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ring spinning The ring spinning is used to process staple fibers into yarn and produce a bobbin on which

the yarn has been wound. A spinning system in which twist is inserted in a yarn by using a revolving traveller is known as Ring spinning. The ring spinning machine was invented by an American named Thorp in 1828, and Jenk another American added the traveler rotating around the ring in 1830. In the intervening period of more than 170 years the ring spinning machine has undergone considerable modification in detail, but the basic concept has remained unchanged. Even with the introduction to new sophisticated spinning systems, the ring spinning system is widely used and is the most popular form of spinning system. A typical ring spinning frame is divided into four zones:

Creel Zone Drafting Zone Twisting Zone Package Winding Zone

it can be used universally, i.e. any material and any yarn count can be spun on it it produces yarn with optimum properties (especially as regards structure and tenacity) it is uncomplicated and easy to control

rotor spinning Rotor spinning process is totally different from carded or combed spinning. Rotor yarn is much coarser than carded or combed yarn. Most of rotor yarn count ranges from 10's up to 40's. Coarser fabric is formed by rotor yarn. The price of rotor yarn fabric is very low than combed and carded yarn fabric. Fiber feed, twist insertion and winding of yarn are independently carried out and the speeds of these processes are also independent of each other. The output is approximately 7 times that of ring spinning.

Rotor spinning was commercially introduced in 1967. In its early years, the rotor spinning was mainly used to produce coarse low quality yarns. However with modern developments, it is now possible to produce high quality yarns up to counts of 40 Ne. Furthermore the rotor speed has been successfully increased

from early range of 40,000 rpm to 150,000 rpm. These latest developments have given rotor spinning technique capability of producing high quality yarns at a productivity rates of up to 10 times higher and as low as one third of the cost as compared to that of ring spinning technique.

The biggest limitation faced by rotor spinning is its inability to produce very fine yarns that otherwise can easily be spun by using ring spinning. Despite of this limitation, rotor spinning is a very good competitor of ring spinning and is capturing the market considerably in coarse yarn counts. The strand of fibers is first separated by vigorous drafting and is then recollected and twisted in a component of the machine called as a rotor. The rotor frame utilizes dispersion drafting technique. The method of twist insertion is also different. In rotor spinning twist is inserted by the rotation of the rotor

ROTOR SPINNING PROCESS FUNCTIONS Opening &Attenuation Cleaning Improving Evenness Twisting Winding

QUALITY TEST FOR YARN: Lea strength CV % Hairiness No of thick & thin places.

Uster tester 4:
The instrument or M/C by which unevenness (U%) , co-efficient of variation of mass (CVm%), yarn hairiness, imperfection index (IPI) and thick, thin place, neps etc of yarn, roving sliver can be measured or calculated is called Uster Evenness Tester or Uster Tester 4

ANOVA: a statistical method for making simultaneous comparisons between two or more means; a statistical method that yields values that can be tested to determine whether a significant relation exists between variables

A t-test helps you compare whether two groups have different average values (for example, whether men and women have different average heights). post hoc analysis:

A post-hoc analysis is looking at data after an experiment has been done in search of data, which was not specified, before the experiment or research. Multiple regression analysis: a statistical technique that predicts values of one variable on the basis of two or more other variables SPSS: (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) It predicts the outcome of any experiment or activity with confidence, that helps in making a smarter decision for an individual, department or an organization.

linear programming: a mathematical technique for maximizing or minimizing a linear function of several variables, such as output or cost.

Different tests of yarn 1-CV% 2-No of thick & thin 3-lea strength 4-Hairiness
The Coefficient of Variation CV is a well known value for the determination of the evenness of slivers, roving and yarn. The Coefficient of Variation is the standard deviation expressed as the percentage of mean.

Thick place: A yarn defect where the diameter is greater than the adjoining segments and

extending for 6 mm

Thin Place: A yarn segment where the diameter is 25% lesser than the average diameter of yarn

Lea Breaking Strength The Force required to break one lea Unit pounds Count Strength Product Apparatus Lea Tester

Fibres protruding out from the main body of the yarn are called hairiness. The number of hairs exceeding 3mm in length as a percentage of the total number of hairs is found to be linearly related to the count of the yarn, i.e. there are more hairs in a fine yarn than a coarse one of the same type.