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1.

The Gypsies were sent to Gypsy camps (Zigeunerlager). Marzahn in Berlin along with Lackenbach and

Salzburg in Austria were among the worst of these camps. But another wide known camp is the Auschwitz II (also called Auschwitz-Birkenau). It contained many Jews but also many non- Jews like the

Gypsies.

2. 3. The camps had many diseases, and they served the minimum amount of food leading
2.
3.
The camps had many diseases, and they served the minimum amount of food leading the people in

the camps starving to death. You have to do hard labor every day, making everyone weak and skinny. The executions in the camps were shot at the spot, and or placed and killed by poison gas rooms.

Country

Pre War Roma population

Low Estimate

High Estimate

       

11,200

6,800

8,250

600

350

500

13,000

5,000

6,500

1,000

500

1,000

40,000

15,150

15,150

20,000

15,000

15,000

?

50

50

100,000

1,000

28,000

25,000

1,000

1,000

5,000

1,500

2,500

1,000

500

1,000

200

100

200

500

215

500

50,000

8,000

35,000

300,000

19,000

36,000

80,000

400

10,000

Soviet Union (1939 borders)

200,000

30,000

35,000

100,000

26,000

90,000

Total

947,500

130,565

285,650

  • 4. This chart represents the number of Roma (Gypsies) population before and after the World War II.

5.

5. 6. Hitler and the Nazi party targeted the Gypsies because they retained some elements from
  • 6. Hitler and the Nazi party targeted the Gypsies because they retained some elements from their Nordic home; they are descended from the lowest classes of the population in that region. In the course of their migrations, they have absorbed the blood of the surrounding peoples, and have then become an Oriental, western-Asiatic racial mixture, with an addition of Indian, mid-Asiatic, and European strains. Their nomadic mode of living is a result of this mixture. So Hitler persuaded his people that the Gypsies will generally affect Europe as aliens.

  • 7. The gypsy children were forcefully taken out of school, while the whole family would get sent to concentration camps. They would separate the family members into male and female and sent off to different sides of the concentration camp.

  • 8. In December 18, 1942 Himmler signed a decree saying that all Gypsies from Germany should be sent to Auschwitz. Similar decrees for Belgium and Holland followed. But Gypsies were persecuted just like the Jews because they were forced to obey the laws that the Jews were given. The Gypsies were supposed to be treated in the same category as the Jews, thus the Gypsies have to follow the rules/regulations the Jews follow. Hitler did not have to create any new laws for the gypsies because of the already developed anti gypsies law. In July 1933 Gypsies was sterilized under the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring. In September 1935 Gypsies were included in the Nuremberg Laws (Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor).

  • 9. There were some Gypsy survivor like Maria Sava Mois, and Stefan Mois who escaped with the help of others but no one had actually escaped the camp. But there were resistance in Auschwitz, May 1944, SS guards attempted to liquidate the Gypsy Family Camp and were "met with unexpected resistancethe Roma fought back with crude weaponsand retreated". However, a few months later the SS succeeded in liquidating the camp, and ultimately 20,000 Roma were murdered in the camp. So they failed to escape the concentration camp.

10. Two Gypsy survivors and their story:

MARIA SAVA MOIS

Born: June 1, 1925, Iasi, Romania

10. Two Gypsy survivors and their story: MARIA SAVA MOIS Born: June 1, 1925, Iasi, Romania

Maria was one of four children born to poor Gypsy parents in the capital of Moldavia in eastern Romania. The family lived in a mixed neighborhood that included Romanians and Gypsies. Maria grew up in a house with a yard where the family kept a pig and some chickens. Her father made a living by singing and by working at some of the many wineries that dotted the Moldavian countryside.

1933-39: My parents couldn't afford to send me to school. To help make ends meet, my sister, older brother and I helped my mother pick grapes for a local winery. The work was seasonal and we were contracted by the week. We worked hard and long, from 5 a.m. until evening.

1940-44: When I was 16, my father was drafted by the Romanians to fight against the Soviet Union. The following year, Iasi's Gypsies were rounded up by the Romanian police and sent eastward by cattle car. When we disembarked in Transnistria, we were marched to a farm and left in open fields to die slowly. That's how my sister died. My husband, Stefan, managed to run away. By coincidence, my father's unit was stationed nearby and on New Year's Eve of 1943 he smuggled some of us back to Romania on a troop train.

Maria survived the rest of the war in Iasi. After the war, she and her husband reunited and resettled in Iasi.

STEFAN MOISE

Born: January 30, 1923, Iasi, Romania

STEFAN MOISE Born: January 30, 1923, Iasi, Romania Stefan was born to Gypsy parents in the

Stefan was born to Gypsy parents in the capital of Moldavia in eastern Romania. The family lived in a mixed neighborhood of Gypsies and Romanians. Stefan's father made a living playing guitar in local restaurants. As a child, Stefan learned to play the violin and he often performed with his father.

1933-39: When I was a teenager and old enough to branch out on my own, I left my father and teamed up with another young man to perform in restaurants. We performed all over Moldavia. The outbreak of war in 1939 was bad for business and many restaurants closed down, so I had to resort to farm work to support myself.

1940-44: In 1942 Iasi's Gypsies were rounded up by the Romanian police and sent eastward by cattle car. When we disembarked in Transnistria, we were marched to open fields and left to starve with inadequate rations. Urged by my wife, I managed to run away. Of course, I took my violin. I hitched a ride on a freight train to Odessa and found work playing in a hotel, but all the time I couldn't stop feeling guilty for leaving my wife and sister. In 1944 I was arrested and inducted into the Romanian army.

After the war, Stefan was reunited with his wife in Iasi. He worked as a musician until his retirement in 1983.

11. If and when the gypsies could escape they would escape into Hitler’s territory, so the gypsies would escape to heavily populated Romani Soldiers, where they would be safe, and they would act as if they were royal to Hitler. Like the two Mois couple that fled near the Romanian army.