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abbreviation (noun): a shortened form of a word or phrase used to represent the whole The abbreviation amp stands for ampere. abrasive (adjective): rough; able to wear away, smooth, or polish by friction Sand is an abrasive material that is used in the production of sandpaper. AC (abbreviation): alternating current AC is the most commonly used voltage source. adjacent (adjective): next to or nearby Nejim and Jamal lived in adjacent houses. alternate (verb): to change back and forth; to constantly reverse from one state to another ay alternates !ith night. amp (noun): ampere; the unit by which an electric current is measured "e bought a thirty#amp fuse. ampere (noun): the unit by which an electric current is measured $ost household circuits carry %& to '&& amperes of electricity. apply (verb): to bring into action; to put to use The effort applied to completing the project on time !as successful. associated (adjective): related with or connected ( total of ')* countries are associated !ith the +nited Nations as member states. attract (verb): to pull towards; to cause to approach or come near The gravitational force of the earth attracts smaller bodies to it.

ball bearing (noun): a bearing in which the parts are separated by a ring of small metal balls which reduce friction Ball bearings hold the shaft in the motor housing. bimetallic (adjective): made or consisting of two metals ( bimetallic strip consists of t!o different metals !ith different reactions to heat. bimetallic thermometer (noun): a thermometer that uses two strips of different metals which expand at different rates as they are heated Bimetallic thermometers are often used as home heating system thermostats. blockage (noun): stoppage ,e called a plumber to clear out the blockage in the drainpipe. body (noun): a separate physical mass or quantity The most common foreign bodies in the eye are

dust- dirt- and sand. bulb (noun): any round, enlarged part, especially at the end of a cylindrical object such as a thermometer The bulb of the thermometer holds mercury!hich rises as it e.pands.

cell (noun): a device which converts chemical energy into electrical energy; a battery /hemical reactions that produce electricity ta0e place in the cell. characteristic (noun): a quality or property that identifies or makes something different from other things ( characteristic of Saudi (rabian !eather is lo! rainfall. chase (noun): the act of following rapidly in order to catch The police !ere involved in a high#speed car chase. closed circuit (noun): a complete electrical circuit around which current flows Turning a light s!itch on creates a closed circuit. coil (noun): a length of rope or wire curled to form a series of circles, one above the other ( coil of metal springs attached to a car1s frame absorbs the bumps of the road. combustible (adjective): able to catch fire and burn; flammable ,ood and paper are combustible materials.

Glossary 83
component (noun): one of several parts that make up a whole ( !ater molecule has t!o main componentshydrogen and o.ygen. compress (verb): to reduce in size by pushing or forcing together 2irmly compress the dirt in the pot to hold the plant upright. compressibility (noun): the ability of matter to be reduced in size or volume !ll gases can be compressed, but it is difficult to compress liquids ,ater has a lo! compressibility. concentration (noun): amount of a substance in a given amount of another substance The ead Sea contains the highest salt concentration of any body of !ater on earth. conduct (verb): to serve as a path or channel for ,ater conducts electricity very easily- so you must avoid touching electric !ires !hen your hands are !et. conductor (noun): a substance having weakly bonded electrons and, therefore, low resistance to electron flow /opper is considered to be a good conductor.

core (noun): the central or inner part of something The core of the earth is mostly made up of iron and nic0el. corresponding (adjective): similar or identical in position, number, or form 2or *& degrees /elsius- the corresponding temperature in 2ahrenheit is 34 degrees. current (noun): the flow of electricity in a conductor The current !as measured in amperes.

DC (abbreviation): direct current Saudi (ramco industrial plants have DC supplies. deposit (noun): matter set down by a natural process; a collected mass /hina ma0es great use of its coal deposits. density (noun): a property of matter defined as mass per unit volume; the relative heaviness of an object occupying a certain quantity of space 5ead has a high density. differential pressure flowmeter (noun): a flowmeasuring device that measures the difference between two pressure values and converts, or changes, them to a flow rate ! differential pressure flowmeters is often used to measure the flow of fluid in a pipeline discard (verb): to throw out; get rid of 6atteries contain strong chemicals and must be discarded !ith care. dissolve (verb): to turn into liquid; liquefy Sugar easily dissolves in hot !ater. drive (verb): to supply force or power to and cause to function Steam drives the engine. dry-cell battery (noun): a battery that does not contain liquid electrolyte Dry-cell batteries are used in appliances such as transistor radios. electric motor (noun): a motor that converts electricity to mechanical work Electric motors are found in household appliances such as fans- fridges- and !ashing machines. electrode (noun): either of two points "the positive and negative terminals# through which an electric current enters or leaves a battery 6attery acid buildup on the cable connections to the electrodes can cause po!er failure. electrolyte (noun): a nonmetallic electrical conductor in which current is carried by the movement of ions; a sulfuric acid solution is one example The electrolyte carries the current inside a battery. electromagnet (noun): a magnet whose magnetic

force is created and controlled by electricity (n electromagnet is easily created by passing electric current through a coil of !ire. electromagnetic induction (noun): the transfer of power between one electric circuit and another caused by changes in the magnetic field linking them $ichael 2araday discovered electromagnetic induction in '4%'.

8! Glossary
electromagnetism (noun): magnetism produced by an electric current Electromagnetism !as discovered !hen it !as observed that a copper !ire carrying an electric current can magneti7e pieces of iron or steel near it. electromotive force (noun phrase): the energy available for a movement or change from nonelectric to electric form, or vice versa; potential energy expressed in volts Sources of electromotive force include batteries and electric generators. embed (verb): to fix firmly into; to enclose firmly in a surrounding mass 8ngagement rings are often embedded !ith diamonds. electron (noun): a negatively$charged particle /urrent is the flo! of electrons along an electrical path.

filled-system temperature indicator (noun): a device filled with a liquid or vapor which expands with an increase in temperature Filled system thermometers are sometimes seen in home coo0ing ranges. fluctuating (adjective): continually changing 9eople have fluctuating levels of attention. fractionation (noun): the process of separating oil and gas hydrocarbons into different parts, or fractions Fractionation is part of the oil refining process.

generate (verb): to produce; to create The sun generates the heat !hich !arms our planet. gradually (adverb): taking place by small degrees or little by little The apprentice gradually learned all of the maintenance procedures.

heli% (noun): a spiral, as the curve of a screw "eating the metal helix causes it to open up or un!ind. housing (noun): protective cover for a piece of

equipment The motor housing holds and protects the internal parts of the motor.

impeller meter (noun): a flow$measuring device comprising two blades that rotate as fluid flows through it The impeller meter is highly reliable- accurateeasily installed- and economical. inaccurate (adjective): incorrect; not exact The electric cloc0 !as inaccurate due to a po!er failure earlier in the day. indicator (noun): a thing that shows a state or level; a gauge or meter of a specified kind The indicator of the car:s gas gauge sho!s that the tan0 is empty. induce (verb): to bring about, produce, or cause Ta0ing certain medicines !ill induce sleep. ion (noun): an atom that has either lost or gained one or more electrons so that it has a positive or negative electrical charge 9ositively charged 7inc ions are produced in a chemical reaction involving 7inc and the electrolyte of a !et#cell battery. in series (prepositional phrase): a number of objects or events coming one after the other; related or linked together ( set of storage batteries connected in series can serve as an emergency po!er source. insert (verb): to put or place in The carpenter inserted a ne! battery into his portable drill and continued !or0ing. insulate (verb): to cover with a material in order to prevent the transfer of heat, electricity, or sound "omebuilders in cold climates generally insulate their homes !ith fiberglass.

Glossary 8'
insulator (noun): a material which electricity, heat or sound cannot go through 9lastics tend to be good insulators.

magnet (noun): a body that has the property to attract and hold certain substances, such as iron The magnets on my refrigerator hold up photos and a calendar. matter (noun): everything which has mass and takes up space (n atom is the smallest indivisible unit of matter. mass (noun): a measure of the amount of material an object contains ( balloon filled !ith air may be larger than your head- but it has less mass. mercury thermometer (noun): thermometer consisting of a mercury$filled tube with a bulb at one end

The most common temperature measuring device is the mercury thermometer.

non-associated (verb): not related to Natural gas found in gas deposits- separate from crude oil- is called non-associated gas.

observe (verb): to pay careful attention to 2oreign !or0ers must observe the rules of the country in !hich they !or0. ohm (noun): the unit by which resistance to an electric current is measured; the resistance of a conductor to the flow of electricity ( circuit !ith only '& ohms of resistance !ill have a higher current flo! than a circuit !ith '&& ohms. open circuit (noun): an incomplete electrical circuit where no current flows /ircuits !hich have faulty !iring or missing components are considered open circuits. opposition (noun): the act of going against; an obstacle to movement or flow The opposition of the road to the moving tires of a car creates friction and produces heat. orifice plate (noun): a thin metal plate with a hole in it used for measure the flow rate in pipelines The orifice plate creates a pressure drop !ithin the pipeline.

pointer (noun): something that directs attention to a place; the needle$like hand on a watch, scale, compass, or other instrument The gas gauge pointer sho!s ho! much gasoline is in the tan0. polarity (noun): the direction of a magnetic or electric field; the state or condition of having positive and negative poles or of being oriented toward a particular pole "e got the polarity of the battery reversed. potential (noun): possibility; capacity /leanliness reduces the potential for disease to spread. pressure (noun): force /oo0ing gas is in a cylinder is under pressure. primary (adjective): main; most important Jamal:s primary objective in life !as to provide for his family. principle (noun): a primary or general law or truth from which others can be developed $any temperature gauges are based on the general principle that heat causes things to e.pand. property (noun): one of the things you can see, feel, or measure about a substance that makes it different from another substance

$ercury is a metal that has the special property of e.isting as a li;uid at normal temperatures.

rather like (adverbial phrase): very similar to The deserts of Saudi (rabia are rather like the deserts of northern $e.ico.

8- Glossary
relative (adjective): in comparison to something else The normal height or !eight of a child is relative to his or her age. repel (verb): to drive back; to force back; to turn away The north pole of one magnet !ill repel the north pole of another. represent (verb): to stand for; to present by signs or symbols The +.S. dollar is represented by the symbol <. resistance (noun): preventing or slowing motion; the force that tends to oppose motion =f you try running in !ater up to your !aist- there !ill be a lot of resistance to your for!ard movement. resistance detector (noun): a kind of thermometer that uses the property of certain metals to change resistance when temperature changes esistance detectors are among the most precise temperature sensors. restriction (noun): a reduced area; something that limits or holds back 2lo! rate decreases as fluid passes through a restriction in a pipeline. revolution (noun): a complete turn or rotation around a central point or axis ( typical car engine turns bet!een >&& and >-&&& revolutions per minute. rotor (noun): the rotating part of an electric motor The helicopter:s rotor generates lift.

seal (verb): to close or completely cover; to make air$tight ( flashlight battery is sealed in its o!n metal case. shaft (noun): a rotating cylindrical rod, often attached to gears, that transfers power or motion the drive shaft of a car short circuit (noun): a faulty electrical connection which causes the current to flow in the wrong direction, often having the effect of stopping the power supply !hort circuits are dangerous because they can cause a surge in current. solution (noun): a mixture in which particles of one or more substances are distributed evenly throughout another substance Sugar dissolved in a cup of tea is an e.ample of a

chemical solution. specific gravity (noun): the density of a substance relative to the density of water ?old has a specific gravity of ').%. stationary (adjective): having a fixed position; not moving ( stationary bicycle is used for e.ercise- not for transportation. stator (noun): the stationary part of a motor The rotor spins around the stator. subject to (verb phrase): able or likely to be affected by; open to the influence of =f you don:t maintain your car regularly- it may be subject to mechanical problems. surge (noun): a sudden increase of electrical current or voltage 8lectrical po!er surges can damage electronic e;uipment.

take in (verb phrase): to receive, get, or absorb @n a cold day- it:s nice to stand in front of a fire and take in the !armth. thermal e%pansion (noun phrase): an increase in volume of a liquid or solid substance caused by heat (n e.ample of thermal expansion can be seen !hen you run hot !ater over a jar lid that !on1t open. The hot !ater e.pands the metal lid- and then it opens easily. thermometer (noun): an instrument used for measuring temperature ,e placed the thermometer outside the !indo! so !e could chec0 the outside temperature throughout the day. thermocouple (noun): a kind of thermometer consisting of two wires of different metals connected to a meter that senses changes in voltage when the device is heated "hermocouples are used e.tensively in the steel industry to monitor temperatures and chemistry throughout the steel ma0ing process.

Glossary 80

three-phase supply (noun phrase):three voltages produced at the same time in three stator windings of an !% generator, with each winding serving as the return current path for the other two The three-phase supply produced a rotating magnetic field in the stator. trace (adjective): occurring in very small amounts @nly trace minerals !ere found at the test sitesso the management decided against further e.ploration of the area. trap (verb): to prevent from escaping The !or0ers !ere trapped in a burning building.

turbine flowmeter (noun): a flow$measuring device comprising a rotor with blades that allow a measurable amount of fluid to pass with each revolution of the rotor ( turbine flo#meter is subject to high !ear and must be used !ith clean fluids.

unite (verb): to combine so as to form a single unit =n '4'&- Aing Aamehameha united all the "a!aiian islands under his authority.

vapori3e (verb): to rapidly change from a liquid to a gas @nce !ater reaches its boiling point- it vapori$es rapidly into steam. vapori3ation (noun): the process of a liquid becoming a gas %apori$ation occurs in a steaming 0ettle on the stove. variable (noun): something that is likely to vary, or change 9ressure and temperature are t!o variables in the hydrocarbon production process. venturi tube (noun): a cylindrical pipe with a narrow constriction, used to measure fluid flow ,hen the venturi tube is inserted into a pipeline- the fluid is forced through the narro!ed section. viscosity (noun): a liquid&s resistance to flowing ,ater has a lo! viscosity- !hile honey has a high viscosity. volt (noun): a unit of electromotive force $ost flashlight batteries produce about '.B volts of energy. voltage (noun): the electrical force that produces a flow of electricity in a circuit 5o! voltage reduces the current- ma0ing the lights burn dimly.

wear (noun): the damage or loss of quality due to long or heavy use The hotel1s carpets are sho!ing signs of #ear. weight (noun): the force of gravity acting on an object The ma.imum #eight the bridge can support is 'B tons. wet-cell storage battery (noun): a battery containing liquid electrolyte /ar batteries are #et-cell storage batteries. windings (noun): coiled electrical wires The iron core of the motor is surrounded by copper #indings.