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12/9/13

How to Build a Regulated Power Supply? Designing Regulated Power Supply: Circuit Diagram

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How to Design a Regulated Power Supply


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12v Power Supply


www.alibaba.com Find Quality Products from Verified Manufacturers.Get a Live Quote Now! The performance of each and every electronic system or electronic circuit depends upon the power supply that energizes the circuit or system. It provides required current to the circuit. Any disturbance noise in this power supply can cause problem in working or operation of circuit. If there is any deviation in this power supply level the circuit may not work properly. The accuracy and precision of circuit operation depends upon it. In some of the circuits all the calibration are done at this voltage level. So all these calibrations becomes false if there is fluctuation in supply level. There are two types of power supplies

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Unregulated power supply Regulated power supply

Unregulated supply is used in some circuits where there is no much change in required load current. The load current remains fixed or deviation is very less. Because in such supply

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How to Build a Regulated Power Supply? Designing Regulated Power Supply: Circuit Diagram

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The output voltage reduces as load current increases The ripple in output voltage increases as load current increases

So this kind of supply can not be used where there is noticeable change in load current frequently. But although many circuits works on unregulated supply because it requires very few components and design is also very simple. Also some fluctuation in supply level can be tolerated due to load current change. The regulated power supply is required in digital circuits, the circuits in which the components can not tolerate even 1% change in supply level like micro controller, micro processor etc. So here I am giving the procedure to design regulated power supply that means which components should be chosen to have required regulated output voltage with required current. The procedure requires calculations based on some designing equations, some assumptions and approximations that we must take during designing.

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Consider following notification Erms Em : : rms value of AC voltage (transformer secondary voltage) max value of AC voltage no load DC voltage full load DC voltage internal resistance full load output current minimum output voltage from unregulated supply rms value of ripple pick ripple voltage

VdcNL : VdcFL Ro IL : : :

VLmin : Vrms ?Vo : :

Following equations relations are used in designing power supply VdcNL = Em = Erms / 1.41 VdcFL = VdcNL - Ro IL ?Vo = IL / (200 C)

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How to Build a Regulated Power Supply? Designing Regulated Power Supply: Circuit Diagram

?Vo = 3.5 Vrms VLmin = VdcFL - ?Vo / 2 So let us start designing AIM: design regulated power supply for 5 V @ 1 A Procedure: We have to design 2 separate sections 1) Regulated section 2) Unregulated section Design of Regulated section Step 1: select voltage regulator chip Because we are designing regulated power supply, we need voltage regulator chip. There are so many voltage regulator chips available. They are broadly classified into different categories based on 1) 2) 3) Polarity : positive, negative or dual Fixed output or variable output Required output current from 0.1 A 5 A

Here we require fixed and positive supply with current capacity 1 A. So we have to choose LM7805 voltage regulator chip. Step 2: input output capacitive filter Input capacitor is required to suppress or minimize any ripple or variation in input applied to regulator chip. Its typical value is 0.33F as specified in datasheet. This can be neglected if regulator chip is connected very close to filtering capacitor of rectifier. It is only required when the distance between rectifier output and regulator input. Output capacitor is required to suppress any spike or glitch in fixed output voltage that may occur due to transient change in AC input. Its typical value is 0.1 F as specified in datasheet. This completes design of regulated section. Design of Unregulated section It feeds regulated section. Its rectifier + filter. The most required thing is the input given by this section to regulated section must be at least 3 V higher than required output voltage. This is
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How to Build a Regulated Power Supply? Designing Regulated Power Supply: Circuit Diagram

known as headroom for regulator chip. This gives us VLmin = Vop + headroom = = 5+3 8V

For this section we have to select transformer, diode and capacitor. Step 3: selecting capacitor Let us assume the capacitor is 1000 F electrolyte capacitor. We need to find out its working DC voltage WLDC, but that depends upon VdcNL as WLDC = VdcNL + 20% VdcNL So after finding VdcNL we can calculate it. From this capacitor value we can find ?Vo as ?Vo = IL / (200 C) So for IL = 1 A and C = 1000 F ?Vo = 1 / 200100010-6 =5V From ?Vo and VLmin, VdcFL can be calculated as VdcFL = VLmin + ?Vo / 2 = 8 + 5/2 = 10.5 V VdcFL is related with VdcNL as VdcNL = VdcFL + Ro IL Ro value is between 6? to 10?. Assuming Ro as 8? VdcNL = 10.5 + 81 = 18.5 V Now calculate required WLDC WLDC = VdcNL + 20% VdcNL = 18.5 + 3.7 = 22.2 V
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12/9/13

How to Build a Regulated Power Supply? Designing Regulated Power Supply: Circuit Diagram

Always we have to go for higher value than this. So choose capacitor with WLDC of 25 V. So finally our capacitor is C = 1000 F @ 25 V Step 4: selecting diode Selecting diode means finding current capacity and PIV of diode. 1. 2. Current capacity IC > IL that means Ic can be 1 A or more PIV = VdcNL + 20% VdcNL = 22.2. again going for higher value that is 25 V Finally required diodes are with

D = 1A @ 25V All the diodes of series 1N4004, 1N4007, 1N4009 satisfies these criteria. Step 5: selecting transformer The rms value of transformer output is given by Erms = Em / 1.41 But Em = VdcNL., So Erms = VdcNL / 1.41 = 18.5 / 1.41 = 13.12 VAC So we may select either
1. 1) 2. 2)

Center tap transformer of 9 0 9 or 7 .5 0 7.5 secondary voltage Transformer Without center tapping either 0 15 or 0 18 secondary voltage

Current rating for secondary of transformer should be at least 1.8 IL. That means the current rating can be 2 A. Finally select transformer with T = 230 / 15 VAC @ 2A Schematic of final design is as shown in the circuit diagram tab.

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