former CEO of US poultry producer Allen Farms, mentioned that the main component of water management is making sure your birds are actually getting water. Dr Aziz Sacranie, poultry health director with Alltech, also spoke on the benefit of good water quality, often overlooked in terms of its impact on bird performance and FCR. Effective chlorination and acidification are essential, given that 70 percent of final bird weight is water. As mentioned above, the brooding phase is critical for water acidification, as are later stages in production when the risk of necrotic enteritis is particularly high.

The value of feed

Near infrared technology offers the ability to properly determine the actual feeding value of the ingredients in the feed. With current corn and soybean prices at record highs, and easily influenced by market speculations, real time, accurate nutrition is at a premium. Gladys and Dr David Wicker of Fieldale Farms, USA, both highlighted the difference between real feeding values and the book values for raw materials. Variations in protein analysis, starch and moisture are just three examples. The FCR losses represented by inaccurate or variable nutritional values can be considerable, and the use of NIR can clearly play a role in capturing value and eliminating losses. Feed materials need to be cleaned, ensuring that both broken grains and dust have been removed. Enzymes, especially those produced through solid state fermentation, can also address these variations.



2.541 29 2.396b

Comparison (n=) Mean P value Difference Diff. from nCON, %


<0.001 +0.080 +3.34

<0.001 -0.033 -1.84

0.031 -0.8 -12.5

Average age was 41.72 days (number = 29). 2Actigen in starter 0-21 days, grower 21-35 days, and finisher 35-42 days unless otherwise stated. 3Actigen at 400 g/tonne from 0-21 days and at 200 g/ton from 21-42 days. 4Actigen in starter 0-10 days, grower 10-25 days, and finisher 25-40 days. 5Feed phase ages not given. 6 Actigen in starter 0-7 days, grower 7-28 days, and finisher 28-34 days. 7Actigen in starter 0-17 days, grower and finisher 17-52 days. 8Actigen in starter 0-7 days, grower 7-21 days, and finisher 21-42 days. 9Actigen in starter 0-10 days, grower 10-24 days, and finisher 24-35 days.

Cocci control
Coccidiosis control has always been a key concern in poultry farms, but was also mentioned by eight of the ten Alltech symposium speakers when discussing FCR, particularly given the growing demands to produce antibiotic-free broilers. Any programme must address the question of whether to use a chemical, antibiotic or vaccine option. Natural control compounds are arriving in the marketplace, but it seems that natural solutions will involve multiple active ingredients and not any one single ingredient. The development of necrotic enteritis is a

gut health and the challenges crops faced this year in the field, finding good feed sources has become even more important to poultry production. Poor feed quality will always negatively impact intestinal health and the overall efficiency of the digestive
22 | November - December 2013

tract. Recent data shows that some types of mycotoxins can weaken the intestinal barrier and thus increase the risk of invasive microbes like Salmonella enteritis passing the gut wall and entering the bloodsteam. The extremely hot and dry growing season of




Steve Jobs

How are you going to navigate the ever-changing dietary landscape?

Todays dietary demands are literally all over the board. While some consumers are demanding nutritious foods that are quick and easy to prepare, others desire protein-rich food that ts a low-carb or vegetarian lifestyle. Still others are simply looking for enough affordable food to feed a growing population. At Wenger, we partner with food companies to develop the processes and products they require to meet world consumers specic nutrition demands. Within our world-renowned Technical Center, we provide unmatched expertise for development challenges, whether it be for foods that are ready-to-eat, gluten-free, protein enhanced, heart healthy or have a low-glycemic index. And the list goes on. Contact us now. With new concepts and fresh initiatives, were ready to help you meet the everchanging requirements of the food industry.

Turning ideas into opportunities. PROGRESSIVE FOOD PROCESSING

What will tomorrow bring

Wenger12_FOOD-GPS_190x132.indd 1

5/30/13 4:42 PM



November - December 2013 | 23

Table 2: Global timeline for restrictions on antibiotic growth promoters and bans on their use for food animal production
Year 1972-74 1986 1988 1995 1995 1996 1997 1997 1998 1999 1999 1999 2000 2000 2001 Legislature European Union Sweden Sweden Denmark Canada Germany European Union Denmark European Union Sweden Philippines Taiwan European Union Growth promoter Ban on tetracycline, penicillin and streptomycin for growth promotion use Ban on antibiotics use for growth promotion in agriculture, as requested by Federation of Swedish Farmers End of use of all general prophylactic medications Ban on routine prophylactic use of antimicrobials, ban on use of avoparcin for all agricultural purposes Carbodox banned due to being a human carcinogen Avoparcin banned Avoparcin banned Virginiamycin banned Olaquindox and carbadox banned, suspension of authorisation for bacitracin, tylosin, spiramycin and virginiamycin Ban on use of remaining AGPs flavophospholipol and avilamycin Olaquindox, carbodox, nitrofurans and chloraphenicol banned Avoparcin banned Avilamycin, bambermycin banned

The Netherlands Olaquindox and carbadox banned Denmark and Switzerland Ban on all subtherapeutic AGP in feed

Chile, Brazil, Japan and Middle 2001 Avoparcin banned Eastern countries 2005 2006 2006 2010 2011 2012 2013 2013 2013 2013 Turkey European Union Thailand Bangladesh South Korea India USA China Japan USA Complete ban on subtherapeutic AGP use in feed Complete ban on subtherapeutic AGP use in feed All AGPs banned in line with European Union All AGPs banned in new Feed Act All AGPs banned Official ban with AGP withdrawal periods Ban on the use of roxarsone, carbarsone and arsanilic acid in poultry and pig feeds Without official regulation, Ministry of Agriculture has announced a forthcoming ban on AGPs in animal feed Monitoring AGPs but no clear timeframe Preventing Antibiotic Resistance Act of 2013. Dateline of end of 2016 / early 2017 has been clearly stated

secondary concern, and the gut microflora management programme was demonstrated as essential by Dr Collett and Dr Ahmad Mueez of Neogen, Inc. Diet digestibility should be maximised by ingredient choice and enzyme use, thus avoiding excessive substrate for bacterial growth.

Feeding the genes

Studies have indicated that it is possible to imprint the genes of a bird at a very early age, and turn it into a more efficient animal later. One way of doing this is through in ovo feeding. Administration of highly digestible nutrients into the amnion of embryos can bring an improvement in chick quality, increased glycogen reserves, advanced gut development, superior skeletal health, advanced muscle growth, higher body weight gain, improved feed conversion and enhanced immune function. Using nutrigenomic data, almost 30 percent of genes expressed different activity over time by in ovo feeding (Oliveira et al. 2008). Dr Karl Dawson, vice president of research at Alltech, presented data showing that limiting nutrient intake posthatching is another way to imprint genes at a very early age. Production traits, such as
24 | November - December 2013

tolerance to immunological, environmental or oxidative stress, or energy and mineral utilisation, can be imprinted by adaptive conditioning of gene expression. During the first 24 hours post-hatching, the small intestine, liver and pancreas develop at a faster rate than body weight. The chick needs to be fed as soon as possible to provide substrate for gastrointestinal development, weight gain and immune system development. High quality ingredients, mannan-based oligosaccharides, nucleotide-rich ingredients, mycotoxin adsorbents and organically complex minerals can generate significant FCR changes. Nutrigenomics enables the bird's response to a feed product or diet to be recorded, by detecting and measuring the change in expression of several thousand genes all at the same time. This allows a far more comprehensive understanding of how diet affects the metabolism and health of the bird. Among the many changes in gene expression observed, a general carbohydrate was seen to regulate intestinal enzyme production, and reduced both cell cycling and heat shock protein production when tested in a challenge model with increased intestinal viscosity.

A new frontier is being reached in animal production, with increased feed prices and a global movement towards antibiotic restrictions. A healthy digestive tract is the new West to be conquered, and is the only way animals can reach their full genetic potential. Animal protein operations need to optimise the basics of hygiene, management and feed programmes in order to properly take care of the gut microflora, while looking towards new technologies to improve gut health, increase feed efficiency and maximise performance. The implications of bridging the gap between genetic potential and actual performance represent as much as onethird of the feed required to produce a kilo of meat, milk or eggs today, with a commensurate effect on the costs of production. With the challenges of a burgeoning global population alongside the opportunity of continued genetic advances, bridging this gap and attaining the much awaited 1:1 in feed efficiency has never been so important.
References available on request





This digital Re-print is part of the November | December 2013 edition of Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on
November - December 2013

See the full issue

In this issue:
Single or twinscrew extruder:
what are the options?

first published in 1891

Fit-for-purpose grain and feed packaging:

an environmental perspective

Visit the GFMT website Contact the GFMT Team Subscribe to GFMT

Organic feeds:
the future for sustainable poultry farming?

Animal feeding in the future:

reaching genetic potential through smarter nutrition?

VIGAN industry report

Market-aware farming:
commodities training at Writtle College

A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891


To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link adove.


Article reprints
All Grain & Feed Milling Tecchnology feature articles can be re-printed as a 4 or 8 page booklets (these have been used as point of sale materials, promotional materials for shows and exhibitions etc). If you are interested in getting this article re-printed please contact the GFMT team for more information on - Tel: +44 1242 267707 - Email: or visit