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Violet Gilbert EDT 510 Dr.

Siebenthal 16 December 2013 Technology and Second Language Acquisition The following article reviews focus on technology and second language acquisition, whether it is as an English language learner (ELL), dual language learner (DLL), or a foreign language learner or in an American or foreign school setting. The first few articles address the uses of technology for ELL instruction from the view of instructors, provide evidence for the effectiveness of computer-assisted language learning (CALL), and highlight areas of importance to students such as, ability to access authentic language situations within the context of culture, motivation to learn, and reduced levels of student anxiety while learning with CALL. These articles also address teachers concerns regarding lack of funding and lack of training to effectively teach ELLs with, or without, technology. The next few articles offer in-depth looks at available technology, offer suggestions for lessons and activities, discuss the drawback and benefits of specific technologies, and share innovations in the field of technology and what it means for ELL specific programs. While most articles focus on ELLs, one article reviews an online language program for individuals who are English speaking and would like to learn Mandarin Chinese. The final article examines learners satisfaction with CALL programs at Bangkok University. As a result, the articles serve as an overview of available technology and its effectiveness in helping learners with second language acquisition, as resources for finding and using said technology, and as a small glimpse at how instructors and some ELLs view CALL.

Audiovisual mass media technology and second language acquisition &it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&asid=15dabe3cdd819ad0106abeb2460095a1 Bahrani, T., & Soltani, R. (2011, November). Audiovisual mass media technology and second language acquisition. Language In India, 11(11), 728+. Retrieved from &it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&asid=15dabe3cdd819ad0106abeb2460095a1 Keywords: Second language acquisition Audiovisual technology Advantages Disadvantages Quotations: By recognizing both the advantages and disadvantages of the application of various audiovisual technologies, the maximum effectiveness of technology to enhance SLA can be achieved. (Bahrani & Soltani, 2011, p. 279). The current increasing application of various technologies such as computers in second language acquisition confirms the pedagogical value of this technology for SLA. (Bahrani & Soltani, 2011, p. 731). No teacher/student can utilize computer if s/he lacks training in the uses of computer technology. (Bahrani & Soltani, 2011, p. 733). Summary: Bahrani and Soltani (2011) provide a brief history of audiovisual technology and second language acquisition from the 1970s to current research areas. They focus on using computers in formal and informal settings, non desktop mass technologies, the learning potential of interactive television, and the pedagogical value of TV news. The study on the value of listening to news vs. watching non-news programs revealed watching the news did increase listening comprehension scores in second language learners compared to the non-news watcher group (Bahrani & Soltani, 2011, p. 731). A different study concluded different levels of learners watch the news with different learning objectives; for example, beginning learners concentrate on listening skills and vocabulary building, whereas advanced learners focus on content and accuracy (Bahrani & Soltani, 2011, p. 731). Bahrani and Soltani (2011) list several advantages to using a variety of audiovisual technology in second language learning, which include: increased motivation, access to authentic materials, increased interaction between student and instructor, individualize instruction, and reduce stress and anxiety associated with learning (p. 732). Three disadvantages

are given: 1) Teachers and students need to know how to use the technology. 2) Even though its improving, computer software is imperfect, especially in the area of voice recognition, and 3) computer technology is unable to deal with learners unexpected learning problems and response to learners question immediately as teachers do (Bahrani & Soltani, 2011, p. 733).

Language Acquisition with the Help of Captions Wang, K., & Liu, H. (2011). Language acquisition with the help of captions. Studies in Literature and Language, 3(3), 41-45. Retrieved from Keywords: English movies Captions Vocabulary acquisition Quotations: Multimedia technology (such as TVs, computers, networks, e-mails, VCRs, CD-ROMs, and interactive multimedia) aids in language teaching to integrate authentic, real-life situations into the language classroom (Wang & Liu, 2011, p. 41). Multimedia technology and verbal information and full visual context, such as captions have beneficial effects on language learning due to rich and authentic comprehensible input (Wang & Liu, 2011, p. 41). Images, captions and sound stimulate the brain through the multimedia device simultaneously, helping learners keep firmer and longer lasting aural and vision trace in mind (Wang & Liu, 2011, p. 42). To correctly understand and use a language, one must learn both the language and culture in the process of language learning (Wang & Liu, 2011, p. 42). Summary: Wang and Liu (2011) present research regarding the use of American and English made movies to teach college-level Chinese students English. This research had a small sample size and examined movie viewing in conjunction with captions. Wang and Liu (2011) examine multiple language acquisition theories and distill them into a basis for using movies in the classroom: movies provide a way for students to be exposed to language and culture simultaneously, which activates different areas of the brain to improve retention and to understand the appropriate context to determine proper usage (p. 41-45). They conclude watching movies with captions does help students with second language acquisition and share multiple suggestions for selecting appropriate movies and designing corresponding activities (Wang & Liu, 2011, p. 45).

Promoting Language Acquisitions: Technology and English Language Learners Lacina, J. (2005). Promoting language acquisitions: Technology and english language learners. Childhood Education, 81(2), 113-115. Retrieved from Keywords: English as a second language (ESL) Technology Language development Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) Constructivist learning Quotations: Although teacher candidates may be well-trained in how to use technology, they are often unfamiliar with software and techniques for working with English language learners who may be enrolled in their regular education classroom (Lacina, 2005, p. 113). Todays instruction emphasizes students constructing meaning with computers, reminding us of the work of Vygotsky and Piaget (Lacina, 2005, p. 113). In order for teachers to adequately meet the needs of ELLs, all teachers must be familiar with techniques and resources to facilitate learning by using technology (Lacina, 2005, p. 115). Summary: Lacina (2005) shares a brief history of the change in computer-assisted language learning from the behaviorist model of ineffective drill and practice method of teaching ELL students in the 1960s and 70s to the current trend of teaching using the constructivist approach and students using computers to construct meaning (p. 113). Lacina (2005) argues that even if teachers are proficient technology users, without specific training in techniques for teaching ELL students and access to appropriate resources, the technology will be an ineffective tool (p. 115). Lacina (2005) also includes interviews with two experienced teachers to get their perspective on current trends to use computers to facilitate English language acquisition in their classrooms (p. 114115). Much of the article is devoted to online resources, software programs, lesson ideas, and the rationale for using each one with ELL students.

Mobile apps for language learning &it=r&p=AONE&sw=w Godwin-Jones, R. (2011, June). Mobile apps for language learning. Language, Learning & Technology, 15(2), 2+. Retrieved from &it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&asid=ea43697926f45dbd98d375d6725e233a Keywords: Mobile apps Mobile learning Language learning Developers Quotations: As long as there have been portable audio-video and computing devices, there has been an interest in exploring their use in learning language (Godwin-Jones, 2011, p. 2). Its unfortunate that today in mobile software development, we seem to have gone back to the days when developers had to make a choice that excluded a large part of their market, as in deciding between Mac-based HyperCard or Windows only Toolbook (Godwin-Jones, 2011, p. 7). The problem is less one of hardware/software shortcomings and more developers conceptualization of how language learning could be enhanced in new, innovative ways with the assistance of mobile technology (Godwin-Jones, 2011, p. 7). As personal devices, smartphones are ideal for individualizing informal learning (GodwinJones, 2011, p. 8). Summary: In this article, Godwin-Jones (2011) takes readers through an in-depth look at mobile software and hardware development since 2002. He also discusses the shortcomings of early mobile devices for language learning, such as small screens, laborious texting programs, difficulties connecting to the internet, and small storage spaces (Godwin-Jones, 2011, p. 2). Next, GodwinJones (2011) highlights the improvements in these same areas that have transpired in a relatively short time, which makes mobile devices useable for language learning (p. 2-3). Then, he discusses the rise of a plethora of apps, and discusses the advantages and drawbacks of using language learning specific apps compared to general purpose apps designed with a different function but useable by language learners nonetheless (Godwin-Jones, 2011, p. 4-7). He also

alludes to the rapid development of hardware and software and admonishes educators to not ignore the trend in mobile devices, as they may be the most accessible, if not only, computing device used by the majority (Godwin-Jones, 2011, p. 8).

Technology-Based Literacy Instruction For English Language Learners White, E. L., M.S., & Gillard, S., EdD. (2011). Technology-based literacy instruction for english language learners. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 8(6), 1-5. Retrieved from Keywords: English language learners Technology Literacy Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) Computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) Quotations: Current and convincing data illustrates the potential benefits of integrating advanced, targeted technology-based instruction, particularly those that incorporate, but are not limited to, Automatic speech recognition (ASR), text input, real time interactive chat, dynamic material generation, active construction of knowledge through virtual games and simulations, and up-todate record keeping (White & Gillard, 2011, p. 1). Advanced technology offers additional, engaging, and more private form of training for ELLs through the efficient use of instructional time (White & Gillard, 2011, p. 2). As with any solution, technology is not the ultimate answer, but rather a valuable tool that purports to assist contemporary educators with significant challenges (White & Gillard, 2011, p. 2). If there were a federal mechanism in place that could harness sound research-based language acquisition instructional technology and allot it as needed throughout U.S. schools, the nation would be in sync (White & Gillard, 2011, p. 4). When considering that this group is one of the fastest growing in the U.S. student population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2007), it is logical to empower them via supplemental technology-based instruction, the potential benefits of which are vast (White & Gillard, 2011, p. 4). Summary: This article explores the explosion in the ELL population, the ramifications this has on students and teachers in the general classroom population, and ways technology can help fill the gap left from underfunded programs and large classroom sizes to address the needs of individual

learners. White and Gillard (2011) cite research from studies conducted on computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT), computer-assisted language learning (CALL), the use of games/simulations, and online interventions to support their argument that supplementing teacher-based instruction with technology-based instruction is logical and beneficial to learners and instructors (p. 2-5). They also provide some suggestions and examples of mobile apps and ways to use them independently and interactively with the classrooms computer. White and Gillard (2011) heavily stress the lack of funding for ELL programs and cohesiveness between states on teacher preparatory and licensing requirements; they believe the general teaching population is ill-equipped to deal with the burgeoning ELL student population and suggest technology is one way to help address the needs of students and teachers for effective instruction and learning (p. 4).

Using Technology as a Teaching Tool for Dual Language Learners in Preschool through Grade 3 Nemeth, K. N., & Simon, F. S. (2013). Using technology as a teaching tool for dual language learners in preschool through grade 3. YC Young Children, 68(1), 48-52. Retrieved from Keywords: Technology Dual language learner (DLL) Early childhood Bilingual Quotations: Teachers often report that they have three, four, or more languages in their classroom and those languages keep changing from year to year (Nemeth & Simon, 2013, p. 48). Still, all early childhood teachers can provide some level of home language support that honors and respects the unique background and identity of each child, and they can build on the knowledge they have gained in that home language (Nemeth & Simon, 2013, p. 49). For technology to be developmentally appropriate, it should be responsive to the ages and developmental levels of the children, to their individual needs and interests, and to their social and cultural contexts (McManis & Gunnewig 2012, 6 (Nemeth & Simon, 2013, p. 49). Technology shouldnt replace the great things already happening in your classroom, but it can enhance, augment, and improve the teaching and learning experience when used for a specific purpose (Nemeth & Simon, 2013, p. 52). Summary: Nemeth and Simon (2013) share the challenges many teachers face in the classroom today, which include limited budgets, an increase of English language learners (ELL) or dual language learners (DLL), and the increase of multiple different languages in the classroom at the same time (p. 48). They suggest teachers utilize existing technology by first taking inventory of the hardware and software tools they already have and then to consider the other elements you need in your classroom to support DLLs (Nemeth & Simon, 2013, p. 49). The majority of the article focuses on practical suggestions, such as labeling equipment and safety instructions in both languages. However, they also make suggestions of ways to adapt and create materials for DLLs, ways to help DLLs show what they know and can do, ways to connect with language and

culture supports in the community, and provide multiple free resources for teaching DLLs (Nemeth & Simon, 2013, p. 49-52).

Rocket Languages: Inspiring Language Learners For Life u=lom_umichflint&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&authCount=1 Chang, Wan-Jeng. "Rocket languages: Inspiring language learners for life." Language, Learning & Technology Oct. 2012: 45+. Academic OneFile. Web. 16 Dec. 2013. Keywords: Technology Language learning website Mandarin Chinese Personalized Quotations: Rocket Chinese has been developed specifically for English speakers who would like to learn Mandarin Chinese as a foreign or second language (Chang, 2012, p. 45). Strategies such as evaluating and monitoring can be important for language learners who do not have much exposure to target language (Li, 2010), but users do not receive any feedback on their pronunciation from the program, which may raise questions about the adequacy of selfmonitoring without recourse or authority (Engwell & Balter, 2007) (Chang, 2012, p. 46). Rocket Chinese offers a favorable language learning environment in a self-contained website that integrates interactive features and inspires users with appropriate resources and materials to foster their learning (Chang, 2012, p. 48). Summary: Even though this article appears in a peer-reviewed and scholarly journal, it reads like an advertisement for the Rocket Chinese product. At first glance, it appears this product may be free because there is a lack of information regarding a subscription fee. However, one sentence provides a clue: Users have lifetime access and get free upgrades when the program updates (Chang, 2012, p. 45). This reader investigated further and discovered the fee is between $100 and $300 for differing options of software. Chang (2012) does provide detailed descriptions of the user navigation bar, personalized dashboard, and Rocket toolbox (p. 46-48). Her assessment is that it is user friendly and fun (Chang, 2012, p. 48). The one area of stated concern is regarding the lack of feedback on pronunciation (Chang, 2012, p. 46). However, this article lacks research citations supporting the effectiveness of specific program features.

Learners Satisfaction on CALL Munsakorn, N. (2012). Learners' satisfaction on CALL. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 3(11), 161-165. Retrieved from Keywords: Technology Multimedia learning Computer-assisted language learners (CALL) Students satisfaction Quotations: Computer and Internet are so widespread today that people feel outdated if not using these technologies (Moras, 2001) (Munsakorn, 2012, p. 161). The evidence suggests that technology-assisted learning better supports vocabulary learning than face-to-face learning but is comparatively less effective developing listening comprehension skills (Munsakorn, 2012, p. 162). Switch to students anxiety in language learning, Roed (2003) discovered that a virtual learning environment may constitute a more relaxed and stress free atmosphere than a classroom (Munsakorn, 2012, p. 162). the study indicated that computer technology had a positive impact on students perceptions of their learning environment, especially in relation to learning materials and tasks, and with regard to interaction and collaboration with the tutor and other students (Munsakorn, 2012, p. 162). Summary: Munsakorn (2012) begins with providing substantial evidence for the effectiveness of using computer-assisted technology for language learners (p. 161-162). Then the focus shifts to a study on analyzing students satisfaction with CALL programs at the Bangkok University. The basis for the study on students satisfaction was to determine whether or not gender and learners computer literacy affected satisfaction with computer-assisted language learner programs. Munsakorn (2012) hypothesized women would report different levels of satisfaction with CALL programs and students with different computer literacy have different satisfaction on CALL (p. 162). Data was collected from a questionnaire completed by 400 students and the results showed there was neither a difference in learners satisfaction based on gender, nor was there a

difference in satisfaction of CALL programs based on computer literacy (Munsakorn, 2012, p. 163-164). This study was conducted to improve CALL services at Bangkok University and increase learners satisfaction. However, the study does provide others with a model to assess and improve CALL services in their own learning institutions and beyond.