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STEEL STRUCTURAL CALCULATION REPORT

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DESCRIZIONE DESCRIPTION EMESSO CONTROLLATO ISSUED BY CONTROLLED BY APPROVATO APPROVED BY

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CALCULATION ASSUMPTION

1.1 SCOPE This report describes the calculation procedure and data considered in order to design the steel structure of the HEATER. 1.2 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS & DRAWINGS - Heater Assembly xx - Foundation Assembly / Details with loads 1.3 CALCULATION CODES - Uniform Building Code Volume 2 - Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures - Manual of steel construction - Allowable Stress Design - Specification for Structural Steel Buildings AISC 1.4 MATERIAL AND CODE ALLOWABLE VALUES Material used for the structures : Yield stress fy: 235 Minimum Tensile stress fu: 400 JIS SS4002or equivalent N/mm (thickness 16 mm) N/mm2 UBC-97 UBC-97 AISC ASD/01 360-05 xx

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2 2.1

LOAD CALCULATION
PRIMARY LOADS The decomposition of the loads into following primary loads :
- Structure Self-Weight - Extra Steelwork Weight - Platform - Refractory Loads - Pipe empty loads - Pipe Operating Loads - Hydrostatic test loads - Burners - Air Duct - Live Load 1 - Wind Load +X - Wind Load +Y - Earthquake Load +X - Earthquake Load +Y (SLF): (EXTSTEEL): (EXTPLTF): (REFRACT): (PPEMPT): (PPOPER) (PPTEST) (BURN): (ADUCT): (LL1): WLX WLY EQX EQY Weighs of the structural components automatically calculated by the program, and based on the model feature. Extra Steelwork weights not directly included in the model and not automatically calculated. Platform Extra Steelwork weights not directly included in the model and not automatically calculated. Weights of the refractory lining surfaces applied to the structural elements. Weights of all the operating pipes installed on the structure considered empty. Weights of the pipes filled with gas or liquid fluid as they are during the normal operation of the plant and load at terminal points. Weights of the pipes considered full of water as they are during the hydrostatic test conditions Weights of the burners applied to the radiant floor Weights of air duct installed on heater For the calculation of the foundation loads and structural analysis has been considered an overload of 500 Kg/m2 on each platforms. According to UBC-97 According to UBC-97 According to UBC-97 According to UBC-97 A thermal load has been considered on steel structures during normal operation according to spec n 00-ZA-E205001-rev.02 Tmax on frame = 47C Tmin on frame = 2C Tmax on furnace skin = 83C Tmin on furnace skin = 38C

- Thermal Load

TMP

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2.2 2.2.1

LOADING DETAILS Radiant cell

2.2.1.1 Radiant Floor


A.1 FLOOR 2474 mm 1697 mm 515 mm 4948 mm 3394 mm 1060 mm 6 mm 2 19,2 m 905,7 Kg 8,16 11,1 m 2 m
2

External Radius Internal Radius support internal Radius External Diameter Internal surface diameter support internal diameter Floor thickness Overall Surface Floor surface weight burners supporting surface External surface Refractory (wet) Wet D.ty M.W.C. 1:2:4 Thickness 75 Wet D.ty VLWC 1:0:5 Thickness 125 A 1.2 Burners Weight of each burner considered number of burners Overall burners weight

9,06 KN

57,04KN 3 1930 Kg/m mm 3 1215 Kg/m mm

450 6

Kg

2700 Kg 27,00KN

A 1.3 Steelwork Extra steelwork not modelled Extra steelwork weight Input Sap Data

40,00 Kg/m 769,15 Kg

7,69 KN

Overall floor weight Internal surface Overall refractory weight distribuited on surface Overall steelwork weight distribuited on surface Overall burners weight distributed on surface KN/m2 KN/m2 2,97 0,4 3,31

100,79 External surface 2,97 0,4

KN load case REFRACT EXTSTEEL BURN

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2.2.1.2 Radiant Lateral walls


LATERAL WALL External Diameter Height 9198,0 Thickness 5,0 Lateral Surface Lateral surface weight Refractory (wet) L.W.C. 124 Thickness 75 V.L.W.C 105 Thickness 100 Steelwork Extra steelwork not modelled Extra steelwork weight 4948 mm mm mm 2 m Kg

142,9 5609,1

56,1 323,7

KN KN

1400 1215

Kg/m3 mm Kg/m3 mm

20,00 Kg 2858,1 Kg/m2 28,6 tot. weight 408,4 KN KN

Overall refractory weight distribuited on surface Overall steelwork weight distribuited on surface

load case KN/m2 2,26 REFRACT EXTSTEEL 0,20

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2.2.1.3 Heater Arch


ARCH Diameter 4948 Thickness 6 Surface 19,2 Arch surface weight Rectangular hole Lenght 4900 Width 1453 hole surface Arch surface without hole Refractory (wet) L.W.C. 124 Thickness 75 V.L.W.C 105 Thickness 125 Steelwork Extra steelwork not modelled Extra steelwork weight 1400 1215 Kg/m3 mm Kg/m3 mm mm mm m2 Kg

905,7

9,1

KN

7,1 12,11

mm mm m2 m2 31,105 KN

20,00 242,2

Kg Kg/m2 2,4 tot. weight 42,6 KN/m2 KN/m2

KN KN REFRACT EXTSTEEL

Overall refractory weight added to arch surface Overall steelwork weight added to arch surface

2,57 0,20

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2.2.2

Radiant Internal coil


Fuel Oil 141,3 mm 6,55 mm 128,2 mm 556 Kg/m3 1000 Kg/m3 21,77 Kg/m 7,18 Kg/m 12,91 Kg/m 2,0 7,800 m 254,0 mm 2,0 8,7 Kg/each 2,9 Kg/each 5,1 Kg/each

Type of fuel Bare tubes O.D: Bare tubes thickness Bare tubes I.D. Maximum Operating fluid density Water density for hydrostatic test Pipe weight per meter Operating fluid weight per meter on each pipe Water weight per meter inside each pipe Number of tubes on each anchor Medium pipe lenght Return bends medium diameter Number of return bends on each anchor Bends unit weight Operating fluid on each return bend Water weight on each return bend Pipe empty weight on each anchor (2 tube + 2 bend) Pipe weight with operating fluid on each anchor (2 tube + 2 bend) Pipe full weight on each anchor (2 tube + 2 bend) Crossing Tubes Number of crossing tubes Medium pipe lenght Empty crossing tubes weight Operating crossing tube weight (pipes + Op. fluid) Test crossing tube weight (pipes + water) Anchor number Total number of tubes on each anchor Total number of bends on each anchor Overall empty weight Overall operating weight (Pipe + Operating fluid) Overall test weight (Pipe + water)

356,9 Kg 474,6 Kg 568,6 Kg

4,0 2,248 m 195,7 Kg 260,3 Kg 311,8 Kg 24,0 48,0 48,0 8761,6 Kg 11650,5 Kg 116,5 13957,4 Kg 139,6 87,6 KN KN KN KN KN KN PPEMPT PPOPER PPTEST

Point empty weight applied on each anchor (ELEV. 19050) Point operating weight applied on each anchor (ELEV. 19050) Point test weight applied on each anchor (ELEV. 19050)

3,65 4,85 5,82

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2.2.3

Convection cell

2.2.3.1 Convection Lateral vertical walls


Width 4900,0 Height 3555,0 Thickness 5,0 Surface 17,4 Weight of each convection wall Refractory (wet) D.ty LWC 1:2:4 Thickness 150 Steelwork not modelled Extra steelwork not modelled Extra steelwork weight mm mm mm m2 Kg

683,7

6,8 36,6

KN KN

1400

Kg/m3 mm

20,00 348,4

Kg/m2 Kg 3,5 93,8 2,10 0,20

KN KN KN/m2 KN/m2 REFRACT EXTSTEEL

Overall convection wall weight (2X) Overall refractory weight distributed each surface Overall steelwork weight added to each surface

2.2.3.2 Convection End tube sheets (E.T.S.)


width 1453,0 Height 3555,0 Thickness 13,0 Surface 5,2 Weight of each convection wall Refractory (wet) Wet D.ty LWC Thickness 100 mm mm mm m2 Kg

527,1

5,3 7,2

KN KN

1400

Kg/m3 mm

Steelwork not modelled Unit Weight

1,0 20 Kg/m2 tot. weight of each End Tube Sheet Overall End Tube Sheet weight 13,5 27,1 1,40 0,20

KN KN KN KN/m2 REFRACT KN/m2 EXTSTEEL

Overall refractory weight added to each E.T.S. surface Overall steelwork weight added each E.T.S. surface

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2.2.3.3 Convection Header Boxes


Deep considered for the Header boxes Width 2353,0 Height 4455,0 Surface 10,5 Steelwork not modelled sheet thickness Plate steelwork weight Refractory (wet) D.ty LWC 1:2:4 Thickness 50 Extra Steelwork not modelled Unit Weight 450 mm mm mm m2

5,0 411,4

mm Kg

4,1 7,3

KN KN

1400

Kg/m3 mm 5,24 KN KN KN KN/m2 REFRACT KN/m2 EXTSTEEL

50 Kg/m2 tot. weight of each Header Box Overall Header Boxes weight

16,7 33,4 1,42 1,81

Overall refractory weight distributed on each E.T.S. surf. Overall steelwork weight distributed on each E.T.S. surf.

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2.2.3.4 Convection Piping (coil, inlet &outlet piping)


CONVECTIVE PROCESS COIL type of fuel Operating fluid density Water density for Hydrostatic test Bare tube external diameter Bare tube thickness Bare tube internal diameter Bare tube length Nr of flow passes Number of tubes N tubes/row Number of rows Number of 180 return bends Medum diameter of 180 return bends single empty tube weight per meter Operating fluid weight per meter inside each tube Water weight per meter inside each pipe Weight of each empty bend Operating fluid weight per meter inside each bend Water weight per meter inside each bend curve Overall empty coil weight (pipes + bends) Overall Operating coil weight (pipes + bends + operating fluid) Overall Test coil weight (pipes + bends + water) fuel oil 556 1000 141,3 6,55 128,2 5,226 4 44 4 11 40 254

Kg/m3 Kg/m3 mm mm mm m

mm

21,76 Kg/m 7,17 Kg/m 12,90 Kg/m 8,68 Kg/each 2,86 Kg/each 5,14 Kg/each 5350 Kg 53,50 KN

7113 Kg 71,13 KN 8522 Kg 85,22 KN

STUDDED SURFACE AROUND CONVECTIVE COIL 25,40 mm Stud height Studs diameter 12,70 mm studs per meter 1260 stud /m Number of bare tubes not finned Number of studded tubes 28 5,026 m studded surface length (on each tube) 0,001013 m2 exposed surface of each stud studded exposed surface of each tube 6,414 m2 total exposed surface calculated (studs+ tubes) 242,04 m2 4476,4 Kg 44,76 Weight of studded surface Overall empty coil weight Overall Operating coil weight (tube + Op. fluid) Overall test coil weight (tube + water) 9826 11590 12998 Kg Kg Kg 98,26 115,90 129,98 KN KN KN

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Height of End Tube Sheet portion Width of End Tube Sheet portion Heading surface with coil weight distributed Overall empty tube weight distributed on each convection header surfaces Overall Operating weight distributed on each convection header surfaces (tube + Op. Fluid) Overall test weight distributed on each convection header surfaces (tube + water)

3555,0 1453,0 5,17

mm mm m2 PPEMPT PPOPER PPTEST

9,51 KN/m2 11,22 KN/m2 12,58 KN/m2

2.2.3.5 Inlet & Outlet terminal points load


TAG F xF yF N N N Nm Nm Nm N1 9342 17346 17346 7566 5694 5694 N2 9342 17346 17346 7566 5694 5694
z

2.2.4

Breeching

C.1 BREECHING Base lenght 4900 mm Base width 1453 mm plate thickness 5 mm Overall SAP surface 10,2 m2

C.1.1 Refractory (wet) Wet D.ty LWC 1:2:4 Thickness 75 Overall breeching refractory weight

1400 1071

Kg/m3 mm Kg

10,71

KN

C.1.4 Steelwork not modelled Steelwork not modelled 30Kg/m2 Overall steelwork not modelled weight 306Kg

3,06 KN

tot. Breeching Weight 13,77 KN

Overall breeching refractory weight distributed on modelled surface1,05 Overall breeching steelwork weight distributed on modelled surface0,30

KN/m2 REFRACT KN/m2 EXTSTEEL

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2.2.5

Platforms, Vertical ladders & Stairs


Live load (for base foundation loads ) Grating 37 Structure 75 Handrail 16 Toe board Total 135 500 Kg/m
2

Kg/m 2 Kg/m 2 Kg/m 2 Kg/m Kg/m


2

2.2.5.1 Platforms EL+ 3000 on plinth L

Dimension Plant platform at 0

LengthWidth mm mm 1250 1835

Surface m2 2,29 nr.supporting beam load on middle beam KN/m

Total platform Dead load Total platform Live load

309,66 Kg 1146,88

3,10 11,47

KN 2 KN 2

0,84 3,13

2.2.5.2 Platforms EL+ 3000


Dimension Internal Radius mm 2474 Middle radius modelled mm 3104 External Radius mm 3854 Angle ( ) 360 nr.supp. beam Total platform Dead load Total platform Live load 3701,77 13710,24 Kg Kg 37,02 137,10 KN 2 KN 2 Surface m2 27,42 load on load on middle external beam beam KN/m KN/m 0,95 0,76 3,52 2,83

Plant

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2.2.5.3 Platforms EL+9000


Middle radius modelled mm 2875

Dimension

Internal Radius mm 2474

External Radius mm 3854

Angle ( )

Surface m2 27,42 load on load on middle external beam beam KN/m KN/m 1,07 0,80

Plant

345 nr.supporting beam

Total platform Dead load Total platform Live load

3701,77 Kg Kg 13710,24

37,02

KN 2

137,10

KN 2

3,96 2,96

Dimension

Surface m2 5,79

Plant platform at 270 and 90

Total length of beam modelled m 15,07 load on beams KN/m

Total platform Dead load Total platform Live load

781,38 Kg

7,81

KN

0,52

2894,00

28,94

KN

1,92

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2.2.5.4 Platforms EL+12498


Dimension Plant platform at 0 Plant platform at 90 Plant platform at 180 Plant platform at 270 Length mm 4000 6151 4000 6151 Width mm 1124 1145 1124 1145 Surface m2 4,50 7,04 4,50 7,04 Nr of portion consid. Dead Load on Plant platform at 0 Dead Load on Plant platform at 90 Dead Load on Plant platform at 180 Dead Load on Plant platform at 270 Live load on Plant platform at 0 Live load on Plant platform at 90 Live load on Plant platform at 180 Live load on Plant platform at 270 606,96 950,79 606,96 950,79 2248,00 3521,45 2248,00 3521,45 Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg 6,07 9,51 6,07 9,51 22,48 35,21 22,48 35,21 KN 1 KN 1 KN 1 KN 1 KN 1 KN 1 KN 1 KN 1 Load on each supp. beam column KN 0,76 0,77 0,76 0,77 2,81 2,86 2,81 2,86

2.2.5.5 Platforms EL+17203


Dimension Length mm Plant platform at 0 Plant platform at 90 Plant platform at 180 Plant platform at 270 Width mm 1375 1349 1375 1349 Surface m2 7,06 1,96 7,06 1,96

5133 1453 5133 1453

Nr of portion consid. Dead Load on Plant platform at 0 Dead Load on Plant platform at 90 Dead Load on Plant platform at 180 Dead Load on Plant platform at 270 952,81 264,61 952,81 264,61 Kg Kg Kg Kg 9,53 2,65 9,53 2,65 KN 1 KN 1 KN 1 KN 1

Load on each supporting beam column KN 0,93 0,91 0,93 0,91

Live load on Plant platform at 0 Live load on Plant platform at 90 Live load on Plant platform at 180 Live load on Plant platform at 270

3528,94 980,05 3528,94 980,05

Kg Kg Kg Kg

35,29 9,80 35,29 9,80

KN 1 KN 1 KN 1 KN 1

3,44 3,37 3,44 3,37

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2.2.5.6 Vertical ladder and stairs


E.1.8 Vertical ladder load (steelwork + live load) Applicable to elev. LD.2 LD.2A LD.3 LD.4 LD.5 E.1.8 Stairs load (steelwork + live load) 3000 3000 11500 20000 25010 lenght (m) 6,00 6,00 3,50 3,50 4,71 weight (Kg) 480 480 279,84 279,84 376,4 weight (KN) 4,80 KN 4,80 KN 2,80 KN 2,80 KN 3,76 KN

Kg/m 80

Kg/m 300 SG.1

Applicable to elev. 3000

lenght (m) 5,25

weight (Kg) 1573,5

weight (KN) 7,87 KN

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2.2.6

Wind Loads (WL)

WIND LOAD according toUBC-97 P = Ce*Cq*qs*Iw EXPOSURE Pressure coefficient on cilindrical surfaces Cq = Site elevation Basic wind speed V = wind stagnation pressure suggested for site elevation qs = Importance factor Iw =

D 0,8 19-25 m 44,4 1,30E-03 Mpa 1,15 (hazardous facilities) m/s According to spec. Nr. 00-ZA-E205001 rev.2 According to spec. Nr. 00-ZA-E205001 rev.2 1,30 KN/m2

2.2.6.1 Wind Load in X direction


From To Elev. Elev. mm Radiant 3000 Radiant 7000 convection 12198 Stack I 17203 Stack II 27203 Stack III 37203 mm 7000 12198 17203 27203 37203 47203 Frontal dimension mm 4948 19,8 4948 25,7 4900 24,5 1574 15,7 1570 15,7 1566 15,7 Surface considered
2

Ce

Specific Pressure on portion p(z) kN/m2 KN 1,77 35,0 1,94 49,8 2,05 50,2 2,19 34,4 2,31 36,2

Wind Load

1,48 1,62 1,71 1,83 1,93 2 2,39 37,5

Total Wind X 243,18 KN INPUT SAP DATA Intermediate Portion columns Radiant 1 Radiant 1 Convection 2 Stack I 0 Stack II 0 Stack III 0

UNIT KN/m KN/m KN/m KN/m KN/m KN/m

wind load distributed 4,38 2,19 4,79 2,40 3,34 1,67 3,44 3,62 3,75

wind load distributed ext. Columns

load case WX WX WX WX WX WX

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2.2.6.2 Wind Load in Y direction


WIND IN Y DIRECTION From Elev. To Elev. mm mm 3000 7000 7000 12198 12198 17203 17203 27203 27203 37203 37203 47203 Frontal dimension m m2 4948 19,8 4948 25,7 1453 7,3 1574 15,7 1570 15,7 1566 15,7 Surface considered Ce Specific Pressure on stack p(z) kN/m2 KN 1,77 35,0 1,94 49,8 2,05 14,9 2,19 34,4 2,31 36,2 Wind Load

1,48 1,62 1,71 1,83 1,93 2 2,39 37,5 Total Wind Y Weight

207,89 KN

INPUT SAP DATA Portion Radiant Radiant Convection Stack I Stack II Stack III Intermediate columns 2 2 1 0 0 0 UNIT KN/m KN/m KN/m KN/m KN/m KN/m wind load distributed 2,92 1,46 3,20 1,60 1,49 3,44 3,62 3,75 wind load distributed ext. Columns load case WY WY WY WY WY WY

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2.2.7

Earthquake Loads calculation (EQX/Y)


(*)

Earthquake load according to UBC-97 Sismic Zone Seismic zone factor Z Solid Profile Ca 0,40 Cv 0,56 I 1,25 R 4,5 4 0,4 SC

Notes According to spec. nr. 00-ZA-E-205001 rev.02 According to table 16-I of UBC-97 According to customer data According to table 16-Q of UBC-97 and for customer request According to table 16-R of UBC-97 and for customer request According to table 16-K Hazardous facilities for toxic and explosives material According to table 16-N of UBC-97 Moment Resisting Frame systems OMRF Steel

Note: In order to calculate the earthquake effect on the structure, the previous data have been assigned as input data to the model in SAP 2000 program and the effect of the earthquake as base reaction, structure elements deformation and vertical distribution of the lateral forces have been calculated automatically. According to UBC- 97 the automatic calculation of the elastic fundamental period of vibration (performed by SAP 2000) is based on following formulation based on method A:
3/4 T = C t * (hn ) = 0,802 s

(*)

where: Ct = 0,0853 is the coefficient for the calculation of steel moment-resisting frames hn = is the height of the structure above the base (m) from this value of T it is automatically calculated the total design base shear according to: C *I* V = v W R* T where W is the total weight of the structure.

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According to UBC 97, the base shear so calculated has to respect the following limits: 2.5 * Ca * I The value of base shear shall not exceed the value VMAX = *W R The value of base shear shall not be less than VMIN = 0.11* Ca * I * W 0,8* ZN * v I* For seismic zone 4 the value of base shear shall also not be less than VMINZ4 = W R Following are listed the values calculated for the heater in the different condition of work:

Work condition

Erection Operating Test Operating + 33% Live

Total Total base weight shear Vtot considered KN KN KN KN KN 1680 326 467 92.4 149.3 1748 341 485.6 96.16 155.4 1772 344 492.2 97.5 157.5 1937 379 538 106.5 172.2

VMAX

VMIN V

MIN-Z4

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2.2.8

Stack

2.2.8.1 Loading details Stack sections


JIS SS400 Stack Material 30000 mm Stack total Length Internal Stack Diameter 1550 mm Internal lining diameter 1450 mm

Stack portion I
Casing and Refractory Height 10000 External diameter Shell thickness Lateral External surface Casing Weight Refractory LWC Refractory D.ty Thickness 50 Overall refractory weight Extra steel-work not modelled Safety margin Unit Weight Overall Extra Steelwork Weight Base skirt / flange weight Total base skirt weight 20 Kg/m2 988,5 Kg 9,9 KN 1400 Kg/m3 mm 3406,9 Kg mm 1574 mm 12 mm 49,42 m2 4620,2 Kg 46,20 KN

34,1 KN

885,25 Kg

8,85 KN

Intermediate stiffening rings weight Number of A-75x75x9 stiffening rings on portion 4 A-75x75x9 weight per meter 9,96 Kg/m Total A-75x75x9 stiffening rings weight 196,90 Kg

1,97 KN

Overall Stack portion weight Overall Steelwork weight distributed along stack span Overall refractory weight distributed along portion span Point skirt weight at stack base

100,98 1,19 3,41 8,85

KN KN/m KN/m KN

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Stack portion II
Casing and Refractory Height 10000 External diameter Shell thickness Lateral External surface Casing Weight Refractory LWC Refractory D.ty Thickness 50 Overall refractory weight Extra steel-work not modelled Safety margin Unit Weight Overall Extra Steelwork Weight Base skirt / flange weight Total base skirt weight 20 Kg/m2 986,0 Kg 9,9 KN 1400 Kg/m3 mm 3406,9 Kg mm 1570 mm 10 mm 49,30 m2 3845,2 Kg 38,45 KN

34,1 KN

447,05 Kg

4,47 KN

Intermediate stiffening rings weight Number of A-75x75x9 stiffening rings on portion 4 A-75x75x9 weight per meter 9,96 Kg/m Total A-75x75x9 stiffening rings weight 196,40 Kg

1,96 KN

Overall Stack portion weight Overall Steelwork weight distributed along stack span Overall refractory weight distributed along portion span Point skirt weight at stack base

88,82 1,18 3,41 4,47

KN KN/m KN/m KN

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Stack portion III


Casing and Refractory Height 10000 External diameter Shell thickness Lateral External surface Casing Weight Refractory LWC Refractory D.ty Thickness 50 Overall refractory weight Extra steel-work not modelled Safety margin Unit Weight Overall Extra Steelwork Weight Base skirt / flange weight Total base skirt weight Fan duct weight Overall Fan duct supporting stiffness weight Overall fan duct steelwork weight Overall refractory weight 20 Kg/m2 983,4 Kg 9,8 KN 1400 Kg/m3 mm 3406,9 Kg mm 1566 mm 8 mm 49,17 m2 3072,3 Kg 30,72 KN

34,1 KN

443,59 Kg

4,44 KN

0,00 Kg Kg Kg

0,00 KN KN KN

Intermediate stiffening rings weight Number of A-75x75x10 stiffening rings on portion 4 A-75x75x10 weight per meter 9,96 Kg/m Total A-75x75x10 stiffening rings weight 195,90 Kg

1,96 KN

Overall Stack portion weight Overall Steelwork weight distributed along stack span Overall refractory weight distributed along portion span Point skirt weight at stack base

81,02 1,18 3,41 4,44

KN KN/m KN/m KN

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2.2.8.2 STACK VERIFICATION


Stack stress verification are performed in according to API STANDARD 560.
Stack general dimensions Refractory Shell Shell Outer internal thickness diameter diameter mm mm mm

Portion

From Elev.

To Elev.

Internal stack diameter mm

Portion height mm

Stiffness ring profile type

Nr. Of stiffness on span

I 17200 II 27200 III 37200

27200 1550 1450 12 1574 10000 A-75x75x9 4 37200 1550 1450 10 1570 10000 A-75x75x9 4 47200 1550 1450 8

1566

10000

A-75x75x10

Base & connecting flanges dimensions Rectangular stiffness Portion Internal Plate diameter mm I II III 1574 1570 1566 External plate diameter mm Lower plate thickness Upper plate thickness Nr. Of stiffness on plate Stiffness Height of thickness stiffness mm 0 0 mm 30 28

Triangular stiffness Nr. Of stiffness on plate Stiffness Height of thickness stiffness mm 8 8 mm 250 250

mm mm 2074 30 25 28 12 270 28 12 270 1890 30 30 1886 30 30 Bolts Dimensions

Flanges at base of Portion Bolts nominal diameter Bolts number Bolt circle diameter M I 30 II 27 III 24 36 30 28 mm 2060 1662 1662

LOADS ANALYSIS AND STANDARD REFERENCE Wind action


Checks are performed according to API 560 Specification for steel chimneys According to the values of wind load calculated on paragraph 0 following are calculated the value of loads and moments at the base of each section of the stack Wind Load Shear Load Moment at uniformly at portion portion Portion Thk. distributed barycentre barycentre along height mm mm mm mm KN/m KN KNm KNm KNm I 12 1574 10000 46,2 3,48 34,83 174,16 108,80 1660,07 II 10 1570 10000 38,5 3,63 36,33 181,63 73,97 746,24 30,7 3,76 37,64 188,20 37,64 188,20 III 8 1566 10000 Diameter Portion Portion at portion casing height Base weight Resulting Resulting Shear at moment at portion portion base base

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According to what written in the previous paragraphs, the stack here described has the following characteristics:

Portion Thickness

Corroded Thickness

Conical / cilindrical Top External Diameter

Portion Length

Lateral Surface

Casing Weight

mm mm I 12 10 II 10 8 III 8 6

mm 1574 1570 1566

mm m Kg 10000 49,4 4620,2 10000 49,3 3845,2 10000 49,2 3072,3 Total 30000 147,9 11537,7

Lining thickness = 50 mm

Specific weight = 1400 daN/m3

Refractory weight calculation Portion Refractory Density Portion lenght with refractory Refractory Thickness Refractory Weight Kg/m mm I 1400,0 10000,0 50,0 3406,9 II 1400,0 10000,0 50,0 3406,9 III 1400,0 10000,0 50,0 3406,9 mm Kg

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Max. Height of stack: 30 m The values above listed do not consider the effect of the corrosion on the stack walls. The corrosion on the walls it will be considered later.
Material considered for Stack: Overall Stack Height considered = Young modulus E = Yield stress for the material fy = Lining Thickness = Lining density = JIS SS400 30 m 200000 N/mm 235 N/mm 50 mm 1400 Kg/m

Overall casing lateral surface Overall Casing weight Overall lining weight Overall extra weight for Equipments appended: Overall extra steelwork, stiffening and flanges weight Total platform surface considered Overall structural platform weight Live load considered on each platform surface Overall non permanent live load Overall ladder length Overall ladder weight Overall stack permanent weight Overall weight with 33% of live load Maximum resulting shear at stack base Maximum resulting moment at stack base

147,9 m 115,38 KN 102,21 KN 0 KN 53,23 KN 0 m 0 KN 2 KN/m 0 KN 0m 0 KN 270,82 KN 270,82 KN 108,8 KN 1660,08 KMn

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ANCHOR BOLTS AND GROUND RING

The design procedure described in this paragraph is written according to chapter 10 of the book : Process Equipment Design Written by: L.E. Brownell and E.H. Young Publisher: Wiley Publishing Bearing plate thickness assumed t4 = Compression plate thickness assumed t5 = Gusset plate thickness assumed t6 = Base plate outer diameter De = Base plate bolt circle diameter Db = Base plate inner diameter Di = Minimum vertical load on base plate Nmin = Maximum vertical load on base plate Nmin = Maximum shear load at stack base Vmax = Maximum resulting moment at stack base Mmax = Number of bolts on base plate nb = Nominal diameter of anchor bolts db = Resistance section of anchor bolts Ares = Safety coefficient on yield stress n= Admissible stress for parts resistance check adm = Max load on anchor bolts is given by: Nb =(-Nmin/nb)+(4Mmax/Nb*Db) = 30 mm 25 mm 12 mm 2074 mm 2060 mm 1574 mm 270,82 KN 270,82 KN 108,8 KN 1660,08 KNm 36 30 mm 561 mm 1,5 156,67 N/mm

82,02 KN

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Bearing plate design procedure:


Stress on net section of anchor bolt: b = Nb/Ab = 14,62 KN/cm2 Maximum compression stress c = Nmax/(3,14*Db*c) + 4*Mmax/(3,14*Db2*c) = where: c: Ring outer radius - medium shell radius = 1037 - 781 = 256 mm Base plate is defined as follows: distance between stiffening bmin = distance between stiffening bmax = external width of base plate l = ratio (l/ b)max = 0,22 KN/cm2 VERIFIED

150 mm 300 mm 250 mm 0,834 mm mm

thickness of bearing plate tb = (6*Mmax/ adm)0,5 = 29,6 Where Mmax is calculated with the formulas: Mmax = c1* b*b2 = Mmax = c2* b*b2 = 14,53 KNcm 22,82 KNcm

with c1 = 0,0765 by interpolation with c2 = -0,173 by interpolation

the value of tb has to be checked where the bolts are located In order to do this the maximum bolt load P is given by the formula: P = sb*Ab = 87,9 KN Where b is the maximum stress admissible on bolts The Maximum bending moment supported by bolts is given by: Mmax = P*b/8 = 329,59 KN/cm The bearing plate thickness calculated with the considerations above is:
0,5 tb=(6*Mmax/(lt-bhd)* = adm)

24,2 mm

THICKNESS t4 ASSUMED VERIFIED

Where: lt : overall bearing plate width = 250 mm bhd :bolt hole diameter in bearing plate = 33 mm

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Compression plate design procedure:


The thickness of the compression plate is calculated as follow: Mymax = (P/4* )*[(1,3*ln(2*l/ *e)+(1-g1)] = Where: Mmax: P: lc : e: g1: 15,95 KNcm

Maximum bending moment acting on compression plate Maximum bolt load calculated above Radial distance from outside of skirt to outer edge of compression plate One-half distance across flats of bolting nuts = 23 mm Constant = 0,472 (by interpolation)

The thickness of the compression plate is: tc =(6*Mymax/sigma_amm)0,5 = 24,7 mm THICKNESS t5 ASSUMED VERIFIED

Vertical gussets plate design procedure:


The vertical gusset plated equally spaced may be considered to react as a vertical column. From empirical calculations it comes that the minimum thickness required for the gusset plates is given by the equation: 18000*l*tg-P*tg-h*P/1500=0 Where: l: h: t g: P:

is the width of the gussets (inches) is the height of the gussets (inches) is the thickness of the gussets (inches) is the Maximum value of bolt load calculated (lbs)

According to the values above listed the minimum thickness required for the gussets is: tg = 6,25 mm THICKNESS t6 ASSUMED VERIFIED

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INTERMEDIATE RING FLANGES STRESS CHECK Flange Stress Check The procedure considered for the stress check of the flanges is the following: The maximum pressure on flange due to vertical load is given by: P = P pmax V = 2 2 D pe D pi Af 4 The uniform load on middle flange diameter due to P mas-V is given by:

()

D pe D pi q p max V = pmax V 2 Assuming that the neutral axis for maximum moment passes from the section axis and assuming that the highest pressure value is located on bolt circle diameter, the maximum pressure on flange due to wind is given by: M M Max pmax W = Max = 2 2 D pe D pi Dcb A f Dcb 2 Assuming that this pressure is uniformly distributed on compressed side of the flange it can be calculated the uniform load on middle flange diameter due to this pressure: D pe D pi q p max W = 2 pmax W 2 Where: P: is the maximum vertical load calculated at the base of the section considered Mmax is the maximum moment calculated at the base of the section considered Dpe & Dpi are the Outside and the Inside flange diameters Dcb is the Bolt Circle diameter

()

the worst load combination is given in the position where the two loads add one to the other: qmax = q p max V + q p max W With the geometry assumed it follows that the distance between the stiffness on bolt circle diameter is given by: D bmax = cb t s Ns

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where: ts Ns

is the thickness of the stiffness is the total number of stiffness (assumed)

Now each flange can be assumed as a beam simply supported in the position where it joins to the stiffness, so the maximum moment calculated between the two supports is given by: 2 qmax bmax = Mf 8 The stress check of the flange is verified if = Mf where: tf Mf 2 adm f bmax t f 6 is the thickness of the flange (assumed)

In order to check the maximum stress of the stiffness placed on each flange they are calculated the maximum shear load and the maximum moment acting at the base of each stiffness. In order to do this, the flange is considered as a beam uniformly loaded and supported by each stiffness. From this consideration the maximum reaction and the maximum moment calculated under the stiffness are given by the equations: 1 1 2 Rmax s = qmax bmax M max s = qmax bmax 2 12 From these values it is easy to calculate the maximum shear and bending stresses: 6 M max Rmax max s = max s = 2 hs t s t s hs where: ts is the thickness of the stiffness (assumed) hs is the height of the stiffness (assumed) The stress of the stiffness is verified if
2 2 = max s + 3 max s id s adm f

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Following are listed all the geometric data and the resulting value calculated according to the procedure above described.
Flange at base of Stack External portion DIA Dext mm mm mm mm mm2 mm II 1570 III 1566 Stack Shell Thk ts Flange Outside Dia Dpe Flange inside Dia Dpi Flange circular surface Af Flange thk tf

10 8

1890 1886

1570 1566

869152 867142,4

30 30

Section Bolt Circle diameter Nr. of stiffness on interm. flange Stiffness Height Stiffness Thk Dcb Ns hs ts mm mm mm II 1662 30 250 8 III 1662 28 250 8 Uniform load Max moment at Max on middle section base due pressure on Section diameter due to wind or flange due to to vertical earthquake vertical load load PMax Mmax Pmax-V qpmax-V KN KNm N/mm2 N/mm II 169,84 746,24 0,20 31,26 0,52 82,66 113,92 III 81,02 188,20 0,09 14,95 0,13 20,89 35,84 Max Vertical load on flange Max uniform load pressure on on middle flange due diameter due to wind to wind Pmax-W N/mm2 qpmax-W N/mm Max uniform load on flange qmax N/mm

Section distance between the stiffness Max Bending moment on flange Max stress on flange Check bmax mm II 189,46 0,51 17,99 III 203,06 0,18 6,07 Section Max reaction Max moment under stiffness under stiffness Rmax-s Mmax-s KN KNm II 26,98 0,29 3,45 13,49 23,62 OK III 9,10 0,10 1,25 4,55 7,98 OK Mf KNm sMf N/mm2 OK OK Max bending Max shear stress Max ideal stress Check stress on Stiffness on Stiffness on Stiffness smax-s tmax-s sid-s N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2

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Flange bolts stress check The flange bolts considered in the following procedures are in class 8.8 with the following values for admissible stress: 2 adm-b = 373 N/mm 2 adm-b = 264 N/mm The procedure considered for the stress check of the flange bolts is the following: The maximum axial load on each bolt is given by the difference of the axial load due to bending moment at the base of each section and the minimum vertical load calculated in the same section. The maximum axial load on worst stressed bolt is given by: 4 M max N min FN b = nb Dcb nb From this follows that the highest axial stress on bolts is given by: FN b max b = Ares The maximum shear stress on each bolt is given by: Vmax max b = Ares nb where: Nmin is the minimum vertical load calculated at the base of the section considered Vmax is the maximum shear load calculated at the base of the section considered is the maximum bending moment calculated at the base of the section Mmax considered Dcb is the bolt circle diameter nb is the total number of bolts considered on the flange Ares is the resistance section of the bolts considered The bolt are verified if
2 2 = max b + 3 max b id b adm b

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The data and the results of the procedure applied to each intermediate flange are following listed:
Stack Ext. Dia. Stack Shell thk. Nr. of bolts on interm. flange Nb mm Bolt Bolt hole dia. Bolt Bolt resistance circle dia. on flange nominal Dia. section Db mm db mm M 0 Ares mm2

Section

Dext ts mm mm II 1570 10 30 1662 30 27 459 III 1566 8 28 1662 27 24 353

Section

Min Vertical load on flange

Max shear load due to wind or earthquake

Max moment at section base due to wind or earthquake

Max axial load on worst stressed bolt FN-b KN

Max axial stress on bolts smax-b N/mm2

Max shear stress on bolts tmax-b N/mm2

Max ideal Check stress on bolts sid-b N/mm2 OK

PMin VMax Mmax KN KN KNm II 169,8 74,0 746,2 54,2 118,1 5,4 118,5 III 81,0 37,6 188,2 13,3 37,6 3,8 38,2 OK

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CHECK OF CASING
With reference to the stack structure section, considering that the ratio between diameter (D) and thickness (t) is very high, in the following they will be used simplified formulas:

A = *D*t W = (*D2*t)/4 I = (*D3*t)/8 Specific data for resistance check (thickness of corrosion = 2 mm) External Wall thickness Portion A W corroded corroded diameter 3 mm mm cm cm cm I 10 1570 493 19.359 II 8 1566 394 15.409 III 6 1562 294 11.497

I
4

1.519.703 1.206.494 897.954

Corroded casing weight KN 38,70 30,88 23,10

The overall structure stability value does not consider possible allowances due to fabrication, while the possible corrosion allowance value is deducted at checks of resistance. VERIFICATION Check on stability are performed in connection with admissible compression stresses, as per API 560 Par. 9.3. Admissible compression stress is the minimum value between: adm-1 = 0,5*Fy = 11,75 N/mm or adm-2 = 0,56*E*t/(D*(1+(0,004*E/Fy))) With values defined as follows: t= is the corroded shell plate thickness (mm) D = is the outside stack diameter (mm) E = 200000 N/mm is the Elastic Young Modulus Fy = 235 N/mm :is the material minimum yield strength at design temperature

Following are listed the data considered in order to check the stress status of each shell section. The value of stress on each section is calculated with the vertical load coming from the weight calculation of each section considered with thickness corroded

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Portion

From Elevation

To Elevation

Max Vertical Load at portion base (N)

Max Moment at portion base (Mmax)

Stress Calculated at base portion cm4

adm-2 KN/cm2

Check

mm mm KN KNm I 17200 27200 271 1.660 9,124 16,20 II 27200 37200 170 746 5,275 12,99 III 37200 47200 81

188 1,912 9,77

VERIFIED VERIFIED VERIFIED

DYNAMIC CHECK ON WIND EFFECT


DYNAMIC CHECK Dynamic check is performed according to point 9.5 of API 560. Vc1 = 5*Dt*f Vc2 = 6*Vc1 Where: Dt = 1,562 m Diameter of stack top f = first mode frequency f = 0,5587*(E*I*g/W*H4)0,5 where: W = 46,33 lbs/in is the Weight per unit height of stack E = 29007548,8 psi is the Young Elastic Modulus g = 386 in/s2 is acceleration due to gravity I = 29023,3 inch4 is the medium moment of inertia H = 1181,1 in is the total stack height f = 1,061 Hz Vc1 = 5*Dt*f = 8,29 m/s Vc2 = 6*Vc1 = 49,71 m/s

ACCEPTABLE WITH STRAKES ACCEPTABLE

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STIFFENING RING PRESENCE CHECK


Dynamic check is performed according to point 9.5.5 of API 560 Stiffening ring are required to prevent ovalling if: fr/2*fv<1 calculated with the formulas: fr = 0.126*(tr*(E)0,5)/Dr2 fv = 13.2/Dr Where fr = natural frequency of the free ring (cycle per second) fv = vortex shedding frequency (cycle per second) tr = corroded plate thickness (inches) E = Young Elastic Modulus (psi) Dr = internal stack diameter (feet) Shell Thickness corroded

Portion

From Elevation

To Elevation

Internal Diameter

Stiffening Spacing

fr fv

fr/2fv Check

mm mm mm mm m I 17200 27200 1.550 10 2,00 10,3372,60 1,99 REQUIRED


RINGS NOT

II 27200 37200 1.550 8 2,00 8,269

2,60 1,59 REQUIRED

RINGS NOT

III 37200 47200 1.550 6 2,00 6,202

2,60 1,19 REQUIRED

RINGS NOT

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2.3

LOADING COMBINATIONS
The following main loads have been considered Deads = SLF + ADUCT + BURN + EXTPLTF + EXTSTEEL + REFRACT ERECT = Deads + PPEMPT OPER = Deads + PPOPER TEST = Deads + PPTEST LT = TMP + LIVE1 Live Load LIVE1 Wind Load +X WLX Wind Load +Y WLY Earthquake Load +X EQX Earthquake Load +Y EQY Thermal Load TMP

2.3.1 Main Loads

2.3.2 Load Combinations Combination with Erection conditions


CB1E = ERECT + LIVE1 CB2E = ERECT + WX CB3E = ERECT - WX CB4E = ERECT + WY CB5E = ERECT - WY CB6E = ERECT + 0,714*EQX CB7E = ERECT -0,714*EQX CB8E = ERECT + 0,714*EQY CB9E = ERECT -0,714*EQY CB10E = 0,9*ERECT + 0,714*EQX CB11E = 0,9*ERECT -0,714*EQX CB12E = 0,9*ERECT + 0,714*EQY CB13E = 0,9*ERECT -0,714*EQY CB14E = ERECT + 0,75*LIVE1 + 0,75*WX CB15E = ERECT + 0,75*LIVE1 -0,75*WX CB16E = ERECT + 0,75*LIVE1 + 0,75*WY CB17E = ERECT + 0,75*LIVE1 -0,75*WY CB18E = ERECT + 0,75*LIVE1 + 0,535*EQX CB19E = ERECT + 0,75*LIVE1 -0,535*EQX CB20E = ERECT + 0,75*LIVE1 + 0,535*EQY CB21E = ERECT + 0,75*LIVE1 -0,535*EQY

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Combination with Operating conditions


CB1O = OPER + LIVE1 CB2O = OPER + WX CB3O = OPER - WX CB4O = OPER + WY CB5O = OPER - WY CB6O = OPER + 0,714*EQX CB7O = OPER -0,714*EQX CB8O = OPER + 0,714*EQY CB9O = OPER -0,714*EQY CB10O = 0,9*OPER + 0,714*EQX CB11O = 0,9*OPER -0,714*EQX CB12O = 0,9*OPER + 0,714*EQY CB13O = 0,9*OPER -0,714*EQY CB14O = OPER + 0,75*LIVE1 + 0,75*WX CB15O = OPER + 0,75*LIVE1 -0,75*WX CB16O = OPER + 0,75*LIVE1 + 0,75*WY CB17O = OPER + 0,75*LIVE1 -0,75*WY CB18O = OPER + 0,75*LIVE1 + 0,535*EQX CB19O = OPER + 0,75*LIVE1 -0,535*EQX CB20O = OPER + 0,75*LIVE1 + 0,535*EQY CB21O = OPER + 0,75*LIVE1 -0,535*EQY CB1OT = OPER + LT CB14OT = OPER + 0,75*LT + 0,75*WX CB15OT = OPER + 0,75*LT -0,75*WX CB16OT = OPER + 0,75*LT + 0,75*WY CB17OT = OPER + 0,75*LT -0,75*WY CB18OT = OPER + 0,75*LT + 0,535*EQX CB19OT = OPER + 0,75*LT -0,535*EQX CB20OT = OPER + 0,75*LT + 0,535*EQY CB21OT = OPER + 0,75*LT -0,535*EQY

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Combination with Test conditions


CB1T = TEST + LIVE1 CB2T = TEST + WX CB3T = TEST - WX CB4T = TEST + WY CB5T = TEST - WY CB6T = TEST + 0,714*EQX CB7T = TEST -0,714*EQX CB8T = TEST + 0,714*EQY CB9T = TEST -0,714*EQY CB10T = 0,9*TEST + 0,714*EQX CB11T = 0,9*TEST -0,714*EQX CB12T = 0,9*TEST + 0,714*EQY CB13T = 0,9*TEST -0,714*EQY CB14T = TEST + 0,75*LIVE1 + 0,75*WX CB15T = TEST + 0,75*LIVE1 -0,75*WX CB16T = TEST + 0,75*LIVE1 + 0,75*WY CB17T = TEST + 0,75*LIVE1 -0,75*WY CB18T = TEST + 0,75*LIVE1 + 0,535*EQX CB19T = TEST + 0,75*LIVE1 -0,535*EQX CB20T = TEST + 0,75*LIVE1 + 0,535*EQY CB21T = TEST + 0,75*LIVE1 -0,535*EQY

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3
3.1

STRUCTURE SYSTEM
THE MODEL

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3.2 3.2.1

BAR ELEMENTS NUMBERING Frame numbering - Arch

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3.2.2

Frame numbering - Convection

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3.2.3

Frame numbering - Floor

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3.2.4

Frame numbering - Platform el. 9000

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3.2.5

Frame numbering - Platform el. 17203

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3.2.6

Frame numbering - Radiant body

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3.2.7

Frame Profiles - Radiant body

C-150x75

LL-150x100

A-75x6

H-200x200

2A-90x10

C-200x80

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3.2.8

Frame Profiles Stack

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3.3 3.3.1

PRIMARY LOADS APPLICATION Burners weight distribution

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3.3.2

Coil weight distribution on convection surface

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3.3.3

Coil weight distribution on radiant anchor

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3.3.4

External piping loads

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3.3.5

Platform weight and live load distribution

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3.3.6

Refractory & Extrasteel weight distribution

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3.3.7

Wind load distribution in X direction

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3.3.8

Wind load distribution in Y direction

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STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
The Steel Structure is checked in accordance with ASC-ASD-1989. Automatic members check is carried out by means of SAP 2000 Steel Stress Check according ASC-ASD-1989 . Structural checks and frame analysis are based on 3-d structure model. The bars and the shells elements ave been designed for the worst loading combination cases.

5
5.1

BASE PLATE AND ANCHOR BOLTS CHECK


BASE PLATE CHECK

5.1.1 Base Plates stress check calculation procedure In order to check the worst stress status of the plates at the base of the structure columns the following procedure has to be performed. The calculation of the maximum stress on the concrete plinths is performed considering the value of the eccentricity calculated as ratio between the value of the moment acting at the base of the columns (M) and the compression load perpendicular to the base plate (N). M e= N The value of this ratio detects the position of the neutral axis with respect to the kernel of inertia of the section calculated as sixth part of the plate dimension perpendicular to the axis of the moment considered (a) as shown in the following picture (where the load N has not to be considered as a shear load but only an image for the position of the perpendicular load):

Picture 1

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According to the value of e calculated, the two following conditions have to be considered: Condition 1 for calculation of maximum stress on plinth: a : eccentricity internal to the kernel of inertia 6 in this case the plinth can be assumed to be forced by only a compression load, so the maximum compression stress on plinth is calculated as follows: = N +M c Ac Wc where: Ac : is the section area of the cement plinth Wc: is the elastic modulus of the plinth For conservative reasons both the geometric characteristics above listed are calculated considering the plinth with same dimensions and section of the base plate. The stress of the maximum compression on plinth is verified if : 0,44 * Rck c where Rck is the cubic admissible resistance of the concrete considered. e From the value of c, it is calculated for proportion the value of the stress acting on the base plate in correspondence of the section column flanges or stiffeners:

c
x

s
xs

= s

c x a s 2

where assuming the neutral axis passing from the middle of the section: s xs is the value of sigma at stiffeners level is the distance between stiffeners and neutral axis

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Condition 2 for calculation of maximum stress on plinth: e> a : eccentricity 6 external to the kernel of inertia

this condition forces to the research of the position of the real neutral axis. The value of the position of the neutral axis is found by attempts with the following empirical equation: b 3 + bd 2 + x x nAf (d + h) x nAf h(d + h) = 0 6 2 Where (ref. to picture 1): b is the plate dimension parallel to the moment axis x is the position of the neutral axis with respect to the base edge d is the position of perpendicular load with respect the plate edge n = 15 is the homogenization coefficient between elastic modulus Af = Ab*nb is the total area of the bolts strengthen h is the distance between the base edge and the axis of the anchor bolts strengthen Once that the value of x is calculated the value of the maximum sigma acting on the cement plinth is calculated with the formula: = c b N *x x nAf (h x) 2
2

The stress of the maximum compression on plinth is verified if : 0,44 * Rck c where Rck is the cubic admissible resistance of the concrete considered. From the value of c, it is calculated for proportion the value of the stress acting on the base plate in correspondence of the section column flanges or stiffness:

c
x

s
xs

= s

c
x

xs

where (ref. to picture 1): is the value of sigma at stiffness level s is the distance between stiffness and neutral axis xs = x- m1

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Base Plate stress calculation Once that the values of c and s have been calculated from one of the procedures above described the stress check of the base plate continues as follows for both the conditions: The base plate is now considered as a beam rigidly joined at level of stiffness and uniformly loaded by a load q calculated as follows: + s q = m1* c 2 The maximum momentum given by this kind of restraint is: 2 2 q * l 2 q * m2 = M Max 8 2 where l2 is the intermediate distance between the base plate stiffeners m2 is the distance between the flange of the column section and the plate edge The Maximum sigma acting on the flange is: = M Max = p W M Max 2 m1 * thk 6

Where: W is the resistance modulus of the section considered. thk is the thickness of the plate (assumed) Note: The procedures above described are referred to a moment with axis parallel to direction 2. In the case in which the moment considered is directed as axis 1 the related values of geometric dimensions as a, b, l, m etc have to be considered. In order to take into account the effect of both the moments acting at the base of the column, the procedures above described are performed considering one at time both the moments acting on the two main direction of the section. The value of stress so found it has to be lower than the admissible stress calculated as ratio between the yield stress of the material considered for the base plate and a safety coefficient. If the stress is verified the thickness assumed has not to be increased.

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5.1.2

Stress check on Base Plates A B C D E F

Plinth

Comb.

Fn KN 950,4

F1 KN 60,7

F2 KN -15,1

M1 KNm 5,8

M2 KNm 25,4

CB7O

Yield Stress of the material JIS SS400 = Admissible stress of the base plate material = Cement Plinth cubic resistance Rck = Admissible stress on cement plinth = Base Plate thickness assumed = Considered 8 bolts M30

235 N/mm 235 / 1,5 = 156,67 N/mm 21 N/mm 21 * 0,44 = 9,24 N/mm 35 mm

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Action dominant

M1 M2

Plate dimension parallel to Moment (b) mm 500 500

Plate dimension perpendicular to Moment (a) mm 500 500

Plinth section (Ac) mm 250000 250000

Plinth Elastic modulus (Wc) mm 20833333 20833333

Eccentricity (e) mm 6,12 26,71

eccentricity case

Case 1: e<a/6 Case 1: e<a/6

Distance Distance Total of between Nr. of bolts resistance normal bolts Action strengthen section of force strengthen dominant on last row bolts from and plate (nb) strengthen edge edge (Af) (d) (h) mm 0 0 mm 3 3 mm 1683 1683 mm 425 425 Sigma on stiffeness for proportion ( f) N/mm 2,37 2,12

Distance between Neutral axis and plate edge (x) mm 0 0 uniform load on plate portion (q) N/mm 529,47 556,44

Distance between stiffness perp. to moment (l2) mm 200 176

M1 M2

Distance Distance between between stiffness stiffness and plate and plate edge edge parallel perp. to to moment moment (m2) (l1) mm mm 138 150 150 138 Resistance module with respect to the moment (Wp) mm 28175,00 30625,00

Action dominant

Compression Stress on Plinth ( c) N/mm 0,28 1,22

Plinth stress check

Maximum moment on plate portion (max) Nmm 3906450,71 2516204,32

M1 M2

Sigma-c CLS OK Sigma-c CLS OK

Action dominant

Sigma on base plate for Moment Sigma resultant from both moment effect ( action ( p) max)

Plate stress check

M1 M2

N/mm 138,65 82,16

N/mm 138,65 Plate check OK

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5.2 5.2.1

ANCHOR BOLTS CHECK Anchor bolts on plinth A B C D E F according to Chapter J of AISC-350-05 In order to perform the check resistance of the bolts following are listed the calculation made for the load combinations that make the higher stress on bolts in condition of maximum and minimum axial load, moment and resulting shear. According to this in order to calculate the axial and shear stress on worst stressed bolt the following equations have been considered: Axial load on bolt due to Fn (in strength condition) f t Fn = Axial load due to moment in X direction Axial load due to moment in Y direction Overall axial load on bolt Overall Shear Load Shear Load Acting on each bolt: Required Shear stress on each bolt: Where: nb : Ab : ymax / xmax: yi / xi: nbx / nby: f t Mx = ft M y =

() nb Ab
M x * ymax 2 nbx * Ab * yi M y * xmax

Fn

2 nby * Ab * xi f nt = f t Fn + f t Mx + f t My

2 2 Vtot = Vx + V y

V Vb = tot nb V f nv = b Ab

overall number of bolts Resistance section of each bolt Distance between the plate edge and the farest bolt line parallel to x / y axis Distance between the plate edge and each bolt line parallel to x / y axis number of bolts on the farest bolt line parallel to x / y axis

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Once that the axial and shear stresses on bolt are calculated as previous described the design procedure (according to Chapter J of AISC-350-05) can be applied as follows: Design procedure according to Chapter J of AISC-350-05 Specified minimum tensile strength of the type of steel being used F u = 400 N/mm2 Nominal tensile Stress acc. AISC 350 cap.J Fnt = 0,75*Fu = 300 N/mm2 Nominal shear Stress acc. AISC 350 cap.J Fnv = 0,4*Fu= 160 N/mm2 For tensile stress check the values are: Ra = fnt * Ab ' ' is the nominal tensile stress modified to include the effects of shearing stress Fn = Fnt calculated with the equation: F = Fnt
' nt

f nv 1 Fnv

For combined tension and shear actions it has to be: Ra Rn = Fn Ab Where: Ra : is the required strength (ASD) is nominal strength Rn =2 is the safety factor (ASD)

'

Total bolt number Nominal bolt diameter Section resistance Specified minimum tensile strength of the type of steel being used Fu = Nominal tensile Stress acc. AISC 350 cap.J Fnt =0,75*Fu Nominal shear Stress acc. AISC 350 cap.J Fnv =0,4*Fu

8 30 561 mm 400 N/mm 300 N/mm 160 N/mm

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According to the procedure above described following are listed the values calculated with the load combination that makes higher status of axial, moment and shear on anchor bolts:

Plinth Combo Combination with Max vertical load at base Combination with Min vertical load at base Combination with Max moment Mx at base Combination with Min moment Mx at base Combination with Max moment My at base Combination with Min moment My at base Combination with Max resulting shear at base F CB7O C CB11O A CB15OT D CB21OT

FN KN

-24,7 F CB15OT 840,3 68,3 -14,4 840,3 32,7 C CB14OT 724,7 -47,7 3,6 -1,4 -27,5 F CB19OT860,39 71,70 -15,21 5,87 32,25

950,4 -438,9 545,9 -8,5 -44,2 660,4 24,0 43,1

FX FY MX MY Max base shear KN KN KN-m KN-m KN 60,7 -15,1 5,8 25,4 62,5 51,3 4,8 -1,8 24,8 51,6 25,5 -6,7 45,0 9,8 49,3 69,8 47,8 73,30

Required tensile stress on each bolt ft

Overall shear load on plinth Vtot

Required shear sterss on each bolt fnv

nominal tensile stress modified to include the effects of shearing stress F'nt

required strength Ra

nominal strength check Rn/

Max Fz Min Fz Max Mx Min Mx Max My Min My Max shear

N/mm KN N/mm N/mm N/mm Plinth Combo 31,7 62,5 13,9 295,4 17771,4 F CB7O 124,8 51,6 11,5 296,9 70001,7 C CB11O 32,8 45,0 10,0 297,6 18373,5 A CB15OT 35,0 49,3 11,0 297,2 19636,2 D CB21OT 38,8 69,8 15,6 294,3 21787,6 F CB15OT 29,4 47,8 10,6 297,3 16487,3 C CB14OT 38,7 73,3 16,3 293,7 21709,6 F CB19OT

N/mm
82865,5 83278,0 83485,9 83353,0 82544,4 83401,1 82377,9

OK OK OK OK OK OK OK

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6
6.1

RESULTS ANALYSIS
LOAD FOUNDATIONS

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6.2 DISPLACEMENTS CHECKING 6.2.1 Max Horizontal Joint displacement Maximum horizontal displacement: Column height: 5005 Load Combination: CB6E Joint : 803 7.56 mm

Allowable displacement checking for column height: h0/500 = 5050/500 = 10.01 mm > 7.56 OK

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6.2.2

Max deflection of beam Maximum deflection : Beam Span (L): Load Combination: Beam number : -6.63 mm 1800 CB10 572

Allowable deflection checking: L/250 = 1500/250 = 7.2 mm > 6.63 OK

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6.3

STRESS CHECKING In the following pictures are the Design Stress Ratios Topography per line provided SAP. These ratios correspond to the design stress in the bars over the allowable stress.

6.3.1

Maximum stress in main elements Here below the maximum stress ratios in the main structural elements
Frame DesignSect DesignType Combo TotalRatio

211 C-150X75 Beam CB17O 0,970 112 H-200X200 Column CB3O 0,954 418 2A-75X9 Brace CB15OT

0,926

Here below the computer output detailed structural calculations of the main elements with the maximum stress above mentioned.

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6.3.2

Data for worst stressed beam

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6.3.3

Data for worst stressed column

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6.3.4

Data for worst stressed brace

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6.3.5

Stress Ratios - Arch

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6.3.6

Stress Ratios - Convection

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6.3.7

Stress Ratios - Floor

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6.3.8

Stress Ratios - Platform el. 9000

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6.3.9

Stress Ratios - Platform el. 17203

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6.3.10 Stress Ratios - Radiant Body

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Structural elements stress checking computer output table


TABLE: Steel Design 2 - PMM Details - AISC-ASD 01

Table: Steel Design 2 - PMM Details - AISC-ASD01 Frame DesignSect DesignType Combo TotalRatio PRatio MMajRatio MMinRatio 211 C-150X75 Beam CB17O 0,970486 0,033793 1456 A-75X6 Beam CB1OT 0,965219 0,161650 112 H-200X200 Column CB3O 0,953768 0,756447 0,196224 0,001097 600 A-75X6 Beam CB14OT 0,953275 0,165027 604 A-75X6 Beam CB5O 0,943607 0,084699 624 A-75X6 Beam CB15OT 0,942381 0,132440 1401 A-75X6 Beam CB15OT 0,937742 0,202521 1493 A-75X6 Beam CB16OT 0,937390 0,204937 421 C-150+A-90 Beam CB16OT 0,935003 0,035953 0,505647 0,393404 1478 A-75X6 Beam CB1OT 0,929110 0,147188 571 2A-90X10 Column CB5O 0,926956 0,358888 418 2A-75X9 Brace CB15OT 0,925765 0,034595 1480 A-75X6 Beam CB1OT 0,924432 0,147620 580 A-75X6 Beam CB14OT 0,923496 0,147784 649 A-75X6 Beam CB1OT 0,919039 0,033808 53 H-200X200 Column CB17OT 0,917472 0,472758 374 A-75X6 Beam CB1E 0,912147 0,042444 648 A-75X6 Beam CB1OT 0,909268 0,030118 182 H-200X200 Beam CB2T 0,908771 0,047580 0,860007 0,001183 1483 A-75X6 Beam CB14OT 0,908534 0,211617 256 H-200X200 Beam CB2T 0,903900 0,046547 0,856190 0,001163 1499 A-75X6 Beam CB14OT 0,901629 0,195460 426 C-150+A-90 Beam CB1OT 0,897453 0,047167 0,332158 0,518128 55 H-200X200 Column CB2T 0,896269 0,674066 1454 A-75X6 Beam CB14OT 0,894490 0,121424 1462 A-75X6 Beam CB1OT 0,892025 0,127468 222 H-200X200 Beam CB3O 0,891576 0,046060 0,844568 0,000948 413 C-150+A-90 Beam CB1OT 0,891378 0,045020 0,331550 0,514807 2 H-200X200 Column CB15OT 0,891066 0,499677 281 H-200X200 Beam CB3O 0,887922 0,043468 0,843420 0,001034 1430 A-75X6 Beam CB16OT 0,887220 0,102739 1489 A-75X6 Beam CB14OT 0,877898 0,107826 877 2A-75X9 Brace CB1OT 0,875967 0,288793 59 H-200X200 Column CB16OT 0,875616 0,461270 428 C-150+A-90 Beam CB1OT 0,872844 0,030797 0,347071 0,494976 57 H-200X200 Column CB14OT 0,872463 0,392222 1292 C-150X75 Beam CB2T 0,869653 0,047048 0,000246 0,822358 1473 A-75X6 Beam CB1OT 0,863535 0,115522 583 A-75X6 Beam CB14OT 0,861647 0,116420 1477 A-75X6 Beam CB14OT 0,861397 0,207367 1465 A-75X6 Beam CB17OT 0,860271 0,193673 378 A-75X6 Beam CB1OT 0,859413 0,024454 1437 A-75X6 Beam CB15OT 0,858939 0,181300 1466 A-75X6 Beam CB16OT 0,857086 0,087812 552 2A-90X10 Column CB16O 0,855683 0,325467 605 A-75X6 Beam CB2O 0,854839 0,050546 1270 C-150X75 Beam CB2T 0,854775 0,046878 0,000204 0,807693 623 A-75X6 Beam CB14OT 0,851941 0,132159 0,080941 0,855752 0,254303 0,549266 0,358192 0,288275 0,242276 0,308597 0,291222 0,430056 0,570633 0,567665 0,426625 0,441231

0,250400 0,531521 0,361460 0,206608 0,442762 0,448408 0,255147 0,521665 0,275288 0,500425 0,064643 0,820587 0,222467 0,222247 0,066102 0,803601 0,018807 0,860343 0,303369 0,294025 0,393549 0,412145

0,220158 0,002045 0,216681 0,556385 0,236725 0,527831

0,261598

0,129791

0,223223 0,561258 0,246853 0,523218 0,184038 0,403136 0,245492 0,168855 0,218124 0,262117 0,262514 0,485499 0,225185 0,520041 0,287349 0,366681 0,160535 0,506063 0,026175 0,808784 0,169390 0,508248 0,268493 0,500780 0,529317 0,000900 0,194234 0,610059 0,203057 0,516725