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U.S.

Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs

Revised 03/12/08

Bureau of Justice Statistics

Bulletin
June 2007, NCJ 217675

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006


By William J. Sabol, Ph.D. Todd D. Minton and Paige M. Harrison BJS Statisticians During the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, the number of inmates in the custody of State and Federal prisons and local jails increased 2.8% to reach 2,245,189. From midyear 2005 to midyear 2006, inmates in State prisons increased 3.0%; Federal prisons, 3.2%; and local jails, 2.5%. The increase in the number of inmates in State or Federal custody accounted for about 70% of the growth in the total custody population. In the 12-month period ending June 30, 2006, the number of prisoners under the jurisdiction of State or Federal correctional authorities increased by 2.8% to reach 1,556,518. In both absolute numbers and percent change, the increase was the largest since midyear 2000. Jurisdiction refers to the legal authority of a State or Federal correctional system over a prisoner, regardless of the location or type of facility where the prisoner is housed. Four jurisdictions the Federal Bureau of Prisons, California, Texas, and Florida accounted for 52% of the increase in the jurisdiction population. Prison admissions increased at a faster rate than releases, resulting in prison population growth. During calendar year 2005 (the most recent data available), State and Federal correctional authorities admitted 733,009 prisoners and released 698,459. The number of admissions during 2005 was 4.7% larger than the number admitted during 2004 (699,812), while the number of releases (672,202) increased by 3.9% during that period. For the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, State systems reported a larger increase than the Federal system in the number of inmates housed in private prisons. State prisoners held in private prisons increased by 12.9% to reach 84,867. Federal prisoners in private facilities increased by
Annual change in total number of prison and jail inmates in custody and prison inmates in custody, 2000-2006
Number of inmates 70,000 Total custody population
60,000 50,000 40,000

Inmates in prison
30,000 20,000 10,000 0 2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

12 months ending June 30

2.1% to reach 27,108. The Federal system housed a larger share of prisoners in private facilities (14.2%) than the State systems (6.2%). The number of female prisoners rose at a faster rate than the number of male prisoners. Between midyear 2005 and 2006, the female prison population increased by 4.8% to reach 111,403. In the same period, the male prison population increased by 2.7% to reach 1,445,115. On June 30, 2006, an estimated 4.8% of black men were in prison or jail, compared to 1.9% of Hispanic men and 0.7% of white men. More than 11% of black males age 25 to 34 were incarcerated. Black women were incarcerated in prison or jail at nearly 4 times the rate of white women and more than twice the rate of Hispanic women.

Additional data in appendix tables are available on the BJS Website at <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov.bjs/pub/pdf/pjim06. pdf>.

Revised 03/07/08

Prison incarceration rate reaches 496 per 100,000 U.S. residents At midyear 2006, 496 prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents were incarcerated in State or Federal prison, up from 488 at midyear 2005 (see Appendix table 1). Ten States exceeded the national incarceration rate, led by Louisiana (835 per 100,000 residents), Texas (687), and Mississippi (661). Six States had rates that were less than half the national rate, with the lowest rates in Maine (141 per 100,000 residents), Rhode Island (195), and New Hampshire (200). Prison authorities reported largest increase in number of prisoners since midyear 1999 to 2000 On June 30, 2006, State and Federal prison authorities had jurisdiction over 1,556,518 prisoners, an increase of 2.8% (42,552) from midyear 2005 (table 1).1 This was the largest absolute increase since the 1999 to 2000 increase of 51,931 prisoners (table 2). Within the State prison systems, the growth in the number of prisoners during the 6 months from December 31, 2005, to June 30, 2006 (2.0%), was faster than growth during the period from June 30, 2005, to December 31, 2005 (0.7%). Within the Federal system, growth was about the same during each 6-month period. Most of the increase (84.5%) in the total prison population was due to growth in prisoners under State jurisdiction (up 35,956). The 2.7% increase in State prisoners from midyear 2005 to midyear 2006 reversed a 3-year trend of declining growth rates (figure 1). Similarly, the 3.6% increase in Federal prisoners reversed a period of declining growth rates from midyear 1999 to midyear 2005, when the annual growth rate declined steadily from 9.6% to 2.9%.

Three jurisdictions responsible for a third of State and Federal prisoners at midyear 2006 The three largest jurisdictions the Federal system, California, and Texas accounted for more than a third (539,084 prisoners) of all prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction on June 30, 2006 (table 3). The Federal system had 12.3% of the total prison population under its jurisdiction; California, 11.3%; and Texas, 11.1%. The seven largest jurisdictions accounted for over half of prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction (see Appendix table 2). The 21 smallest jurisdictions accounted for 7.8% of the total population under jurisdiction at midyear 2006.

Table 1. Number and percent change in prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction
Prisoners under the jurisdiction of State or Federal correctional authorities U.S. total Federal State 1,556,518 1,526,470 1,513,966 2.8% 2.0 191,080 187,618 184,484 3.6% 1.8 1,365,438 1,338,852 1,329,482 2.7% 2.0

Period 6/30/2006 12/31/2005 6/30/2005 Percent change from 6/30/05 to 6/30/06 12/31/05 to 6/30/06

Table 2. Annual change in number of prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, July 1 to June 30
Change in the number of prisoners Federal State 12,152 10,258 8,893 8,780 8,749 5,274 6,596 8,092 39,779 9,781 11,694 26,022 24,547 14,086 35,956 20,348

12-month period 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Average annual change, 2000-2006

jurisdiction population includes jail inmates who are under the legal authority of State or Federal correctional systems.

1The

Annual percent change in number of prisoners under State and Federal jurisdiction, June 30, 2000, to June 30, 2006
Percent change 10%
9% 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0% 2000

Federal prisoners

Table 3. Number of State and Federal prisoners in the seven largest jurisdictions, June 30, 2006
Jurisdiction
State prisoners

Number of prisoners 1,556,518 191,080 175,115 172,889 91,001 63,295 51,549 50,701

Percent of total 100.0% 12.3 11.3 11.1 5.8 4.1 3.3 3.3

Cumulative percentage

U.S. total Federal California Texas Florida New York Georgia Michigan

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

12-month period ending June 30

Figure 1

12.3% 23.5 34.6 40.5 44.5 47.9 51.1

2 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Revised 03/07/08

Four jurisdictions accounted for more than half of the increase in the prison population Four jurisdictions (California, the Federal system, Georgia, and Florida) accounted for more than half of the increase in the jurisdiction population during the 12-month period ending June 30, 2006. California contributed 20% of the total increase in prisoners; the Federal system, 15%; Georgia, 9%; and Florida, 8% (table 4). The increase in these jurisdictions along with increases in Ohio, Arizona, Michigan, Texas, and Pennsylvania accounted for three-quarters of the total change in the jurisdiction population between midyear 2005 and 2006.

Prison populations increased in 43 jurisdictions; 8 jurisdictions had no growth or declined In the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, the percentage change in prison population by jurisdiction ranged from -2.9% in Missouri to 9.4% in Alaska. The prison population in 43 jurisdictions grew, while 8 had no growth or declined. Of the 5 jurisdictions with the largest percentage increase in prisoners, 4 ranked among the 20 having the smallest prison population, and 1 (Georgia) ranked among the 10 largest jurisdictions.
Percent change in prison population, 2005-2006 9.4 % 8.3 8.1 7.8 7.6 -2.9 % -1.8 -1.8 -1.2 -1.1

Table 4. Increase in the number of State or Federal prisoners, by jurisdiction, July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2006
Jurisdiction Total California Federal Georgia Florida Ohio Arizona Michigan Texas Pennsylvania Change in number of prisoners 42,552 8,583 6,596 3,867 3,456 2,518 2,200 1,687 1,551 1,547 Percent of Cumulative total change percentage 100.0% 20.2 15.5 9.1 8.1 5.9 5.2 4.0 3.6 3.6 20.2% 35.7 44.8 52.9 58.8 64.0 67.9 71.6 75.2

Jurisdiction with Largest increase Alaska Vermont Georgia Nevada Rhode Island Largest decrease Missouri Louisiana Maine Kansas South Carolina

Prison admissions outpaced releases, resulting in population growth During calendar year 2005, State and Federal correctional authorities admitted 733,009 prisoners into their systems, an increase of 4.7% over the number admitted during 2004 (table 5). (The 2005 calendar year data were the most recent data available.) States admitted 676,952 prisoners during 2005 which represented a 4.7% increase (30,122 admissions) over the number admitted during 2004. While 34 States had an increase in the number of admissions during 2005, three States accounted for over half of the total growth in admissions to State prison: Florida (up 6,145 admissions), California (up 6,022), and Texas (up 5,006) (see Appendix table 3). Federal prisons admitted 56,057 prisoners during 2005, an increase of 3,075 or 5.8% from 2004. The number of releases from State or Federal jurisdiction also increased during 2005, but at a slightly slower pace than admissions. State and Federal authorities released 698,459 prisoners during 2005, up 3.9% from the number in 2004.

Table 5. Number of sentenced prisoners admitted and released from State or Federal jurisdiction, during calendar year, 2000-2005
Admissions* Total Federal State 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 625,219 638,978 661,082 686,437 699,812 733,009 43,732 45,140 48,144 52,288 52,982 56,057 581,487 593,838 612,938 634,149 646,830 676,952 16.4% 4.7 Total 604,858 628,626 630,176 656,384 672,202 698,459 15.5% 3.9 Releases* Federal 35,259 38,370 42,339 44,199 46,624 47,981 State 569,599 590,256 587,837 612,185 625,578 650,478 14.2% 4.0

Percent change 2000-2005 17.2% 2004-2005 4.7

28.2% 5.8

36.1% 2.9

*Counts exclude escapes, AWOLs, and transfers.

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006 3

Growth in admissions driven by new court commitments and returned parole violators Between 2000 and 2005, the number of new court commitments to State prison increased by 20.3%, while the number of parole violators who were revoked and returned to prison increased by 14.1%. During 2005, the number of new court commitments increased at a lower rate (2.5%) than the number of returned parole violators (6.0%).
State prison admissions, by type, 2000 to 2005 New court All* commitments Parole violators 581,487 350,431 203,569 593,838 365,714 215,450 612,938 392,661 207,961 634,149 399,843 209,753 646,830 411,300 219,033 676,952 421,426 232,229 16.4 % 5.1 20.3 % 2.5 14.1 % 6.0

ties between midyear 2005 and 2006. With an additional 2,806 prisoners in private facilities, Texas accounted for 27.3% percent of the total increase. Jurisdictions varied in their use of private facilities. At midyear 2006, 19 jurisdictions reported housing no prisoners in private facilities (see Appendix table 4). Six jurisdictions held at least a quarter of their inmates in privately operated facilities, led by New Mexico (43%), Wyoming (38%) and Hawaii (30%). Number of persons under age 18 in State custody increased at midyear 2006 During the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, the number of juveniles in State prisons increased by 156 persons to reach 2,364, a 7.1% increase (table 7). This is the first annual increase in the number of persons under age 18 since 1995. Between 1995 and 2006, the number of juveniles declined 55%, from 5,309 to 2,208 (not shown in table). All but seven States housed at least one juvenile prisoner. Five States Connecticut (425), New York (219), Florida (221), North Carolina (188), and Texas (162) accounted for more than half of all juveniles held in State prisons (see Appendix table 5). Little change in noncitizens in State or Federal prisons State and Federal prisons held 91,426 noncitizens on June 30, 2006, an increase of 337 prisoners (or 0.4%) over 12 months (see Appendix table 6). More than two-thirds of the noncitizens in State or Federal prison were held by three jurisdictions: the Federal system housed 33,701 (37% of the total); California housed 15,849 (17% of the total); and Texas housed 9,227 (10% of the total).
Table 7. Number of persons under age 18 held in State prisons, June 30, 2000-2006
Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Total number in prison 3,896 3,147 3,038 2,741 2,485 2,208 2,364 Male 3,721 3,010 2,927 2,627 2,375 2,118 2,259 Female 175 137 111 114 110 90 105

Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Percent change 2000-2005 2004-2005

*Counts exclude escapes, AWOLs, and transfers.

States increased the use of private prisons more rapidly than the Federal system On June 30, 2006, the number of State and Federal prisoners housed in private facilities reached 111,975, an increase of 10,255 prisoners (or 10.1%) since midyear 2005. State prisoners held in private facilities increased 12.9%; those under Federal jurisdiction increased 2.1%. The proportion of all prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction housed in privately operated facilities reached 7.2% at midyear 2006, up from 6.5% in 2003 (table 6). Texas, Indiana, Colorado, and Florida accounted for more than half of the increase in prisoners held in private faciliTable 6. Number of prisoners held in private facilities, June 30, 2000-2006
Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Number of prisoners Total Federal State 90,542 91,953 93,912 95,522 98,901 101,720 111,975 15,524 19,251 20,274 21,865 24,768 26,544 27,108 75,018 72,702 73,638 73,657 74,133 75,176 84,867 Percent of all prisoners 6.5% 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.6 6.9 7.2

4 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Revised 03/07/08

Female prisoners continued to rise faster than male prisoners Between midyear 2005 and 2006, the percent increase in female prisoners under the jurisdiction of State or Federal authorities was almost twice that of male prisoners. The female prison population increased 4.6% to reach 111,403, while the male prison population increased 2.7% to reach 1,445,115 (table 8). This growth is part of a larger trend between 2000 and 2006, when the female prison population grew 3.3% on average, compared to a 2.0% growth in the male prison population. Women made up 7.2% of the prison population on June 30, 2006, compared to 6.1% at yearend 1995 (not shown in table). At midyear 2006 men were 14 times more likely than women to be incarcerated. Their rate of incarceration was 939 men per 100,000 males, compared to 67 women per 100,000 females.

Local jail population growth slowed from midyear 2005 to 2006 Between July 1, 2005, and June 30, 2006, the number of persons held in local jails increased 2.5% to reach 766,010 inmates, the slowest growth since the 1.6% increase in midyear 2001 (figure 2). The growth in the jail population was largely due to an additional 14,522 adult male inmates who made up 78.5% of the total change in the jail population. Similar to the prison population, the number of adult females in local jails grew at a faster rate (4.9%) than the number of adult males (2.2%). From 2000 to 2006, the number of adult females in local jails increased by 40%, compared to 22% in adult males (table 9).
Percent change in the annual number of inmates in local jails, 2000-2006
Percent change 6%

5%

Table 8. Number of prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by gender, December 31, 2000, June 30, 2005, and 2006
Male All inmates 6/30/2006 6/30/2005 12/31/2000 Percent change, 2005-2006 Average annual change, 2000-2006 Sentenced to more than 1 year 6/30/2006 6/30/2005 12/31/2000 Incarceration rate* 6/30/2006 6/30/2005 12/31/2000 1,445,115 1,407,467 1,298,027 2.7% 2.0% 1,384,429 1,350,656 1,246,234 939 926 915 Women

4%

3%

2%

111,403 106,499 93,234 4.6% 3.3% 101,455 97,156 85,044 67 65 59

1%

0% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Figure 2

Table 9. Number of inmates in local jails on June 30, 2000, 2005, and 2006
2000 Average daily populationa Number of inmates, June 30 Adults Male Female Juvenilesb Held as adultsc Held as juveniles 618,319 621,149 613,534 543,120 70,414 7,615 6,129 1,489 2005 733,442 747,529 740,770 646,807 93,963 6,759 5,750 1,009 2006 755,896 766,010 759,906 661,329 98,577 6,104 4,836 1,268

*The total number of prisoners with a sentence of more than 1 year per 100,000 U.S. residents.

a Average daily population is the sum of the number of inmates in jail on each day for a year divided by the total number of days in a year. b

Juveniles are persons under age 18 on June 30. juveniles who were tried or awaiting trial as adults.

cIncludes

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006 5

The number of juveniles held in adult jails declined by 1.0% (or 655 inmates). Juveniles held as adults dropped 16% in the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, but the number held as juveniles increased by 26%. Overall, the number of juveniles held in local jails decreased 20% between 2000 and 2006. At midyear 2006 local jails held 256 inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents, up from 252 at midyear 2005. The 1.6% increase in the incarceration rate continued a pattern of annual growth, but was less than half the 3.7% increase experienced from midyear 2004 to 2005.
Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
*Number

The jail incarceration rate varied by gender and race. Males (457 per 100,000) were incarcerated at about 7 times the rate of females (66 per 100,000). About 1 in every 219 males in the U.S. resident population was held in a local jail at midyear 2006, compared to 1 in every 1,515 females. Based on administrative records designation of race and Hispanic origin, blacks were incarcerated at 4.8 times the rate of whites. About 1 in every 123 blacks were incarcerated on June 30, 2006, compared to 1 in every 353 Hispanics and 1 in every 588 whites (table 10). Characteristics of jail inmates changed slightly In the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, characteristics of inmates in local jails changed slightly. The reported percentage of females increased by 0.2% to reach 12.9% of all jail inmates. The respective percentages of white, black, convicted, and unconvicted jail inmates on June 30, 2006, were comparable to their percentages at midyear 2005 (table 11). From 2000 to 2006 the number of females in local jails increased from 11.4% to 12.9% of the jail inmate population. Whites increased from 41.9% to 43.9%, and blacks decreased from 41.3% to 38.6%. The percentage of jail inmates who were convicted declined from 44% to 37.9%.

Number of jail inmates 621,149 631,240 665,475 691,301 713,990 747,529 766,010

Jail incarceration rate* 220 222 231 238 243 252 256

of jail inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents on July 1 of each year.

Table 10. Estimated number of jail inmates and jail incarceration rate, by gender, race, and Hispanic origin, June 30, 2006
Characteristic Total Gender Male Female Race/Hispanic origin Whiteb Black/African Americanb Hispanic/Latino Otherc Two or more racesb Estimated number 766,010 666,985 99,025 336,600 296,000 119,200 13,500 700 Jail incarceration ratea 256 457 66 170 815 283 90 :

Table 11. Gender, race, Hispanic origin, and conviction status of local jail inmates, June 30, 2000, 2005, and 2006
Characteristic Total Gender Male Female Race/Hispanic origin Whitea Black/African Americana Hispanic/Latino Otherb Two or more racesa,c Conviction status Convicted Male Female Unconvicted Male Female
aExcludes bIncludes c

2000 100.0% 88.6% 11.4 41.9% 41.3 15.1 1.6

2005 100.0% 87.3% 12.7 44.3% 38.9 15.0 1.7 0.1 38.0% 33.2 4.8 62.0 54.2 7.7

2006 100.0% 87.1% 12.9 43.9% 38.6 15.6 1.8 0.1 37.9% 32.9 5.0 62.1 54.3 7.8

Note: Inmate counts by race/Hispanic origin were estimated and rounded to the nearest 100. Resident population figures were estimated for July 1, 2006, based on the 2000 Census of Population and Housing. :Not calculated
aNumber b

of jail inmates per 100,000 residents.

Excludes inmates of Hispanic or Latino origin.

c Includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders.

44.0% 39.0 5.0 56.0 50.0 6.0

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding. inmates of Hispanic or Latino origin. American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders. Not collected prior to midyear 2005.

6 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Jail capacity expanded with the growth of the jail inmate population Total rated capacity of local jails at midyear 2006 reached 810,863 beds, an increase of 2.8% (see Appendix table 7). Rated capacity is the maximum number of beds or inmates allocated by State or local rating officials to each jail facility. On June 30, 2006, local jails nationwide operated at an average of 94% of rated capacity. Based on the peak number of inmates incarcerated on a given day during the year, local jails nationwide operated at 100% of rated capacity. The smallest jail jurisdictions (those with an average daily population of fewer than 50 inmates) generally had a lower percent of capacity occupied. Jurisdictions with larger average daily populations generally met or exceeded their capacity (figure 3). Local jail officials collectively added jail capacity at a rate about equal to the rate of growth in the jail inmate population. Between 1995 and 2006, the jail population and rated capacity both increased steadily, although during some periods the rates of increase in population and capacity varied. Between 1998 and 2001, capacity expanded more rapidly than did the jail population, and the average percentage of rated capacity used declined slightly, from about 97% to about 90%. After 2002 jail populations increased at a slightly faster rate than rated capacity, and the percentage of rated capacity used by local jails increased to 94% by 2006 (figure 4).2 A small number of large jail jurisdictions held majority of all jail inmates At midyear 2006, 5.6% of jurisdictions had average daily jail populations of 1,000 or more inmates. These jurisdictions held 50% of the nations jail population. By comparison, 39.5% of jurisdictions had an average daily jail population of fewer than 50 inmates and held 3.1% of the nations jail population. The Nations 50 largest jail jurisdictions accounted for less than 2% of all jurisdictions but held 29.5% of all jail inmates on June 30, 2006. The two largest jail jurisdictions Los Angeles County and New York City held 32,703 inmates, or 4.3% of all jail inmates (see Appendix table 8). In the 12-month period ending June 30, 2006, jail populations in the 50 largest jail jurisdictions increased 1.3%. Among these jurisdictions, 29 experienced jail inmate population increases, with the largest percentage increase occurring in Fresno County, California, up 22.2%. Twenty of the 50 largest jurisdictions experienced declines in jail inmate populations. The largest decrease occurred in Hillsborough County, Florida, down 16.9%.
2 On December 31, 2005, State prison systems were between operating 1% below and 14% above capacity. The Federal prison system was operating at 34% above capacity. See Prisoners in 2005, November 2006, NCJ 215092.

More than 60,000 jail inmates supervised outside of jail facilities On June 30, 2006, jail officials reported supervising 60,222 offenders in alternative programs outside of jail facilities. These offenders made up 7.3% of the total 826,232 offenders either in custody in jails or under supervision in the community by local jail officials (see Appendix table 9). Offenders in community service (14,667), weekender programs (11,421), and on electronic monitoring (10,999) comprised the largest number of persons under supervision in the community.
Percent of capacity occupied, by size of jurisdiction, 2006
Size of jurisdiction Fewer than 50 inmates 50-99 inmates 100-249 inmates 250-499 inmates 500-999 inmates 1,000 or more inmates All jurisdictions
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 100%

Percent occupied

Figure 3

Annual change in rated capacity and in jail inmate population during the 12 months ending June 30, 2000-2006
Number of jail inmates/beds 35,000
30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Rated capacity

Population

Figure 4

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006 7

Total number of inmates in custody of prison or jail authorities increased by 2.8% During the 12 months ending midyear 2006, the total number of inmates in the custody of State and Federal prisons and in local jails increased by 2.8% to reach 2,245,189 inmates. This increase was smaller than the average annual growth rate of 3.4% percent from midyear 2000 to midyear 2006. The growth of inmates in different facilities varied. The number of inmates in Federal prisons increased by 3.2% from midyear 2005 to midyear 2006; those in local jails increased by 2.6%, and those in State prisons increased by 3.0% (table 12). One in every 133 U.S. residents in prison or jail at midyear 2006 At midyear 2006, 750 persons per 100,000 U.S. residents were in prison or jail, the equivalent to 1 in every 133 residents. This is an increase from 744 persons in prison or jail per 100,000 residents at midyear 2005. Increase in local jail inmates was a third of the total increase in total custody population In the 12 months ending June 30, 2006, the increase in the jail population accounted for 30% of the change in the population of inmates in custody, while the increase in the number of prisoners in State or Federal facilities accounted for 70%. By comparison, during the 12 months ending June 30, 2005 (the prior 12-month period), change in the local jail population accounted for 70% of the change in the cus-

tody population, while change in the number of inmates in State and Federal prisons accounted for 30% of the change in the total custody population. With one exception, jail population growth accounted for successively larger proportions of the change in the total custody population during each of the years from 2000 to 2005. The exception was during the 12 months ending on June 30, 2004. Between 2000 and 2005, the proportion of the change in the custody population due to change in the jail population increased from about 35% to 70% (figure 5).

Percent of total increase in custody population due to jail inmates, 12-month period ending June 30, 2000-2006
Percent of total increase 80%
70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Figure 5

Table 12. Number of persons held in State or Federal prisons or in local jails, 1995 and 2000-2006
Year 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 June 30 December 31 2006 June 30 Percent change, 6/30/05-6/30/06 Average annual change, 12/31/95-6/30/06 Total inmates in custodya 1,585,586 1,935,753 1,961,247 2,033,331 2,081,580 2,135,335 2,183,152 ... 2,245,189 2.8% 3.4% Prisoners in custody Federal State 89,538 133,921 143,337 151,618 161,673 170,535 175,954 179,220 181,622 3.2% 7.0% 989,004 1,176,269 1,180,155 1,209,640 1,222,135 1,243,745 1,252,436 1,259,017 1,290,200 3.0% 2.6% Inmates held in local jails 507,044 621,149 631,240 665,475 691,301 713,990 747,529 ... 766,010 2.5% 3.8% Incarceration rateb 601 683 685 701 712 723 744 750

Note: Jail counts are for midyear (June 30) and exclude persons who were supervised outside of a jail facility. State and Federal prisoner counts for 1995 to 2004 are for December 31. ...Not available. aTotal counts include Federal inmates in non-secure privately operated facilities (6,143 in 2000, 6,192 in 2001, 6,598 in 2002, 6,471 in 2003, 7,065 in 2004, 7,233 (June) and 7,144 (December) in 2005, and 7,357 (June) in 2006). bPersons in custody per 100,000 residents in each reference year.

8 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Black males in their late twenties incarcerated at higher rates than other groups At midyear 2006 more black men (836,800) were in custody in State or Federal prison or local jail than white men (718,100) or Hispanic men (426,900) (table 13). Black men comprised 41% of the more than 2 million men in custody, and black men age 20 to 29 comprised 15.5% of all men in custody on June 30, 2006. Relative to their numbers in the general population, about 4.8% of all black men were in custody at midyear 2006, compared to about 0.7% of white men and 1.9% of Hispanic men. Overall, black men were incarcerated at 6.5 times the rate of white men. The incarceration rate for black men was highest among black men age 25 to 29. About 11.7% of black males in this age group were incarcerated on June 30, 2006. Across age groups black men were

between 5.7 and 8.5 times more likely than white men to be incarcerated. Among female offenders, more white women (95,300) than black women (68,800) or Hispanic women (32,400) were in custody. White women comprised 47% of the female population in custody at midyear 2006. In general females had a lower incarceration rate than males. White females had a lower incarceration rate (94 per 100,000 white women) than black females (358 per 100,000 black women) and Hispanic females (152 per 100,000 Hispanic women). The overall incarceration rate for black women was 3.8 times the rate for white women (table 14). Hispanic women were 1.6 times more likely than white women to be incarcerated. Across age groups black women were incarcerated between 2.8 and 4.3 times the rate of white women.

Table 13. Number of inmates in State or Federal prisons and local jails, by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age, June 30, 2006
Males Black/African Hispanic/ Whiteb Americanb Latino 718,100 24,800 111,100 103,700 109,600 110,900 107,200 105,100 41,800 836,800 33,000 160,000 156,200 132,400 120,500 103,000 101,000 22,200 426,900 15,300 84,900 90,800 78,000 58,300 43,200 41,500 12,200 Females Black/African Whiteb Americanb 95,300 2,000 13,900 13,700 16,800 18,900 15,100 11,700 2,800 68,800 1,600 9,300 10,100 12,100 13,800 11,700 8,700 1,000 Hispanic/ Latino 32,400 1,200 5,900 5,600 6,000 5,600 4,200 3,100 700

Totala Total 18-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-54 55 or older 2,042,100 75,600 365,700 359,300 328,300 298,700 262,600 257,400 79,000

Totala 203,100 4,900 29,600 30,300 36,000 39,800 32,000 24,600 4,700

Note: Based on custody counts from the National Prisoner Statistics (NPS-1A) 2006 and the Annual Survey of Jails, 2006. Estimates by age were obtained from the Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, 2002, the National Corrections Reporting Program, 2003, and the Federal Justice Statistics Program (FJSP) for inmates on September, 30, 2003. Estimates were rounded to the nearest 100. Detailed categories exclude persons identifying with two or more races.
aIncludes b

American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders.

Not Hispanic or Latino.

Table 14. Number of inmates in State or Federal prisons and local jails, per 100,000 residents, by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age, June 30, 2006
Number of inmates per 100,000 residents Males Black/African Hispanic/ Whiteb Americanb Latino Totala 4,789 5,336 10,698 11,695 11,211 9,804 7,976 4,421 869 1,862 2,112 4,168 3,912 3,652 3,094 2,630 1,813 543 134 120 290 300 370 378 284 112 12 94 81 221 226 292 282 200 75 9 Females Black/African Americanb 358 262 637 716 924 999 798 326 28

Totala U.S. total 18-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-54 55 or older 1,384 1,766 3,352 3,395 3,289 2,805 2,344 1,209 256

Whiteb 736 935 1,675 1,685 1,874 1,641 1,419 677 170

Hispanic/ Latino 152 175 346 305 333 337 279 141 26

Note: Based on the U.S. resident population for July 1, 2006, by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age. Detailed categories exclude persons identifying with two or more races.
aIncludes b

American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders.

Not Hispanic or Latino.

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006 9

Methodology National Prisoner Statistics The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), with the U.S. Census Bureau as its collection agent, obtains midyear and yearend counts of prisoners from the departments of corrections in the 50 States and from the Federal Bureau of Prisons. The National Prisoner Statistics (NPS) distinguishes prisoners in custody from those under jurisdiction. To have custody of a prisoner, a correctional agency must hold that person in one of its facilities. To have jurisdiction means that an entity has legal authority over a prisoner. Prisoners under a States jurisdiction may be in the custody of a local jail, another States prison, or in another correctional facility. Some States are unable to provide jurisdiction counts. NPS counts exclude persons confined in locally administered facilities (jails) and who are under the jurisdiction of local authorities. NPS counts include all inmates in Stateoperated facilities in Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode Island, and Vermont, which have combined prison-jail systems. NPS exclude inmates held by the District of Columbia, which as of yearend 2001 operated only a jail system. Annual Survey of Jails, 2006 In each year between the years that BJS conducts a complete census of local jails, BJS conducts the Annual Survey of Jails (ASJ), a sample survey of local jails which is used to estimate the number and characteristics of local inmates nationwide. For the 2006 ASJ, the U.S. Census Bureau, as collection agent, drew a sample of 874 jurisdictions and 936 jail facilities. Local jail jurisdictions include counties (parishes in Louisiana) or municipal governments that administer one or more local jails. The 2006 ASJ sample included all jails operated jointly by two or more jurisdictions, multi-jurisdictional jails, with certainty (63). Other jail jurisdictions included with certainty (269) were those that (1) held juveniles inmates at the time of the 2005 Census of Jail Inmates and that had an average daily population of 500 or more inmates during the 12 months ending June 30, 2005, or (2) held only adults and the average daily inmate population was 750 or more. The remaining jurisdictions were stratified into two groups: jurisdictions with jails holding at least one juvenile on June 30, 2005, and jails hold only adults on that date. Using stratified random sampling, 542 jurisdictions were selected from 8 strata based upon the two conditions enumerated above and 4 strata based upon their average daily jail inmate population during 2005. The average daily jail inmate population was derived from the 2005 Census of Jail Inmates. Data were obtained from sampled jurisdictions by mail-out and web-based survey questionnaires. After follow-up
10 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

phone calls to respondents, the response rate for the survey was 100% for critical items such as the number of inmates confined, average daily population, and rated capacity. (See Appendix tables 10, 11, and 12 for standard errors associated with reported estimates from the ASJ 2006 at <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/ pjim06.htm>.) National Prisoner Statistics jurisdiction notes Alaska C Prisons and jails form one integrated system. All NPS data include jail and prison populations. Jurisdiction counts exclude inmates held in local jails that are operated by communities. Arizona C Counts are based on custody data. California C Counts include unsentenced inmates temporarily housed in local jails or in hospitals. Colorado C Counts include 579 inmates housed in local jails, 4,362 inmates in Colorado contract facilities, and 219 inmates in the Youthful Offender System, which was established primarily for violent juvenile offenders. Counts of inmates with sentences of more than 1 year include an undetermined number with a sentence of 1 year or less. Report foreign-born inmates rather than noncitizens. Connecticut C Prisons and jails form one integrated system. All NPS data include jail and prison populations. Delaware C Prisons and jails form one integrated system. All NPS data include jail and prison populations. Federal C Custody counts include inmates housed in privately operated secure facilities under contract with BOP. Also includes 7,357 inmates held in privately operated community correctional centers. An additional 219 inmates under age 18 were housed in contract facilities. Georgia C Counts are based on custody data. Hawaii C Prisons and jails form one integrated system. All NPS data include jail and prison populations. Non-citizen data based only on inmates who reported their citizenship. Illinois C Counts are based on jurisdiction data. Counts of inmates with sentences of more than 1 year include an undetermined number with a sentence of 1 year. Iowa C Counts are based on custody data. Counts of inmates with sentences of more than 1 year include an undetermined number with a sentence of 1 year or less and unsentenced inmates. Kansas C Counts of inmates with sentences of more than 1 year include an undetermined number with a sentence of 1 year or less. Citizenship counts are estimated. Louisiana C Counts include 15,053 males and 1,177 females housed in local jails as a result of a partnership with the Louisiana Sheriffs Association and local authorities.

Maryland C Counts by sentence length are estimates extracted from actual sentence length breakdowns from automated data and applied to totals based on manual data. Report foreign-born inmates rather than noncitizens. Massachusetts C Jurisdiction counts exclude approximately 6,200 male inmates in the county system (local jails and houses of correction) serving a sentence of more than 1 year. These male inmates are included in Massachusetts' incarceration rate. By law, offenders may be sentenced to terms up to 2 years in locally operated jails and correctional institutions. Mississippi C Does not collect citizenship data. Missouri C Reports foreign-born inmates rather than noncitizens. New Jersey C Counts of inmates with sentences of more than 1 year include an undetermined number with a sentence of 1 year. Citizenship data are not collected from every inmate. New York C Reports foreign-born inmates rather than noncitizens. Ohio C Counts of inmates with sentences of more than 1 year include an undetermined number with a sentence of 1 year or less. Rhode Island C Prisons and jails form one integrated system. All NPS data include jail and prison populations. Tennessee C Reports foreign-born inmates rather than noncitizens. Vermont C Prisons and jails form an integrated system. All NPS data include jail and prison populations.

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

11

U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics Washington, DC 20531

*NCJ~217675*

PRESORTED STANDARD POSTAGE & FEES PAID DOJ/BJS Permit No. G-91

Official Business Penalty for Private Use $300

The Bureau of Justice Statistics is the statistical agency of the U.S. Department of Justice. Jeffrey L. Sedgwick is director. BJS Bulletins present the first release of findings from permanent data collection programs. This Bulletin was written by William J. Sabol, Ph.D., Todd D. Minton, and Paige M. Harrison. Todd D. Minton and Paige M. Harrison also verified the report. Lisa A. McNelis, Pamela H. Butler, and Theresa M. Reitz carried out the data collection and processing under the supervision of Charlene M. Sebold, Governments Division, Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce. Duane H. Cavanaugh and Diron J. Gaskins provided technical assistance. Carolyn C. Williams and Tina Dorsey produced and edited the report, and Jayne Robinson prepared the report for final printing, under the supervision of Doris J. James. June 2007, NCJ 217675

This report in portable document format (includes 12 appendix tables) and in ASCII and its related statistical data are available at the BJS World Wide Web Internet site: <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ bjs/abstract/pjim06.htm>

Office of Justice Programs Innovation Partnerships Safer Neighborhoods http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov

12 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Revised 03/07/08

Appendix table 1. Sentenced prisoners under the jurisdiction of State or Federal correctional authorities, June 30, 2005, to June 30, 2006
Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticutb Maine Massachusettsc New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islandb Vermontb Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delawareb Florida Georgiad Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaskab Arizonad California Colorado Hawaiib Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming
aThe b

6/30/2006 1,485,884 169,945 1,315,939 165,358 13,388 1,861 9,335 2,625 28,436 62,950 43,074 2,079 1,610 257,716 45,440 25,416 8,659 8,936 50,701 9,776 30,639 4,362 1,342 47,494 3,511 21,440 589,597 27,003 13,450 4,102 89,082 51,536 19,516 35,795 22,447 19,225 32,007 23,535 22,762 26,119 161,575 36,074 5,369 303,268 2,680 32,644 173,453 22,145 4,440 6,976 3,623 12,328 6,521 13,614 6,132 16,618 2,094

12/31/2005 1,459,667 166,173 1,293,494 162,641 13,121 1,905 9,081 2,520 27,359 62,743 42,345 2,025 1,542 251,380 44,919 22,951 8,737 9,068 49,546 9,281 30,803 4,330 1,327 45,854 3,454 21,110 583,132 27,003 13,383 3,972 89,766 48,741 19,215 36,083 22,143 19,335 31,522 23,245 22,464 26,369 159,255 35,344 5,292 296,341 2,781 31,411 168,982 21,456 4,422 6,818 3,509 11,644 6,292 13,390 6,269 17,320 2,047

6/30/2005 1,447,812 162,682 1,285,130 162,665 13,181 2,017 8,907 2,561 28,124 62,922 41,539 1,928 1,486 252,116 44,669 24,476 8,578 9,042 49,014 9,187 31,531 4,173 1,265 44,976 3,334 21,871 582,539 26,758 13,330 4,030 87,544 47,677 18,014 37,254 22,654 19,918 31,335 23,232 22,904 26,208 160,795 35,667 5,219 287,810 2,479 29,829 164,847 20,841 4,259 6,526 3,369 11,551 6,308 13,297 5,928 16,550 2,026

Percent change, 6/30/05 to 6/30/06 2.6% 4.5 2.4 1.7% 1.6 -7.7 4.8 2.5 1.1 0.0 3.7 7.8 8.3 2.2% 1.7 3.8 0.9 -1.2 3.4 6.4 -2.8 4.5 6.1 5.6 5.3 -2.0 1.2% 0.9 0.9 1.8 1.8 8.1 8.3 -3.9 -0.9 -3.5 2.1 1.3 -0.6 -0.3 0.5 1.1 2.9 5.4% 8.1 9.4 5.2 6.3 4.2 6.9 7.5 6.7 3.4 2.4 3.4 0.4 3.4

Prison incarceration rate, 6/30/06a 496 57 440 302 382 141 241 200 326 326 346 195 258 389 354 403 290 323 502 189 524 247 211 414 449 386 540 587 478 481 492 550 464 835 400 661 361 658 527 433 687 472 295 437 400 529 476 466 345 476 384 494 334 368 240 260 407

number of prisoners with a sentence of more than 1 year per 100,000 U.S. residents. rate includes an estimated 6,200 inmates sentenced to more than 1 year but held in local jails or houses of corrections.

Prisons and jails form one integrated system. Data include total jail and prison population. Population figures are based on custody counts.

cIncarceration d

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

13

Revised 06/27/07

Appendix table 2. Prisoners under the jurisdiction of State or Federal correctional authorities, June 30, 2005, December 31, 2005, and June 30, 2006
Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islanda Vermonta Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delawarea Florida Georgiab Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaskaa Arizonab California Colorado Hawaiia Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming
a bPopulation

6/30/2006 1,556,518 191,080 1,365,438 176,705 20,054 2,046 11,109 2,625 28,436 63,295 43,087 3,914 2,139 259,588 45,440 25,460 8,659 8,936 50,701 9,776 30,657 4,507 1,401 47,494 3,527 23,030 617,264 27,888 13,570 7,252 91,001 51,549 20,005 36,571 23,084 21,085 37,201 23,935 23,633 26,119 172,889 36,074 5,408 311,881 5,063 34,864 175,115 22,145 6,227 6,976 3,623 12,468 6,803 13,645 6,225 16,633 2,094

12/31/2005 1,526,470 187,618 1,338,852 172,910 19,442 2,023 10,701 2,530 27,359 62,743 42,380 3,654 2,078 255,252 44,919 25,001 8,737 9,068 49,546 9,281 30,823 4,455 1,385 45,854 3,463 22,720 606,236 27,888 13,511 6,944 89,768 48,749 19,662 36,083 22,737 20,515 36,365 24,826 23,160 26,369 169,003 35,344 5,312 304,454 4,812 33,471 170,676 21,456 6,146 6,818 3,509 11,782 6,571 13,411 6,373 17,382 2,047

6/30/2005 1,513,966 184,484 1,329,482 173,125 19,744 2,084 10,495 2,561 28,124 62,963 41,540 3,639 1,975 253,159 44,669 24,505 8,578 9,042 49,014 9,187 31,564 4,284 1,338 44,976 3,344 22,658 606,361 27,740 13,469 7,180 87,545 47,682 18,897 37,254 23,276 20,856 36,399 23,702 23,896 26,208 171,338 35,667 5,252 296,837 4,630 32,664 166,532 20,841 6,071 6,526 3,369 11,565 6,595 13,317 6,013 16,688 2,026

Percent change 6/30/05 to 12/31/05 to 6/30/06 6/30/06 2.8% 3.6 2.7 2.1% 1.6 -1.8 5.9 2.5 1.1 0.5 3.7 7.6 8.3 2.5% 1.7 3.9 0.9 -1.2 3.4 6.4 -2.9 5.2 4.7 5.6 5.5 1.6 1.8% 0.5 0.7 1.0 3.9 8.1 5.9 -1.8 -0.8 1.1 2.2 1.0 -1.1 -0.3 0.9 1.1 3.0 5.1% 9.4 6.7 5.2 6.3 2.6 6.9 7.5 7.8 3.2 2.5 3.5 -0.3 3.4 2.0% 1.8 2.0 2.2% 3.1 1.1 3.8 3.8 3.9 0.9 1.7 7.1 2.9 1.7% 1.2 1.8 -0.9 -1.5 2.3 5.3 -0.5 1.2 1.2 3.6 1.8 1.4 1.8% 0.0 0.4 4.4 1.4 5.7 1.7 1.4 1.5 2.8 2.3 -3.6 2.0 -0.9 2.3 2.1 1.8 2.4% 5.2 4.2 2.6 3.2 1.3 2.3 3.2 5.8 3.5 1.7 -2.3 -4.3 2.3

Prisons and jails form one integrated system. Data include total jail and prison population. figures are based on custody counts.

14 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Appendix table 3. Number of sentenced prisoners admitted and released from State or Federal jurisdiction, by region and jurisdiction, 2000, 2004, and 2005
Admissions Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islanda Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaskab Arizona California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming 2005 733,009 56,057 676,952 68,742 6,513 521 2,597 1,271 14,251 24,199 16,222 911 2,257 150,411 39,887 16,957 6,397 4,892 13,145 7,112 19,110 2,264 1,088 29,121 2,664 7,774 261,503 9,723 8,053 1,422 46,531 19,228 13,324 14,801 10,113 8,923 10,454 8,756 9,446 14,251 71,889 11,989 2,600 196,296 2,868 12,440 129,559 9,899 1,662 4,075 2,390 5,648 4,264 6,436 3,600 12,683 772 2004 2000 Percent change, 2000-2005 17.2% 28.2 16.4 1.4% 5.3 -30.6 25.9 20.9 4.4 -12.3 37.7 --27.7% 35.9 42.8 37.4 -2.2 8.0 61.4 32.2 34.1 79.8 22.5 90.3 -7.4 20.0% 54.4 16.0 -47.5 30.4 10.7 64.2 -5.9 -2.1 54.0 6.2 17.9 11.7 4.2 23.5 22.4 64.9 10.3% 18.2 30.1 -0.1 40.7 4.3 20.3 98.8 14.6 34.9 58.6 10.1 78.8 21.0 2005 698,459 47,981 650,478 67,152 6,349 573 2,166 1,179 13,590 25,198 15,069 769 2,259 146,727 38,964 16,432 5,795 4,768 12,397 7,115 18,881 1,966 998 27,947 2,640 8,824 254,010 10,405 9,037 1,555 42,017 16,974 12,316 14,880 10,618 9,101 9,683 8,338 9,642 14,410 70,793 12,104 2,137 182,589 2,699 11,865 121,523 8,658 1,409 3,541 2,042 4,804 4,060 6,177 3,242 11,872 697 2004 672,202 46,624 625,578 68,760 6,707 636 2,391 1,080 14,418 26,043 14,396 828 2,261 143,497 38,646 15,100 6,049 4,683 13,723 5,849 17,307 2,029 917 28,170 2,428 8,596 Releases 2000 604,858 35,259 569,599 70,646 5,918 677 2,889 1,044 15,362 28,828 11,759 3,223 946 114,382 28,876 11,053 4,379 5,231 10,874 4,244 13,346 1,503 598 24,793 1,327 8,158 Percent change, 2000-2005 15.5% 36.1 14.2 -4.9% 7.3 -15.4 -25.0 12.9 -11.5 -12.6 28.1 --28.3% 34.9 48.7 32.3 -8.9 14.0 67.6 41.5 30.8 66.9 12.7 98.9 8.2 20.5% 45.8 43.3 -31.2 23.6 14.7 59.3 2.4 6.1 84.2 0.0 25.8 11.1 3.7 18.4 32.3 69.5 5.1% 3.8 30.4 -6.2 47.2 2.2 31.3 98.1 9.8 20.0 83.2 11.9 75.5 0.0

699,812 625,219 52,982 43,732 646,830 581,487 66,441 6,577 655 2,278 1,099 13,886 24,664 14,319 755 2,208 67,765 6,185 751 2,062 1,051 13,653 27,601 11,777 3,701 984

144,002 117,776 39,293 29,344 16,029 11,876 4,364 4,656 4,519 5,002 13,248 12,169 6,604 4,406 18,281 14,454 2,085 1,688 1,008 605 28,196 23,780 2,304 1,400 8,071 8,396 249,733 217,950 8,278 6,296 8,035 6,941 1,648 2,709 40,386 35,683 20,140 17,373 13,009 8,116 15,512 15,735 10,330 10,327 9,187 5,796 10,411 9,848 9,003 7,426 9,850 8,460 13,149 13,675 66,883 58,197 11,645 9,791 2,267 1,577 186,654 177,996 2,746 2,427 11,343 9,560 123,537 129,640 8,634 7,036 1,677 1,594 4,392 3,386 2,182 1,202 6,548 4,929 4,279 3,161 5,378 4,059 3,275 3,270 11,894 7,094 769 638

238,628 210,777 9,156 7,136 7,457 6,308 2,013 2,260 36,908 33,994 18,211 14,797 10,740 7,733 15,009 14,536 10,531 10,004 8,607 4,940 9,315 9,687 8,432 6,628 10,060 8,676 13,295 13,893 65,800 59,776 11,148 9,148 1,946 1,261 174,693 173,794 2,726 2,599 10,190 9,100 117,762 129,621 8,001 5,881 1,667 1,379 3,480 2,697 1,897 1,031 4,715 4,374 4,090 3,383 4,910 3,371 3,050 2,897 11,547 6,764 658 697

Note: Excludes escapes, AWOLs, and transfers to and from other jurisdictions. --Percent change not calculated due to changes in reporting. aChanged reporting in 2004 to exclude prisoners unsentenced and sentenced to less than 1 year. b Alaska data may include escapes, AWOLs and transfers.

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

15

Appendix table 4. Prisoners held in private facilities, June 30, 2005, and 2006
Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federalb State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyc New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islandc Vermontc Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaska Arizona California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washingtonc Wyoming
a

Number of inmates 6/30/2006 6/30/2005 111,975 27,108 84,867 3,800 0 0 0 0 2,626 0 713 0 461 4,403 0 1,356 0 0 0 940 0 0 18 2,080 9 0 53,333 320 0 0 6,285 5,190 2,463 2,954 135 4,865 211 5,926 16 5,169 18,220 1,579 0 23,331 1,338 5,318 3,000 4,362 1,885 1,749 987 0 2,927 0 0 964 801 101,720 26,544 75,176 3,214 0 0 0 0 2,437 0 403 0 374 3,453 0 580 0 0 479 403 0 0 57 1,924 10 0 48,266 257 0 0 5,423 4,625 1,907 2,924 129 4,837 206 5,812 15 5,142 15,414 1,575 0 20,243 1,365 5,291 2,470 3,320 1,774 1,283 747 0 2,810 0 0 406 777

Percent of all inmatesa 6/30/2006 7.2% 14.2 6.2 2.2% 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.2 0.0 1.7 0.0 21.6 1.7% 0.0 5.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.6 0.0 0.0 1.3 4.4 0.3 0.0 8.6% 1.1 0.0 0.0 6.9 10.1 12.3 8.1 0.6 23.1 0.6 24.8 0.1 19.8 10.5 4.4 0.0 7.5% 26.4 15.3 1.7 19.7 30.3 25.1 27.2 0.0 43.0 0.0 0.0 5.8 38.3

Based on the total number of inmates under State or Federal jurisdiction. b Includes Federal inmates held in privately operated community correctional centers: 7,357 on 6/30/06 and 7,233 on 6/30/05. c Includes inmates held in out-of-State private facilities.

16 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Appendix table 5. Number of inmates under age 18 held in State prisons, by State and gender, June 30, 2005, and 2006
Region and jurisdiction State total Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyb New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islanda Vermonta Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakotab Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delawarea Florida Georgiab Kentucky Louisianab Maryland Mississippi North Carolinab Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaskaa Arizona Californiab Colorado Hawaiia Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washingtonb Wyoming
a

Total

June 30, 2006 Male Female 2,259 681 405 0 3 0 17 211 36 5 4 433 95 27 17 12 112 11 37 8 1 63 0 50 988 67 17 23 210 57 0 9 66 37 176 4 121 14 156 31 0 157 4 111 0 29 1 2 0 0 0 6 1 0 3 105 33 20 0 1 1 0 8 2 0 1 17 8 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 48 3 0 0 11 4 0 0 2 1 12 1 8 0 6 0 0 7 0 1 0 4 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

June 30, 2005 Total Male Female 2,208 678 383 0 3 1 28 223 31 4 5 399 82 18 15 10 98 16 21 16 4 51 2 66 956 34 19 26 185 75 0 10 51 55 169 10 120 8 167 27 0 175 10 78 5 38 1 3 2 16 2 6 7 3 4 2,118 649 363 0 3 1 27 216 31 4 4 388 81 17 15 9 96 16 20 15 4 49 2 64 916 33 19 26 178 71 0 10 47 55 164 10 113 8 155 27 0 165 8 77 5 32 1 3 2 16 2 6 6 3 4 90 29 20 0 0 0 1 7 0 0 1 11 1 1 0 1 2 0 1 1 0 2 0 2 40 1 0 0 7 4 0 0 4 0 5 0 7 0 12 0 0 10 2 1 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

2,364 714 425 0 4 1 17 219 38 5 5 450 103 29 17 13 112 11 38 8 1 64 1 53 1,036 70 17 23 221 61 0 9 68 38 188 5 129 14 162 31 0 164 4 112 0 33 1 3 1 0 0 6 1 0 3

bCounts

Prisons and jails form an integrated system. Data include total jail and prison population. include those held in privately-operated facilities.

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

17

Appendix table 6. Number of noncitizens held in State or Federal prisons, by State and gender, June 30, 2005, and June 30, 2006
Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyb New Yorkc Pennsylvania Rhode Islanda Vermonta Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouric Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakotab Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delawarea Florida Georgiab Kentucky Louisianab Marylandc Mississippi North Carolinab Oklahoma South Carolina Tennesseec Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaskaa Arizona Californiab Coloradoc Hawaiia Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming /Not reported.
a b c

Total 91,426 33,701 57,725 9,365 956 10 915 59 / 6,912 497 / 16 4,343 1,277 388 189 264 664 304 409 185 7 603 53 / 19,182 52 165 263 5,987 888 / 108 488 / 1,299 283 224 180 9,227 / 18 24,835 11 4,432 15,849 1,488 103 250 8 / 122 1,292 257 951 72

June 30, 2006 Male 87,726 31,556 56,170 9,015 881 10 863 55 / 6,699 492 / 15 4,227 1,245 381 186 261 655 294 385 185 6 577 52 / 18,612 52 165 255 5,731 872 / 99 463 / 1,272 271 218 173 9,025 / 16 24,316 11 4,352 15,528 1,459 95 233 8 / 121 1,244 255 938 72

Female 3,700 2,145 1,555 350 75 0 52 4 / 213 5 / 1 116 32 7 3 3 9 10 24 0 1 26 1 / 570 0 0 8 256 16 / 9 25 / 27 12 6 7 202 / 2 519 0 80 321 29 8 17 0 / 1 48 2 13 0

Total 91,089 35,285 55,804 8,941 897 10 / 55 / 7,444 521 / 14 4,013 1,065 307 207 226 715 338 408 160 9 561 17 / 16,907 65 135 276 4,772 / / 116 557 / 1,182 96 199 154 9,346 / 9 25,943 12 4,179 16,613 1,029 101 230 7 1,402 126 877 310 986 71

June 30, 2005 Male Female 87,430 33,048 54,382 8,632 828 10 / 51 / 7,223 507 / 13 3,895 1,033 302 200 221 700 331 386 158 8 539 17 / 16,456 65 129 255 4,617 / / 109 539 / 1,155 92 195 150 9,141 / 9 25,399 12 4,117 16,259 1,007 93 215 6 1,364 126 846 310 974 70 3,659 2,237 1,422 309 69 0 / 4 / 221 14 / 1 118 32 5 7 5 15 7 22 2 1 22 0 / 451 0 6 21 155 / / 7 18 / 27 4 4 4 205 / 0 544 0 62 354 22 8 15 1 38 0 31 0 12 1

Prisons and jails form one integrated system. Data include total jail and prison population. Counts include those held in privately-operated facilities.

Report foreign-born inmates rather than noncitizens.

18 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Appendix table 7. Rated capacity of local jails and percent of capacity occupied, 1995-2006
Year 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 Average annual increase, 1995-2006 Rated capacitya 810,863 789,001 755,603 736,471 713,899 699,309 677,787 652,321 612,780 586,564 562,971 545,763 3.7% Amount of capacity addedb 21,862 33,398 19,132 22,572 14,590 21,522 25,466 39,541 26,216 23,593 17,208 Percent of capacity occupiedc 94% 95 94 94 93 90 92 93 97 97 92 93

24,100

Note: Capacity data for 1995-1998, 2000-2004, and 2006 are survey estimates subject to sampling error. a Rated capacity is the number of beds or inmates assigned by a rating official to facilities within each jurisdiction. bThe number of beds added during the 12 months ending June 30 of each year. c The number of inmates divided by the rated capacity times 100.

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

19

Appendix table 8. The 50 largest local jail jurisdictions: Number of inmates held, average daily population and rated capacity, midyear 2004-06
Number of inmates helda Jurisdiction Total Los Angeles County, CA New York City, NY Maricopa County, AZ Cook County, IL Harris County, TX Philadelphia City, PA Dallas County, TX Dade County, FL Orange County, CA Broward County, FL San Bernardino County, CA San Diego County, CA Shelby County, TN Santa Clara County, CA Hillsborough County, FL Baltimore City, MD Sacramento County, CA Bexar County, TX Alameda County, CA Orange County, FL District of Columbiae Fresno County, CA Pinellas County, FL Tarrant County, TX Jacksonville City, FL Clark County, NVf Allegheny County, PA Riverside County, CA Davidson County, TN De Kalb County, GA Marion County, IN Fulton County, GA Milwaukee County, WI Wayne County, MI Oklahoma County, OK Gwinnett County, GA Palm Beach County, FL Polk County, FL Travis County, TX Franklin County, OH King County, WA Cobb County, GA Denver County, CO Suffolk County, MA Hamilton County, OH Mecklenburg County, NC Bernalillo County, NM Kern County, CA El Paso County, TX Hampden County, MA 2004 2005 2006 226,171 19,062 13,641 9,243 9,505 9,464 8,725 7,354 6,502 6,455 6,121 5,533 5,117 5,413 4,421 3,929 4,038 4,197 4,084 3,993 4,051 3,214 3,467 3,695 3,475 3,613 3,354 3,026 3,264 3,450 2,779 3,114 2,816 2,917 2,902 2,876 2,998 2,766 2,565 2,548 2,553 2,499 2,540 2,429 2,531 2,393 2,466 2,410 2,279 2,303 2,081 Average daily populationb 2004 2005 2006 Rated capacityc 2004 2005 2006 Percent of capacity at midyeard 2004 95% 86 66 176 99 84 104 97 82 135 93 113 110 79 105 107 117 83 93 89 81 93 88 94 78 108 107 86 113 117 72 103 131 101 92 87 111 85 138 82 101 95 91 137 85 95 76 104 90 104 116 2005 95% 96 63 132 96 96 109 96 81 112 90 109 109 79 116 113 77 84 96 98 86 93 74 115 84 114 111 86 111 88 83 110 118 91 91 97 145 82 159 101 103 80 95 142 74 94 83 106 97 94 122 2006 95% 85 69 127 94 102 120 103 83 92 98 94 107 79 106 94 89 84 95 89 93 84 92 110 76 115 117 91 113 94 76 126 90 97 106 100 144 82 142 83 101 79 99 142 86 97 92 118 84 94 136

215,934 223,562 18,600 13,818 9,148 10,155 7,902 7,404 7,090 6,581 6,117 5,264 5,494 5,243 4,939 4,054 4,464 4,440 3,958 3,856 4,116 3,529 3,555 3,124 2,922 3,147 3,375 3,056 2,802 3,250 3,097 2,623 2,593 3,524 3,015 2,497 2,582 2,187 2,848 2,491 2,341 2,681 2,407 2,405 1,855 2,479 2,335 2,024 2,136 2,099 2,539 1,773 19,732 13,153 9,584 9,872 9,031 7,769 7,392 6,558 6,493 5,618 5,753 5,186 5,273 4,789 4,729 3,490 3,985 4,109 4,083 3,735 3,552 2,836 3,600 3,393 3,580 3,173 2,856 3,188 3,246 3,030 2,717 3,202 2,738 2,472 2,761 3,016 2,771 2,877 2,869 2,726 2,536 2,422 2,368 2,160 2,333 2,225 2,169 2,263 2,291 1,858

214,831 219,826 226,612 18,512 17,893 13,751 13,576 8,657 9,054 10,535 10,278 8,200 8,987 7,376 7,090 6,619 5,569 5,203 5,299 5,163 4,854 4,187 4,269 4,305 4,004 3,776 4,056 3,456 3,521 2,980 3,087 3,437 3,428 2,906 2,733 3,222 3,220 2,600 2,470 3,152 3,383 2,483 2,640 2,454 2,753 2,637 2,407 2,659 2,423 2,339 1,863 2,539 2,242 2,085 2,096 2,189 2,400 1,602 7,701 7,250 6,736 6,067 5,497 5,618 5,244 5,071 4,472 4,637 3,999 4,190 3,862 4,028 3,803 3,540 3,006 3,600 3,345 3,447 3,205 2,815 3,237 3,122 2,810 2,407 3,126 2,809 2,599 2,337 2,709 2,782 2,871 2,750 2,701 2,525 2,431 2,256 2,576 2,319 2,047 2,157 2,212 2,185 1,937 19,287 13,494 9,733 9,345 9,091 8,772 7,140 6,765 6,513 5,949 5,735 5,333 5,300 4,750 4,384 4,156 4,049 4,015 3,982 3,835 3,584 3,538 3,502 3,500 3,493 3,384 3,370 3,258 3,202 3,117 3,064 2,970 2,892 2,867 2,752 2,716 2,630 2,605 2,595 2,561 2,560 2,510 2,469 2,387 2,347 2,335 2,292 2,279 2,142 2,063

227,933 234,901 239,028 21,667 20,793 5,201 10,252 9,409 7,118 7,284 8,052 4,517 5,656 4,874 4,768 6,216 3,849 4,190 3,783 4,751 4,131 4,634 4,352 3,825 3,542 3,119 4,040 3,137 2,855 3,271 2,884 2,654 3,636 2,510 2,698 3,000 2,721 2,975 1,964 3,365 1,808 2,847 2,659 2,527 2,634 1,350 2,932 2,470 2,668 2,048 2,324 2,448 1,525 20,619 20,804 7,270 10,257 9,372 7,118 7,665 8,052 5,782 6,254 5,258 4,768 6,641 4,129 4,190 4,522 4,751 4,294 4,185 4,352 3,825 3,820 3,119 4,044 3,137 2,857 3,307 2,882 3,679 3,636 2,463 2,725 3,000 2,725 2,850 2,076 3,365 1,808 2,847 2,659 3,154 2,559 1,672 2,932 2,472 2,668 2,048 2,324 2,440 1,525 22,411 19,674 7,270 10,114 9,241 7,269 7,145 7,821 7,019 6,254 5,914 4,768 6,839 4,169 4,190 4,522 4,991 4,294 4,469 4,352 3,825 3,778 3,363 4,564 3,137 2,859 3,342 2,884 3,679 3,636 2,463 3,115 3,000 2,725 2,890 2,076 3,365 1,808 3,056 2,531 3,154 2,559 1,710 2,932 2,472 2,668 2,048 2,698 2,440 1,525

Note: Jurisdictions are ordered by their average daily population in 2006. a Number of inmates held in jail facilities. b Based on the average daily population for the year ending June 30. The average daily population is the sum of the number of inmates in jail each day for a year, divided by the number of days in the year. c Rated capacity is the number of beds or inmates assigned by a rating official to facilities within each jurisdiction. d The number of inmates divided by the rated capacity multiplied by 100. e Includes the D.C. Detention Facility, community corrections center, and contract housing under the Department of Corrections; excludes the Bureau of Prisons. fThe confined population total for Clark County, NV, excludes those held in contract facilities.

20 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

Appendix table 9. Persons under jail supervision, by confinement status and type of program, midyear 2000, 2005, and 2006
Confinement status and type of program Total Held in jail Supervised outside of a jail facilityb Weekender programs Electronic monitoring Home detentionc Day reporting Community service Other pretrial supervision Other work programsd Treatment programse Other
a b

Number of persons under jail supervision 2000 2005 2006 687,033 621,149 65,884 14,523 10,782 332 3,969 13,592 6,279 8,011 5,714 2,682 817,214a 747,529 69,685a 14,110 11,403 1,497 4,747 17,193 10,858 6,519 1,973 1,385 826,232 766,010 60,222 11,421 10,999 807 4,841 14,667 6,409 8,319 1,486 1,273

2005 supervised release updated from previously published data. Excludes persons supervised by a probation or parole agency. cIncludes only those without electronic monitoring. d Includes persons in work release programs, work gangs, and other work alternative programs. eIncludes persons under drug, alcohol, mental health, and other medical treatment.

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006

21

Appendix table 10. Standard error estimates for the Annual Survey of Jails, 2006
Characteristic Total Held in jail Supervised outside a jail facility Excluding weekenders Weekender programs Average daily population Peak population Rated capacity Survey estimates 826,232 766,010 60,222 48,801 11,421 755,896 809,621 810,863 Standard Relative standard error error (percent) 4,081 3,827 1,154 1,026 383 3,516 4,545 12,303 0.49% 0.50 1.92 2.10 3.35 0.47 0.56 1.52

Appendix table 12. Estimated percentages of local jail inmates having selected characteristics and ratio estimates of standard errors
Characteristic Gender Male Female Race/Hispanic origin Whitea Black/African Americana Hispanic/Latino Othera,b Two or more racesa Conviction status Convicted Male Female Unconvicted Male Female 2006 Standard Estimate error 87.1% 12.9 43.9% 38.6 15.6 1.8 0.1 37.9% 32.9 5.0 62.1% 54.3 7.8 0.11% 0.11 0.33% 0.33 0.22 0.09 0.01 0.32% 0.30 0.09 0.32% 0.30 0.08

Appendix table 11. Standard error estimates by selected characteristics, for the Annual Survey of Jails, 2006
Characteristic Gender Male Female Adults Juveniles Held as adults Held as juveniles Race/Hispanic origin Whiteb Black/African Americanb Hispanic/Latino Otherb,c Two or more racesb Survey Standard Relative standard Totala estimates error error (percent) 666,985 99,025 759,905 6,105 4,836 1,269 336,600 296,000 119,200 13,500 700 666,985 99,025 759,905 6,105 4,836 1,269 323,474 284,412 114,564 12,992 633 3,383 1,005 3,826 148 152 144 3,131 2,765 1,757 657 72 0.51% 1.01 0.50% 2.43% 3.14 11.39 0.97% 0.97 1.53 5.06 11.33

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding.


aExcludes b

Hispanic or Latino origin.

Includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders.

Conviction status (adults) Awaiting trial or in other unconvicted category 472,100 Convicted 287,800

460,837 280,914

3,456 2,803

0.75% 1.00

Note: Detail may not sum to total due to rounding.


a b c

Total estimates were based on reported data adjusted for nonresponse. Excludes Hispanic or Latino origin.

Includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders.

22 Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006