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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of the Study Every language in the world has universals.

Every language has four language skills namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Each language also has language components such as grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation including sound, stress, and intonation. Between language skills and language components are interrelated. One and another cannot be neglected. To be able to master language skills, language learners must also master language components. For example, to speak with someone, one must be able to use grammatical sentences, correct words, good pronunciation, stress, and intonation in order that his her speech is understandable. !deally students must be able to pronounce English words correctly in terms of sounds "vowels and consonants#, stress on syllables, and intonation "falling and raising# either in speaking or reading aloud "story telling#. By keeping good pronunciation, a speaker$s speech will be understood by other speakers. One example of what has happened is when a student has to perform a monolog or demonstrate a dialog, the teacher does not understand what his her students are talking about because they often make bad pronunciation during performing monolog and dialog. One of students$ weaknesses in speaking and reading aloud is pronunciation and this also happens to students of %&' (egeri ) Tuban. They often fail to pronounce English words either in speaking, for example when there is a class of dialog "interpersonal and transactional#, their speech is sometimes difficult to be understood because they make some errors of pronouncing words or when the teacher has reading aloud class they often make errors in vowel sounds, for example the words of could, tell, put, my, friend, spent, look that are pronounced kod, tIl, pt, mi:, fri:n, spi:n, lok.

Being aware of the students$ errors of their pronunciation, the teachers should also reflect themselves of the exercises or tasks of pronunciation so far. The monotonous pronunciation exercise is only about repeating isolated words, like+ ,isten and repeat+ tall-small cat-sat park-dark ago-dancer must-cut ship-fix push-full bean-reach

Besides, almost all English teachers get students to study grammar and vocabulary, practice functional dialogs, take part in productive skill activities, and become competent in listening and reading. Only very few English teachers make little attempt to teach pronunciation. 'erhaps, they claim that without teaching specific pronunciation, the students will automatically learn pronunciation. .owever, the fact that some students are able to ac/uire reasonable pronunciation without learning particular exercises should not blind teachers to the benefits of a focus on pronunciation in the English lesson. From the researcher$s experiences, students from all levels have problems with pronunciation even though they are from an outstanding class, such as pioneering international standard classes. !t proves that pronunciation a serious problem among students. 0hen the teacher asks the students about their difficulty in pronouncing English words, they always say that what is written is different from what is read or pronounced. They want to say something but do not know how to say it appropriately. %ometimes the students are doubtful since they cannot pronounce the words well. !n fact, this sometimes also happens to many English teachers. The researcher himself reali1es that during teaching he sometimes mispronounces some English words and it is perhaps because of fossili1ation. !n the area of pronunciation, English can be categori1ed as a different language to master. 2ernick and 2eggoda in Tiono and 3ostanto "4556# stated that language learners may find difficulties in learning to speak English well because several spelling may be represented by a single sound. 7ifficulties in learning English occur due to the fact that some of English sounds do not exist in the mother tongue of the learners. For example an English letter of 8i$ has two

sounds like

in if, ill, dinner, and a! in find, high, and slide. 9nother example is

the letter of 8u$, it has short sound of u , : and ; like put, turn, and sun. The causes can be categori1ed into two problems, ability and knowledge. %tudents have no accurate pronunciation of sounds. They first need to learn to pronounce as many the sounds of English as possible accurately. The particular sounds which students will have difficulty depend on a large extent of students$ first language. for example short vowels of 8hit and cat$ or the 8th$ sounds in 8think$ and 8this$. The second problem is making sure that students know what they should pronounce in a given word. <ommon pronunciation problems include omitting sounds, adding extra ones, or simply pronouncing the wrong sound. From the above description it can be said that pronunciation is necessary to be taught to English learners. The newest English curriculum in !ndonesia focuses on the communicative competence. They consist of linguistics, socio-cultural, strategic, actional, and discourse competence. 'ronunciation includes in the linguistics competence and reading includes in the actional competence. =eading according to this curriculum is divided into two parts, reading comprehension and reading aloud. 'ronunciation plays an important part in reading aloud. .owever, reading comprehension is more dominant. !t can be seen from teaching learning process and the national examination. (evertheless, one of the basic skills in reading that is reading aloud is still low. %tudents are not able to read English texts with good and correct pronunciation and intonation. English instruction in <ompetence Based <urriculum "<B<# is divided into four literacy levels as it was said by 0ells in 9gustien "455>#. They are performative, functional, informational, and epistemic. On the performative level, students are hoped to be able read, write, and speak with symbols used. &eanwhile on the functional level, students are hoped to be able to communicate to create a text of transactional such as applying a ?ob, reading a manual, simple interview, etc. !n line with the <ompetence Based <urriculum, @unior .igh %chools students have to master performative and functional literacy. The logical conse/uence is in the beginning of English instruction a teacher should focus on

how to differ the sounds. !f students have problems in identifying various vowels sounds, they will also have problems on their complex reading stages. %o the ability on how to pronounce short, long vowels, and diphthongs is the basic skill of reading comprehension. 9 proposed solution must be considered is helping students develop the habit of listening carefully before they speak or read. &odeling pronunciation is another solution to handle the pronunciation problem. %erve students with model for pronunciation of choral drill. One fun way to practice the rhythm of English sentences is by taking a dialog from a book, preferably one with short sentences, and turning it into 8?a11 chants$. !n essence, this means finding the natural rhythm of each sentence and then chanting it with emphasis on the key words, something like a group cheer at a basketball game or a chant at a protest rally. <lapping or pounding desks adds to the festive nature of the activity. The role of teacher is very important in teaching pronunciation. The teacher often finds difficulties on how to teach it. &oreover, the worst problem of students is they have poor pronunciation. This condition gives the researcher an idea to write a thesis entitles TEACHIN PRONUNCIATION USIN !A"" CHANT DRI##S. The researcher prefers using 8?a11 chants$ as an alternative drill in teaching pronunciation to practicing other pronunciation tasks because they are simple, interesting, en?oyable and make students relaxed. @a11 chants are also suggested by linguists particularly for beginners because chants are practical exercises to improve students$ pronunciation, stress, and intonation. 1.$. State%ent of the Re&earch Pro'(e%& Based on the background of the study, the research problems are formulated as follows+ *. .ow is the implementation of 8?a11 chants$ in teaching pronunciation at the seventh graders of %&' (egeri ) TubanB 4. .ow is the students$ pronunciation ability after using 8?a11 chants$B


1.). O'*ect+,e& of the Study The research ob?ectives are to *. know the implementation of 8?a11 chants$ in teaching pronunciation at the seventh graders of %&' (egeri ) Tuban 4. know the students$ pronunciation ability after using 8?a11 chants$ 1.-. S+gn+f+cance& of the Study The researcher expects the result of the study will be useful helpful either for the teacher or for the students. For teacher, this study is intended to make a source of information for English teachers in teaching pronunciation. !t is also hoped to help them to find an appropriate method which is able to arouse the interest and motivation of the students to promote a lively, en?oyable and interesting teaching learning process, and giving feed back to increase the students pronunciation in pronouncing English vowel sounds. For example the students study the materials in English pronunciation and encourage them to improve themselves. For students, they are expected to be able to practice pronunciation and communicate much better. !t is hoped that this study will be useful for them to develop their competence in mastering pronunciation, arouse their motivation in learning English. Then they can use the language as a means of communication in a real life. 1... #+%+tat+on of the Study The research will be conducted at the seventh graders "2!! <# of %&' (egeri *5 Tuban in the academic year of 45*5 45**. @a11 chants that will be drilled or taught consisting of vowel sounds.

1./. Def+n+t+on of 0ey Ter% 'ronunciation @a11 chants 7rills + + +


This chapter deals with the theoretical background relating to the core topic of this thesis. !t comprises of the theory of pronunciation and its components including the teaching and learning of pronunciation, drills, ?a11 chants, and reading aloud. $.1 Pronunc+at+on 4.*.* 4.*.4 4.*.A. dst $.$ Dr+((& 4.A !a55 chant& 4.> Read+ng a(oud $.. Pre,+ou& re&earch


).1. Re&earch De&+gn This research is a /ualitative research. 9ccording to EEEEE.. "4554+ 4*# it is EEEEEEEEEEEEE.. . ).$. Su'*ect of the Study The sub?ect of the research is the students of <lass 2!!E SMP Negeri 5 Tu an in the 9cademic 3ear of 45*5 45**. There are AA students "*6 female and *) male#. ).) Sett+ng of the Study *. =esearch location The location of the research is at SMP Negeri 5 Tu an. !t is at Panglima Sudirman %treet. 4. Time of research The research is done EEEE.. ).-. Techn+7ue of Co((ect+ng Data )... Techn+7ue of Ana(y5+ng Data 88888888888888888888888888888888.. ).1. Re&earch De&+gn ).$. Po9u(at+on and Sa%9(e ).). Techn+7ue of Co((ect+ng Data ).-. In&tru%ent& of the Study )... Techn+7ue of Ana(y5+ng Data