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GregoryNagy [Thisessaywasoriginallypublishedin2000inQuaderniUrbinatidiCultura Classica64:728.Thepagenumbersoftheoriginalpublicationhavebeenplaced withinbraces'{}',sothat{7|8}indicatesthepagebreakbetweenp.7andp.8.] AncientscholarshiponthesongsofBacchylides,asrevealedbythevisual formattingofthesesongsinpapyri,revealsmuchthathasbeenneglectedby modernClassicalscholars.Mostoftheserevelationsconcernthemechanicsand aestheticsofreadingaloudthecompositionsofBacchylides.Theformattingofthe Bacchylidespapyrifeaturesavarietyofvisualaidsforreadingaloud:scriptio continua,colometry,andselectivemarkingsofaccentuationandquantity.Howthe songsofBacchylideswerereadoutloudisanindirectindicationofhowthese songshadoncebeenperformedintheearliereraoftheircomposition.Further, whatwecanlearnaboutperformingthesongsofBacchylidesisapplicabletothe performancetraditionsofancientGreeksongandpoetryingeneral.

PapyricontainingvictoryodesanddithyrambsofthepoetBacchylides,as publishedbyF.G.Kenyonin1897,haveconsiderablysupplementedwhatlittlehas survivedofthecorpusofninecanonicallyricpoetsaseditedbythescholarsof AlexandriaintheHellenisticperiod.Informandincontent,thesongsof BacchylidesarecloselyrelatedtothoseofPindar,whosevictoryodeshaveforthe mostpartsurvivedbywayofthemedievalmanuscripttradition,alongwith considerablefragmentsofhisdithyrambsandothercompositions.Thisclose relationshipbetweenthemediaofBacchylidesandPindarhasledtoagradual pindarizationofthetextofBacchylidesinmodernClassicalscholarshipoverthe lastcentury,asisevidentfromacomparisonoftheoriginalTeubnereditionby FriedrichBlassin1898,onehundredyearsago,andtodaysTeubnereditionby HerwigMaehler,postBrunonemSnell(hereafterabbreviatedasSM).My argumenthereisthattheongoingquestofmodernClassicalscholarstorecoverthe realtextofBacchylideshasledtotheneglectofinsightsprovidedbyancient ClassicalscholarshipasrepresentedbytheBacchylidespapyri,stemmingmostly fromthe2ndcenturyCEbutreflectingastretchofscholarshipthatgoesbackto the2ndcenturyBCE(and,most{7|8}likely,earlier).[1 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?
tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.1)] ()Thisessayhighlightssomeofthoseinsights

fromtheancientworld,whichcenteronabasicquestion:howtoreadpoetry aloud? IntheAppendixtomyessay[seethepdfofpp.2627ofQUCC64(2000)],I juxtaposeacolumnoflineschosenatrandomfromtheBacchylidespapyri,as reproducedinthefirstTeubnereditionofBlass(pp.46and48,lines5991Iadd thecarryoverfromline58)withthecorrespondinglinesinthemostrecentedition

ofSnell/Maehler(pp.1718,againlines5991).Thejuxtapositionismeantto showhowtheinformationinherentinthetextoftheBacchylidespapyrihasbeen successivelyerodedbythemoderneditions.Thisinformation,stemmingfromthe scholarshipofHellenisticAlexandriaandearlier,involvesthefollowingfeaturesin thevisualformattingoftheBacchylidespapyri:(1)scriptiocontinua,(2) colometry,(3)selectivemarkingofaccents,and(4)selectivemarkingofbrevis.My essayisdividedintofourparts,addressingeachofthesefeaturesintheorderjust given.

1.scriptiocontinua.
IntheBacchylidespapyri,wordendingswithintheindividuallinesarenot indicatedbyspaces.Thisvisualformatofavoidingworddivisionsisknownas scriptiocontinua,anditcharacterizesancientGreekwritingingeneral. IntheBacchylidespapyri,thepresenceofawordendingwithinthelineis occasionallyindicatedinindirectways,bywayofspecialsigns.Forexample,the signoftheapostrophe(asatlines60,61,62,65,71,74,76,80,84,89inthe Appendix[seethepdfofpp.2627ofQUCC64(2000)])directlyindicateselision andtherebyindirectlyindicateswordending.Similarly,thesignoftheraised dot(asatlines62,67,70,73,76,77,78,83,84[2x],85,86,88,89,91inthe Appendix)directlyindicatessyntacticalpauseandtherebyindirectlyindicates, again,wordending.Inthiscontext,Iusepausemerelyinacompositionalrather thanaperformativesense.(Ondistinctionsbetweenperformativeand compositionalperspectivesintheapplicationofthetermpause,seeNagy1998.) {8|9}Theoccasionsofthesesigns,aswewillsee,aresignificantinandof themselves,andthissignificanceisstrippedwhenmoderneditorsdiscontinuethe formatofscriptiocontinua,printingthelinesinavisualformatthatshowsthe wordsseparatedfromeachotherbywayofspacesthatwerenotthereinthe originalwrittentext. Inelaboratingthispoint,Ineedtoconsiderwithinabroaderscopethegeneral phenomenonofscriptiocontinuainancientGreekscripttraditions,whichtook shapeinaneraofexpandingliteracy,asearlyastheClassicalperiodofthe5th centuryBCE,andwhichpersistedallthewaythroughthe9thand10thcenturies CE.[2 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.2)]()Amajor questionis,whywasscriptiocontinuaabasicfeatureofancientGreekliteracyfor aperiodthatcoverswelloverathousandyears? Withinthisbroaderscope,Ihopetoshowthattheformatofscriptiocontinuais notadisadvantagebutanadvantageforthemechanicsofreading,especially readingaloud.AswewillseefromtheBacchylidespapyri,thisadvantageof scriptiocontinuaisfurtherenhancedbytheusageofsuchsignsasIhavejust describedinformallyastheapostropheandtheraiseddot.

2.colometry.
IntheBacchylidespapyri,linedivisionsgenerallyshowcola,notperiods.Theline divisionsinthepapyriandinthemedievaltextsofPindaralsogenerallyshowcola, notperiods.ThelinedivisionsinmoderneditionsofPindar,however,show periods,notcola. ThismodernpracticestartedwiththePindareditionofAugustBoeckh(Leipzig 1811/1821),whichreshapedthelinenumberingonthebasisofalargermetrical unitthatBoeckhdefinedastheperiod(orverse,asLaetitiaParkercallsitin theOxfordClassicalDictionary,p.975).[3 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?
tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.3)] ()Inthenextparagraph,Iofferaworking

definitionoftheperiod. Whilethecolonisasmallermetricalunit,theperiodisalargermetricalunit containingcola.Acolonendingmayormaynotcoincidewithawordending,but aperiodendingmustcoincidewithbothacolonendingandawordending. (Occasionally,aperiodmayconsist{9|10}ofonlyonecolon.)AsBoeckhshowedin his1809bookonPindaricmeter,awordendingthatcoincideswithaperiod endinghasspecialfeatures,namely,thepotentialforhiatusinthecaseofaword finalvowelandbrevisinlongointhecaseofawordfinalsyllable.[4 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.4)] () ComparetheformulationofWest1982.5:Theperiodisthefundamentalself containedunitinmetricalcomposition.Itisanalogoustothesentencein discourse:thesentenceisasegmentwithinwhichthereissyntacticcontinuityand attheendofwhichsyntacticalconnectionisinterrupted,theperiodinmetreisa segmentwithinwhichthereisprosodiccontinuityandattheendofwhich prosodicconnectionisinterrupted.[5 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?
tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.5)] ()

Thelowernumbersthatweseeinthelinenumberingofthelefthandmarginsin moderneditionsofPindar,likethatofSnell/Maehler,gobacktotheeditionof Boeckh,whousedhisthenrevolutionaryperiodcountingformat.Thehigher numbersthatweseeintherightmarginsgobacktoC.G.Heynesedition (Gttingen1798),whohadingeneralusedtheearliercoloncountingformatofthe medievalmanuscripts.(Thesehighernumbersareusefulforcrossreferencestothe Pindaricscholia,sinceDrachmannseditionofthesescholiausesHeyneseditionof Pindarasitspointofreference.)Thecoexistenceofthesehigher/lowernumbering systemscaneasilybemissedinthemorerecenteditionsofPindar:Snell,for instance,spellsitoutonlyonp.2oftheSMedition,atthebeginningofthetextof Olympian1,butthereisnoindicationthereafterthatthenumberingsgobackto BoeckhandHeynerespectively.TheLoebeditionofWilliamRace,astheeditor himselfinformsthereader(p.vii),omitstherighthandnumberingofHeyne altogether.

Andyet,theoldercolometricsystemofHeyneisclosertowhatisrepresentedinthe Bacchylidespapyri,asdistinctfromthenewercolometricsystemofBoeckh.Thatis tosay,thecolometryofPindarspoetryastransmittedbythemedievalmanuscript traditionandasapproximatedbyearliereditorslikeHeyneiscognatewiththe colometryofBacchylidespoetryastransmittedbythepapyri.Moreover,the colometryofthemedievalPindarmanuscriptsmatchescloselythecolometryofthe occasionalPindarpapyrithathavecometolight,and{10|11}italsomatchesthe testimonyoftheancientmetricalscholiatoPindar.[6 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?


tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.6)] ()Whyisit,then,thatthepublicationofthe

Bacchylidespapyriin1897didnotleadtoadecisivereversionfromtheperiod formatofBoeckhs1811/1821editionbacktotheoldercolonformatofearlier editionslikethatofHeyne? Theanswerissimple:theperiod,asformulatedbyBoeckh,wasrecognizedasa workingprincipleinmetrics,notjustavisualscheme,whereastheearlier colometryofthecolawasgenerallythoughttobeanarbitraryanduselesssetof segmentations,eventhoughthiscolometrydatedbacktotheworldofancient scholarship,inparticulartoAristophanesofByzantium.[7 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.7)] () ThereactionofL.R.Farnellistypical:Unfortunatelywehavenoexternalevidence toguideusforourexistingmss.havenoultimateauthorityonthismatter,nor doesthediscoveryofthepapyrusof[Bacchylides]...,showingtheshortlineasthe metricstandard,supplyuswithevidenceofanyavailforPindar,asKenyon supposesitmay[p.xvii].[8 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?
tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.8)] ()

FarnellwasinfluencedbythediscoveriesofmetricianslikePaulMaasconcerning theprincipleofresponsion.Thisprinciple,whereagivenstropherhythmically matchesotherstrophesaswellasitsantistropheandwhereagivenepode matchesotherepodes,establishestheperiodastheviableunitofrhythmic replication:responsioninvolvesnotjustthemetersbutalsothepausesthat delineatethesemeters,andthissortofdelineationcanonlybeunderstoodinterms ofthelargerunitoftheperiod,notintermsofthesmallerunitofthecolon.[9 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.9)] ()Maasinferredthat ancientscholarswereunawareofthe{11|12}period,onthegroundsthattheyrefer toresponsionintermsofcola.[10 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?
tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.10)] ()HereisthewayMaasputsit(1962par.6):

ThecolometryofPindarspoemsinancientmanuscripts,togetherwiththe scholia,showsthatancientscholarsdidnoteventrytofindoutwherepauses[my emphasis]occurred.Inspeakingofpausehere,Maasreferstohispar.45, whereitbecomesclearthathemeanstheendofaperiod.[11 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.11)] ()Inthiscontext, Maasinusingpausemerelyincompositionalratherthanperformativeterms.

FromFarnellspointofview,themoresevereyouareaboutresponsion,theless confidenceyouhaveintheoldcolometry.Farnellp.xxiiisaysthatMaasismost severe,whileUlrichvonWilamowitzMoellendorffandOttoSchroederareless severeinrestoringresponsion,thatis,inproposingemendationsthatresultin perfectlyornearperfectlymatchingresponsions.[12 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?


tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.12)] ()C.M.Bowraintheprefacetohiseditionof

Pindar(1935rev.1947)professesseverity,indeferencetoMaas,thoughhisstance isdefensive:atp.viii,hedeclaresthathefollowsthecolometryofBoeckh(note especiallytheconventionofmakingtheperiodbeginningsflushwiththelefthand margin)atp.ix,hesaysofthetextuallytransmittedcolometry:haecdivisio,ut utilisestatquenonnihilfertoculisvenustatis,itanullamhabetapudcodices auctoritatemwhereverpossible,asBowrasays(ibid.),hetriestomakethe concentustobeabsolutusthoughhehedgesaboutfollowingMaascompletely. ThelesssevereSchroederisaparticularlyinterestingcaseinpoint:thoughhe adoptedtheperiodcountingformatforhis1900editionofPindar,heswitchedto theoldercoloncountingformatinalateredition(1913:seeFarnellp.xxii). AnotherinterestingcaseisSnellhimself,whoseTeubnereditionofPindar (1943/1953),ashis1964Praefatiodeclares,isacontinuationoftheworkof Schroeder.WhenitcomestocorrectingtheAlexandriantradition,Snellsays(p. v)thatSchroederwasmoreconfidentthanheis.Still,Snelladoptstheperiod countingformatforhiseditionofPindar,thoughheretainsthecoloncounting formatforhiseditionofBacchylides.[13 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?
tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.13)] ()

{12|13}Inresponsetosuchcontroversiesoverthecolometrytransmittedbywayof ancientscholarslikeAristophanesofByzantium,Iproposethatthecolon,asit figuresinthiscolometry,isinfactaworkingprincipleinmetrics,justlikethe period.Eventheshapesofthecolaasdemarcatedbytheancientcolometry correspondtowhatwecanreconstruct,bywayofcomparativemetrics,asthe functionalbuildingblocksoftheperiod.[14 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?


tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.14)] ()Second,Iproposethateventheformattingof

thecolon,asdemarcatedintheancientcolometry,constitutesafunctional buildingblockoftheperiod,eveniftheperiodsthemselvesarenotexplicitly indicatedbywayofdemarcatingtheirendings.Thereis,afterall,anexplicit markingofthenonendingsofperiods,bywayofamechanismthatIamaboutto describeashyphenation. Letmeanticipatemyconclusions:hyphenationassumestheexistenceofthe period.Moreover,asIwillnowargue,hyphenationservesasamechanicalaidfor fluencyinreadingaloud.Morespecifically,itservesasanaidforreadingaloudthe wholeperiod.

Thecola,asweseetheminthevisualformatoftheBacchylidespapyri,sometimes doandsometimesdonotcoincidewithwordendings.Thisformatsnon observanceofwordendingiswhatIamcallinghyphenation(asatlines58,60, 68,69,74,75intheAppendix[seethepdfofpp.2627ofQUCC64(2000)]). Hyphenationisamechanismthatcanserveasanaidtoreadingaloud.Itiseasier forthereadertodevelopafeelforaperiodending,thatis,foracolonending thatisalsoaperiodending,simplybydevelopingafeelforalltheplaceswhere hyphenationcanhappen,thatis,wherecolonendingsneednotcoincidewith wordendings.Thismechanismofhyphenationisanaspectoftheoverallmentality ofscriptiocontinua:itiseasiertodevelopafeelforaperiodending,whichis followedbyapause,simplybydevelopingafeelforalltheplaceswhereaword endingmustnotbefollowedbyapause.Inthiscontext,Iamusingpausein performativeratherthancompositionalterms. AsItellmybeginningstudentswhenIinitiatethemintothereadingofdactylic hexameter:(1)trynottostopbetweenwordsuntilyoureachtheendoftheline (2)ifyouhavetostopinordertocatchyourbreathbeforeyoureachtheendofthe line,allowyourselftodosoonly{13|14}atacaesuraoratthediaeresis.Thereason fornotallowinganyplacetostopotherthanthecaesurasorthediaeresisissimple: ifyoudostopanywhereotherthanthoseplaces,youriskbreakingtherhythm.[15 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.15)] ()Letmerestatemy formulationbytranslatingitintothemetricaltermsofthemediumnowunder consideration,thepoetryofBacchylides:(1)trynottostopbetweenwordsuntil youreachtheendoftheperiod(2)ifyouhavetostopinordertocatchyour breathbeforeyoureachtheendoftheperiod,allowyourselftodosoonlywhere thecolonendhappenstocoincidewithawordend.[16 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?
tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.16)] ()

Withregardtothedistinctionbetweenperformativeandcompositionalstopping orpausing,itisimportanttostressthatsuchadistinctionisgenerallynotovert inAlexandrianscholarshiponpunctuation.IntheTekhnGrammatikof DionysiusThrax,acontemporaryandstudentofAristarchus,thereisaconcept knownasthediastol,whichindicatesaseparationbetweenwordsintermsof content.Thediastol(asdiscussedinsection4oftheTekhn)hasbeeninterpreted bymodernscholarsasmarkingapausethatcanbemeasuredinrelativelylonger vs.shorterunitsoftime.[17 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?


tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.17)] ()ItisclearthatNicanor,anAristarchean

scholarwhoflourishedintheeraofHadrianandwhoistheauthorofatreatiseon Homericpunctuation(thefragmentshavebeeneditedbyFriedlnder1850),does indeedthinkofdiastolintermsofrelativelylongervs.shorterunitsoftimein physicallypausingbetweenwords.[18 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?


tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.18)] ()Thereisroomfordoubting,however,whether

Nicanorsnotionofdiastolisequivalenttothecorrespondingnotionsofhis predecessors,especiallyinthecaseofAristarchusandhiscontemporary,Dionysius

Thrax.

3.selectivemarkingofaccents.
ItisevidentfromtheBacchylidespapyrithateachcolon,asmarkedbythe colometricdescriptionsattributedtoAristophanesofByzantium,hasamelodic contour,whichisgenerallymarkedbyoneortwoaccentsignsthatindicatethe peakorpeaksofthismelodic{14|15}contour(oneaccentonlyatlines60,61,62, 63,66,69,70,73,74,76,77,81,82,83,85,87,88,89,90intheAppendix[seethe pdfofpp.2627ofQUCC64(2000)]twoaccentsonlyatlines64,67,80no accentatlines59,65,68,71,72,75,78,79,84,86,91threeormoreaccentsatno line).[19 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.19)]() ThisfeatureofselectiveaccentuationinthevisualformattingoftheBacchylides papyriislinkedtothetwootherfeaturesthatwehavealreadyconsidered,scriptio continuaandthecolometryitself.Apioneerintheanalysisofselective accentuationisBernhardLaum(1928). Laumsworkhasnotreceivedtheattentionitdeserves.Referencesbylaterscholars tendtofocusondetailsthatneedtobecorrected.[20 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?
tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.20)] ()Notenoughhasbeenwritten,however,onthe

actualdataandargumentsthatLaumcontributed. OneofthesecontributionswasLaumshighlightingofatextthattellshowthe AlexandriancriticAristophanesofByzantiumsupposedlyinventedthe traditionalnotationsystemforancientGreekaccents(p.62).Inhisbook(pp. 100102),Laumprintstherelevanttextofchapter20ofPseudoArcadiusepitome ofHerodiansKatholikprosidiafromtheParismanuscriptsPar.gr.2603and Par.gr.2102,andhetracesthetestimonyofthistext,howeverflawed,to TheodosiusofAlexandria,whosefloruithedatesataround400CE.[21 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.21)] (){15|16}Pfeifferis justifiedinobjectingtothenotionthatAristophanesactuallyinventedthe markingofaccents,sincetherearetracesofaccentualnotationgoingbacktothe eraofAristotle.[22 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.22)]() Still,thetestimonyassembledbyLaumdemonstratesthatAristophaneshadarole inthesystematizationofaccentualnotationsintheeraofAlexandrianscholarship, andthatthepatternsofselectiveaccentuationthatwefindinthepapyriare relatedtohissystem.[23 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?
tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.23)] ()

AnothercontributionofLaumwashisdemonstrationthatAristarchus,thatpre eminentAlexandrianeditorofancienttextswhoflourishedinthemiddleofthe 2ndcenturyBCE,didnotprovidevisualformattingforaccentsinhiseditionsof centralpoetictextssuchastheHomericIliadandOdyssey.AkeytoLaums demonstrationwasthecomparativeevidenceoftheBacchylidespapyri,which

reflectaselectivenotationofaccentualpatterns.Theseaccentuations,asLaum argued,arederivedfromasystemofnotationsthatisindependentoftheactual letteringofthetextofBacchylides.Soalsowiththeaccentualtraditionsthat surviveintheHomerpapyri:themarkingofaccentsispatternedonprinciplesthat areanalogoustotheselectiveaccentuationoftheBacchylidespapyri. ForAristarchusandhisimmediatepredecessorsattheLibraryofAlexandria, questionsofHomericaccentwereaddressednotinthediorthsisinthesenseof editionbutinthehupomnmataorcommentariesthataccompaniedthe editionasaseparatetext.[24 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?
tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.24)] ()Laumsuccessfullychallengedtheassumption

thattheHomereditionofAristarchusentailedtheplacementofaccentsignsover eachwordinanygivenHomericverse.[25 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?


tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.25)] ()AristarchusinformationonHomeric

accentuationdidnotgetsystematicallytransferredintothetextsofthe{16|17} AlexandrianHomereditions.[26 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?


tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.26)] ()ItcanbesaidingeneralforGreekliterature

thatonlyintheByzantineeditionsoftheninthandtenthcenturiesdiditbecomea regularpracticetomarktheaccentoneachwordinagiventext.Significantly,this newerpracticecoincideswiththediscontinuationofscriptiocontinua. Theolderpractice,asweseeitclearlyattestedintheHomerandBacchylides papyri,wastheselectiveplacementofaccentsigns(andotherdiacritics,suchas breathings).Thispracticeservedapracticalpurpose:thereadersofthesepapyri wereconcernednotwiththeaccentsofindividualwordsperse,whichhadbeen theprimaryresearchinterestofAristarchusandlaterAristarcheans,especially Herodian,butwiththecorrectpronunciationofthecolon,whichistheequivalent oftheentireverseinthecaseoflyricpoetslikeBacchylidesandofpartofthe verseinthecaseofHomer. Tociteanexample:intheHomerpapyri,thereisatendencytosignalanacute accentbelongingtoonlyonewordwithinagivenstringofwords,insteadof signalingalltheacutesbelongingtoallthewords.[27 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?
tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.27)] ()Considerthephrase

inPap.Oxy.III448, whichcorrespondsto inOdyssey22.184,asweseeitspelledinmodern editions.Tomarktheoneacuteistomarkthehighestpointofthemelodic contour.[28 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.28)]() Itmaybepossibletocomparethiskindofpatternwithwhatwefindinthe Homericscholia,whichfrequentlyrefernottoindividualwordsbuttostringsof

words(e.g.Laum1928.379),reflectingapracticalmodeofcommentingontexts thathadoncebeenspelledwithoutworddivisions.Inthescholia,thereisa tendencytocommentononlyoneaccentbelongingtoonlyonewordwithina givenstringofwordsinsteadofcommentingonalltheaccentsbelongingtoallthe words(e.g.Laump.143).[29 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?


tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.29)] ()

{17|18}LaumarguesthattheByzantineconventionsofmarkingaccentsgobackto Theodosius,whoseorthographicsystemrevealssomesurprisingdivergencesfrom theearlieraccentualpatternsattestedbyHerodianandhisAristarchean predecessors.Itisnottheaccentsofindividualwordsthatturnouttobedifferent intheearliersources:rather,itistheaccentuationsofwordcombinations.Modern editorsofancientGreektextsanachronisticallyobeytheByzantineaccentual orthographicsystem,tobetracedbackonlyasfarasTheodosius.Thustheybypass thetraditionrepresentedbytheearlierHerodian,nottomentiontheearlier testimonyofpapyrifeaturingmarkedaccents.Tociteoneexample: Thoughmoderneditorsprintapolysyllabicoxytonewordconsistentlywithagrave accentwhenthatwordisfollowedbyanotherwordwithoutanobviousintervening syntacticalbreak,theevidenceofthepapyriandoftheHomericscholiaindicates thattheaccentinthiscontextcouldinfactbeacute,notgrave:seeLaum1928.152, 159,161....Isaycould,notshould,becauseMooreBlunt1978hasfound severalinstancesofpapyridatedearlierthan400CEwherewedoseethespelling ofgraveaswellasacuteinthissamecontext.Laumtreatstheearlierpatternof acutespellingsasaconstant,whereasinfactitisagraduallydisappearing tendency.ThepointremainsandLaumsaysthisjustaseffectivelyasMoore BluntthatearlierpatternsofancientGreekaccentuationareconditionedbythe melodiccontour,asitwere,oftheoverallsyntax.[30 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?
tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.30)] ()

WemaycomparetheformulationofWest1992.199concerningageneraltendency inancientGreekmelodictraditions:whentheaccent[is]onthefinalsyllableofa word,andisnotcircumflex,andnotsucceededbyagrammaticalpause,thenthe melodydoesnotfallagainuntilafterthenextaccent. Forreadersofpapyri,questionsofmelodiccontourweresimplyamatterof gettingthepronunciationright.[31 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?


tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.31)] ()Thescholiatothe Tekhn Grammatikof

DionysiusThraxputitthisway(12.3f,ed.A.Hilgard1901): {18|19}

Beforethestudentwouldbegintoread,thecorrector[diorthts]wouldtake thebookandcorrect[diorthosthai]itsothathe[thestudent]wouldnot readitwrongandthusfallintoabadhabit.Afterward,thestudentwouldtakethe book,ascorrected[diorthosthai],toareadingteacher[anagnstikos]who wassupposedtoteachhimhowtoreadaccordingtothecorrectionwork[ diorthsis]ofthecorrector[diorthts].[32 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?


tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.32)] ()

Inmypreviouswork,Ihavefocusedontheinheritedmelodiccontoursofthe Homerichexameter,themelodyofwhichwasreducedincomparisontothelyric meters,withtheirovertmelodies: InNagy1990a.2028,thereisanextendeddiscussionofthephenomenonthatI callreducedmelodyorrecitativeinhexametertraditionsasperformedby rhapsodes.Formoreonthemelodiccontoursofthehexameter,seeWest1986.45, whoarguesthattheepicsingeroftheeighthcenturyfollowedthecontoursgiven bythewordaccentsalso,thatthistraditionwasperpetuatedbytherhapsodes, butinagraduallydecayingform,andthattherhapsodespreservedmany archaicaccentualfeaturesofHomericGreekintotheHellenisticagecf.alsoWest 1981.114and1992.208209.Iagreewithmostoftheseformulations,thoughI resisttheideaofadecayingform.Ontheconceptofrecitative,seevanderWerf 1967.InthetraditionsoftheOldFrenchchansons,asheargues,therearecasesof distinctlyrecitativemelodiesanddistinctlyariosoonesbutthereareother compositionswherewecannolongerdiscernwhethertheoriginalofagivenline wasarecitativeondoranariosomelodywithdasatonalcenter(vanderWerf 1967.234).Inotherwords,thereareinstanceswherewecannotconcludefromthe preservedmusicwhetheramanuscriptgivesusasimplifiedvariantofanarioso originaloranornamentedvariantofastrictrecitative(ibid.).Itisclearthata trouvrerecitativecouldeasilybetransformedintoatrouvrearioso,oranarioso transformedintoarecitative(ibid.).Thoughitisimpossibleattimestodetermine inwhichdirectiontheshiftisheaded,whetheritisfromariosotorecitativeorvice versa,itisclearthatthesetwostyleswerenottworigorouslyseparatedstylesfor thejongleurs,notators,andscribesattheendofthethirteenthcentury(ibid.).We maycomparetheancientGreektraditionsassociatedwith{19|20}thelyric StesichorusandtheepicHomer,asdiscussedinNagy1990a.4951.[33 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.33)] () Thesereducedmelodiccontours,asIhavearguedextensively,aidedinpreserving archaismsinthepitchaccentuationarchaismsthatwereotherwiseleveledoutin everydayGreek.[34 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.34)]() ThephenomenonofmelodiccontouringisrelevanttoaruleintraditionalGreek music,totheeffectthatunaccentedsyllablesshouldnothavehigherpitchthanthe acuteaccentedsyllable.[35 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?
tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.35)] ()Withinthemelodicframeworkofsucharule,

embeddedpatternsofarchaicaccentuationcouldbepreserved.[36 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.36)] ()Inthe Delphic Hymns,forexample,syllableshavingacuteorevengraveaccentinanygiven wordconsistentlyavoidanypitchthatislowerthantheotherpitchesassignedto theothersyllablesinthesameword.[37 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?


tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.37)] ()

HereIdisagreewiththeopinionofWest1992.198199concerningchoralpoetry (includingthatofBacchylides):Butinstrophiccompositions,...correspondence ofaccentsandmelodycouldonlyhavebeenachievedifeachstrophesungtoa givenmelodyhadbeensocomposedastohavethesamepatternofwordaccents. Sofaraswecansee,thiswasneverattempted.Westsconceptofresponsionis overrestrictive,asifagivenmelodyhadnoflexibility.[38 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.38)] () Ifindeedtheselectiveaccentuationofthecolon,asweseeit{20|21}markedinthe Bacchylidespapyri,reflectsthetraditionalpatternsofmelodiccontouring,thenthe moderneditorialpracticeofassigningaccentstoeverywordinastringofpoetry amountstostrippingthemelodiccontour.Accentingeachwordislikeseparating eachwordfromthenextone:inonecase,youstripthemelody,whileintheother, youstriptherhythm.[39 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?
tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.39)] ()

Iclosethispartoftheessaybyofferingageneralobservationfromadiachronic pointofview:colaweremeantnotonlytobereadbutalsotobeperformed,and theperformanceincludedthedimensionofdance,notjustsong.[40 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.40)] ()

4.selectivemarkingofbrevis.
IntheBacchylidespapyri,thebrevismarkisfoundoversomeshortvowelsthat bearanacuteaccent(asatlines61and70intheAppendix[seethepdfofpp.26 27ofQUCC64(2000)]).[41 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?
tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.41)] ()

Thesignificanceofthispatternbecomesevidentwhenweconsiderasalientfact aboutthehistoryoftheancientGreeklanguage:alreadybythetimeofAristarchus, whosefloruitwasthemiddleofthesecondcenturyBCE,unaccentedvowelswere shortenedwhileaccentedvowelswerelengthened.Thatis,theaccentsystemofthe Greeklanguagehadalreadyshiftedtothepatternthatwefindtothisdayin ModernGreek.VitalevidenceispresentedbyHorrocks1997.67,inanalyzinga samplepapyrusdatedca.152BCE(Pap.Par.47/UPZ70).Inthispapyrus,the patternsofconfusioninspellinglongvowelsasshort(notably,omicroninsteadof

omega)showthatvowellengthoppositionshadalreadydisappeared,achange thatisdirectlycorrelatedwiththeshiftfromtheclassicalpitchaccenttoanaccent characterizedprimarilybygreaterloudness(Horrocksibid.). {21|22}Theimplicationsarefarreaching:evenforaknowledgeablescholarlike Aristarchus,itseemsthatreadingthemeternolongercomesnaturally.TheGreek languagenolongerlendsitselftoquantitativemeter.[42 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.42)] () Inthislight,thebrevis+acutemarkingsoftheBacchylidespapyriprovidea remarkableconfirmationoftheaccuracyofanotationsystemthatdescribesa phaseoftheGreeklanguagethatisnolongercurrentatthetimethattheactual notationsareentered. IfindeedtheGreeklanguagewasnolongercompatiblewithquantitativemeter alreadybythetimeofAristarchus,itiseasiertounderstandthelimitationsofthe punctuationsystemofthescholarswhopostdateAristarchus,mostnotably Nicanor(floruitintheeraofHadrian),whofreelyprescribespausesin performativetermsthatcontradicttheinnerrulesofquantitativemeter.[43 (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#n.43)] ()Itseemstomefair tosay,then,thatyoucannotreadHomerintermsofquantitativemeterifyou followthepunctuationsystemofNicanor,whichrequirestherenderingofdiastol intermsofperformativepauses. Moreimportant,itisalsofairtosaythatyouwillfinditfareasiertoreadHomer andBacchylidesoutloudifyoufollowthevisualformatinheritedfromancient Classicalscholarship.{2627}Appendix[pdfofpp.2627ofQUCC64(2000)] {26}OnthispageIreprintapapyrusversionofapartofBacchylidesOde5,lines 5991asprintedinthefirstTeubnereditionofBlass(1898pp.46and48).{27}On thispageIreprintamodernreformattedversionofthesamelines5991asprinted inthemostrecenteditionofSnell/Maehler(pp.1718).{2728}Whatfollowsisa commentaryonthepapyrusversion(viaBlass1898)ofthesamepartof BacchylidesOde5,lines5991. Line60:Theapostropheestablishesworddivision Line61:Onthebrevis+acuteovertheiofada,seethelastpartofmyessay. Lines6063:Forthreelinesinarow,weseejustoneacuteineachline. Line64:Notethetwoacutes,typicalofalongerline.Sometimesthereare otherreasonsfortwoacutes,asatOde3line2. {28}Line65:notethebreathingforhoa Line65:Theapostrophemakesitclearthattheaofphullanemosgoeswith anemosandnotphullacognitively,theapostrophegivesnewinformation,after thebrainhasalreadyprocessedphulla,reassigningthelastvoweltothenext word.Soweseehereaprospectivemechanism(thisvowelbelongstothenext word),notaretrospectiveone(thelastvowelofthewordthatyouhavejust

readhasbeenelided).Seealsoline60,wheretheelisionmarkisevenmore vital,sincethenextwordaftertheelisionisenjambedintothenextline. Line70:Onthebrevis+acuteovertheiofporthanida,seethelastpartofmy essay. Line71:Thediaeresisovertheiotaindicatesanewword.Seealsoline75. Line74:Thereisaclosedsyllableokinkhalkeokranon,asindicatedwitha specialmarkunderok. Lines7475:Notethetmesisofexeiletobetweentheendoftheantistropheand thebeginningoftheepode. Lines7576:Thecolometryisoff,bywayofthedivisionofanaptuxasinstead oftheexpectedanaptuxas,ifweweretodemandabsoluteresponsion. Line76:Notethesyntacticalbreak,markedbytheraiseddot. Lines80,88,90,91,92:Notethemacraoveralpha:thereisgreatconcern,it seems,aboutkeepingthelengthofunaccentedvowels.Notethemacronover unaccentedomegaat5.52.

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Fleming,T.,andKopff,C.1992.ColometryofGreekLyricVersesinTragicTexts. StudiItalianidiFilologiaClassica85:758770. Friedlnder,L.,ed.1850.Nicanorisreliquiaeemendatiores. Knigsberg. Gentili,B.1988.Metroeritmonelladottrinadegliantichienellaprassidella performance.LamusicainGrecia(edd.B.GentiliandR.Pretagostini)516. Roma/Bari. .1992.Dibattito(withreferencetoFlemingandKopff1992).StudiItaliani diFilologiaClassica85:771773. Giessler,J.1923.ProsodischeZeichenindenantikenHandschriftengriechischer Lyriker.Dissertation:Gieen. Hilgard,A.,ed.1901.ScholiainDionysiiThracisArtemGrammaticam. GrammaticiGraeciPartIVol.I.Leipzig:Teubner,1901. Horrocks,G.1997.Greek:AHistoryoftheLanguageanditsSpeakers.London. Householder,F.W.,andNagy,G.1972.Greek:ASurveyofRecentWork.The Hague. Irigoin,J.1952.HistoiredutextedePindare.Paris.Kenyon,F.G.,ed.1887.The PoemsofBacchylides,fromaPapyrusintheBritishMuseum.London. Laum,B.1928.DasalexandrinischeAkzentuationssystemunterZugrundelegung dertheoretischenLehrenderGrammatikerundmitHeranziehungder praktischenVerwendungindenPapyri.Paderborn. Law,V.,andSluiter,I.,eds.1995.DionysiusThraxandtheTechnGrammatik. Mnster. Mazzucchi,C.M.1979.Sulsistemadiaccentazionedeitestigreciinetromanae bizantina,Aegyptus59:145167. Montanari,F.1979.StudidifilologiaomericaanticaI.Pisa. .1988.Filologiaomericaanticaneipapiri.ProceedingsoftheXVIII InternationalCongressofPapyrology,Athens2531May1986I337344. MooreBlunt,J.1978.ProblemsofAccentuationinGreekPapyri.Quaderni UrbinatidiCulturaClassica29:137163. Nagy,G.1990.PindarsHomer:TheLyricPossessionofanEpicPast.Baltimore.

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Footnotes
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.1)]1.

Ptolemaeus,acontemporaryorpupilofAristarchus,isrecordedasmaking commentaryonBacchylides(Pap.Oxy.XI1361.5,13=scholiatofr.20Aline19at SMp.94)alsomentionedascommentingonBacchylides:Aristarchus, Callimachus,DionysiusPhaselita(scholiatoOde23atSMp.128).Didymuswas authorofahupomnmacommentaryonthevictoryodes(seeSMapparatusatp. 2forOde1line8cf.SMp.xvonPapyrusM).Cf.alsoSMp.132no.10and Severyns1933.147.


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.2)]2.Note

thestrikingdistinctionbetweenancientGreekandJewishscriptconventions:in thelatter,wordendingsareconsistentlyindicatedbyspacing.Cf.Saenger1997.11. Cf.alsotheforthcomingworkofAlexanderJ.Beecroft,SplittingtheDifference: WordSeparationandtheReceptionofHellenisticHomericScholarshipinthe ScholiaststoDionysiusThrax.


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.3)]3.Cf.

FlemingandKopff1992.759.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.4)]4.For

importantadjustmentstotheformulationofBoeckh,withreferencetobothhiatus andbrevisinlongo,seeGentili1992.771772.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.5)]5.I

haveproblemswithWestsconceptofinterruptioninthiscontext.Instead,I preferanunmarkedalternative,likepause.SeeNagy1998.Therearealso problemswithWestsuniversalizingassumptionsaboutthesentence:Ipreferthe approachofBakker1997,especiallych.3.


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.6)]6.

Irigoin1952.101:thecolometryofPindarsvictoryodes,uptothetimeofBoeckh, goesbacktothemetricalscholia,whichgobacktoAristophanesofByzantium. Thisoldcolometryisfaithfullyreproducedine.g.theeditionofHeyne.Seealso

Irigoinp.88,whopointsoutthatthecolometryofthe2ndc.CEpapyrusofPindar Olympian2matchescloselytheanalysisofthemetricalscholia.Foranewedition ofthemetricalscholia,seeTessier1989.SeealsoIrigoinp.51onthetestimonyof Hephaistionp.74ed.Consbruch,whoseemstobemakingadistinctionbetweena current( )AristarcheaneditionofBacchylides,asopposedtothe Aristophanean.


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.7)]7.See

Irigoin1952.44ff,whoprovidesarevealingcollectionoftestimoniaon Aristophanescolometry,includinganinstancewherethescholarobelizesa superfluouscolonbutscrupulouslyretainsitinhistext.SeealsoIrigoinp.46on theopinionofWilamowitz,whothoughtthatAristophanescolometrywas worthlessIrigoinhimselfonp.47comesclosetorenouncingitsvalue.Isubscribe totheeffortsofGentili1992.772773indevelopingamorepositiveappreciationof theworkofAristophanes.


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.8)]8.

Farnell1932.xxii.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.9)]9.In

thisessay,Iusethewordsrhythmandmeterinterchangeablywithreferenceto archaicinclassicalsongmakingandpoetry.Onthelaterdistinctionsbetween rhythmandmeter,asdevelopedbyAristoxenusandthereafter,seetheclear summaryofGentili1988.1314.


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.10)]10.For

anexampleinvolvingAristophanesofByzantiumhimself,seeabove.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.11)]11.For

criticismoftheformulationdevelopedbyMaas,seeGentili1988.12.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.12)]12.For

moreonthepositiontakenbyWilamowitz,seeGentili1992.773.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.13)]13.

RelevanttomyargumentationarethecommentsofSnellinSMpp.xixiion Laum1928.FormoreonSnellsattitudetowardAlexandrianscholarshipon Bacchylides,seealsoSMp.xxxvi.


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.14)]14.

ExtensivediscussioninNagy1996c,includinganinventoryofmajorcolonshapes atpp.77(Aeolicmeters)and81(dactyloepitritemeters).Oncolometric principlesingeneral,IaminsubstantialagreementwiththeviewsofGentili1988 and1992.IespeciallyagreewithGentilisappreciation(1988.13)ofthevaluable workofWahlstrm1970ontracesofmelodic/accentualresponsionbetween stropheandantistrophe.SeealsoAllen1973.231234,followedbyNagy

1990.39n113.Allenp.232acknowledgesWahlstrmsresearchprominently.I cannotfindanymentionofWahlstrminMartinWestsbooksonGreekmeter (1982)andGreekmusic(1992).


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.15)]15.Cf.

Nagy1998,especiallyp.499n10.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.16)]16.For

areassessmentofthedactylichexameteritselfintermsofaperiodcontainingcola (frombothsynchronicanddiachronicperspectives),seeNagy1996cand1998.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.17)]17.But

seeSaenger1997.86.Cf.alsoBeecroft,ascitedabove.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.18)]18.On

convergencesbetweenthediastolsystemofNicanorandthepunctuationofthe HawaraPapyrusofHomer,seee.g.Salomons1984.Cf.Nagy1998.499n10.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.19)]19.

ThissamepatternholdsthroughouttheBacchylidespapyri:(1)frequentlyno accentoroneaccentforeachcolon,(2)lessfrequentlytwoaccents,and(3)almost neveranycaseofmorethantwoaccents.Thethirdofthesethreefeaturesis particularlyremarkable.TheonlyexceptionsIcanfindare5.15(onecircumflex andtwoacutes),11.51(threeacutes),15.48(twoacutesandonecircumflex),17.25 (threeacutes),17.89(circumflexandtwoacutes),18.24(circumflexandtwo acutes),19.11(threeacutes).(Iamnotcountinginstancesofconsecutivegraves+ furtheraccentuation,asat1.44,9.15,9.29,10.19,11.14,11.44,13.230,16.20,17.91, sincethemarkingofsyllableswiththegraveaccentindicatessimplythe postponementofacuteaccentratherthananyaccentperse).
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.20)]20.See

thebibliographyinTurner1987.159.Cf.Erbse1960.371406.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.21)]21.The

reliabilityofthetextasprintedbyLaumiscalledintoquestionbyPfeiffer1968.179 onthegroundsthatthetextofParisinus2102stemsfromadisreputableforgerof thesixteenthcentury,JacobusDiassorinus.Pfeifferatp.179n1citesashis authorityCohn1888,whoprovedthatPar.gr.2102washandwrittenby Diassorinus.WhatPfeifferdoesnotmention,however,isthatLaumhimselfatp. 99actuallycitesCohn1888andthatheacknowledgesCohnsarguments concerningfalseinterpolationsbyDiassorinus.ButthenLaumgoesonto counterarguethattheactualwordingofthepassage,evenifitwasfalsely interpolatedbyDiassorinus,stillgoesbacktotheauthorshipofTheodosiusthe samepassage,asLaumemphasizes,isfoundinPar.gr.2603(minusthe introductoryformulaconcerningAristophanesinventionoftheaccentual system).Pfeiffer(p.179n1)doesnotaddressLaumscounterargumentwhenhe

dismissesLaumsprintedtextsimplyonthegroundsthatLaumunfortunately mixedupthetextofPar.gr.2603withtheforgeryofDiassorinusin2102.By mixedupheevidentlymeansmerged.EvenCohn(p.142n1),Ishouldstress, acknowledgesthatPar.gr.2603isindependentofPar.gr.2102.Also,itisessential toreassessPfeiffersnotionofforgery.AsCohnhimselfadmitsaboutsuch manuscriptsasPar.gr.2102(p.142),Flschungenwarensienurinsofern,alssie mitfalschenantikenAutornamenausgestattetwurdenimbrigensindsiefrjene ZeitanerkennenswertegelehrteLeistungen,diekaumweithinterdenArbeiten einesMoschopulosoderThomasMagisterzurckstehen.Thehistoryofthelife andtimesofDiassorinusisofconsiderableinterestinandofitself(cf.Cohn,pp. 137143especiallyp.139ontheexecutionofDiassorinusin1563onchargesof plottingtoousttheVenetiansfromtheislandofCyprus,wherehehadfoundeda school).
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.22)]22.

Pfeiffer1968.179180cf.Nagy1996a.125132.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.23)]23.

Pfeiffer1968concedesthismuch,atp.180.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.24)]24.

Nagy1996a.125.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.25)]25.

Nagy1996a.125,withreferencetoLaum1928.60.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.26)]26.

Nagy1996a.126,withreferencetoLaum1928.327.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.27)]27.

Nagy1996a.132.Cf.Laum1928.164.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.28)]28.For

moreontheancientpracticeofmarkingpolysyllabicoxytoneswithacuterather thangrave(notethemodernspellingintheexampleabove)insomeclause medialsituations,ashereinthecaseof,seefurtherbelow.


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.29)]29.

Nagy1996a.133n113.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.30)]30.

Nagy1996a.126127n87.TheformulationofMooreBlunt1978.147providesa mostrevealingindirectconfirmation:theaccentuationmaybegovernedbythe phoneticsofthesentenceratherthanbypositionintheline.Foranegative assessmentofLaumsargumentation,seeErbse1960.371406,esp.p.371n2 (wherehefollowsGiessler1923.34).

()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.31)]31.

Laum1928.63.Onmelodiccontour,seealsoNagy1996a.132n113.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.32)]32.Cf.

Laum1928.53.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.33)]33.

Nagy1996a.131n108.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.34)]34.

Nagy1996a.125132.Besidesaccent,therearealsovariationsinbreathingsthat musthavesurvivedbywayofperformancetraditions:seeHouseholderandNagy 1972.66onsuchHomericcontrastsasvs.,vs..Cf.Laum 1928.365onthespellinginPapyrusAforBacchylides17.25.


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.35)]35.

Scheller1951.9n3.SeealsoGentili1988.13,withreferencetoWahlstrm1970.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.36)]36.

Scheller,ibid.Formoreontherelationshipofpitchaccentandmelodyinancient Greece,especiallyonthemorearchaicstylewherethemelodicpatternsare conditionedbytheaccentualpatterns,seeNagy1990a.39andn113,followingAllen 1973.231234.Cf.DevineandStephens1994.160,162,167168.


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.37)]37.See

Comotti1989.9192,whoarguesthattheDelphicHymnsaremusicallyfarmore conservativethanthelyriccompositionsof,say,Euripides.Cf.Erbse1960.376377. SeealsothehelpfulaccountofGentili1988.12onlaspiccatatendenzadi Euripideasubordinarelaparolaalmlos,asevidencedbythemelodicnotations inpapyrusfragmentsofEuripidesOrestes140142/153155 (strophe/antistrophe=no.2intheinventoryofWest1992.277ffcf.Dionysiusof HalicarnassusDecompositioneverborum11.63)andofIphigeneiainAulis784 792(epode=no.4inWest).


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.38)]38.I

notewithinterest,however,theconcessionbyWest1992.199n17,citingFeaver 1960.WestcouldhavealsocitedComotti1989.97andAllen1973.231234,who bothrelyontheimportantobservationsofWahlstrm1970again,notcitedby West(seeabove,alsowithreferencetoWest1982).Cf.alsoDevineandStephens 1994.169.


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.39)]39.We

maycomparetheconceptofthelmma,derivedfromlambaneintake:whenyou citealemma,youaretaking,literally,thegivenwordoutofitsmetricaland melodiccontext.


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.40)]40.See

alsoIrigoin1952.50onApolloniusEidographos,whowasthesuccessorof AristophanesofByzantium.GiventhatApolloniusclassifiedtheodesofPindar accordingtomodes,e.g.Dorian,Phrygian,Lydian,etc.,itislikelythat Aristophanes,ashispredecessor,hadaccesstoamelodictraditionwhenhewas workingontheaccentsofBacchylides.InthecaseofthemelodiesofclassicalAttic tragedy,FlemingandKopff1992.762763arguefortraditionsofmelodic transcriptionthatgobacktothefifthcentury.


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.41)]41.The

examplesintheAppendixinvolvebrevis+acuteoveriota,butthereareexamplesof othervowelsintheBacchylidespapyri:e.g.brevis+acuteoveralpha(3.1,4.16,5.36) andbrevis+acuteoverupsilon(5.22,5.145,11.12).


()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.42)]42.In

thisconnection,wemustkeepinmindthatAristarchuswasnotinterestedin questionsofperformanceinthefirstplace:seeNagy1996a.130,150.
()[back (http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4903#noteref_n.43)]43.Cf.

Nagy1998.499n10.

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