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c4301 Unit 2

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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- Unit 10 ( TORSION )
- Unit 15 ( DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS )
- Unit 3 ( DESIGN THEORY: LIMIT STATES AND BENDING )
- Unit 14 ( DESIGN OF SLENDER COLUMNS )
- concrete slab
- Unit 4 ( DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR BEAM SECTIONS )
- Unit 9 ( DESIGN OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT )
- Unit 13 ( DESIGN OF SHORT BRACED COLUMNS )
- Unit 6 ( DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE CONTINUOUS BEAMS )
- Soil Mechanics
- Hilti - Fastening Technology Manual - FTM_2011_001 Web With Cover
- Hilti AnchorSystems2008
- Hilti Anchor

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UNIT 2

CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS

OBJECTIVES

GENERAL OBJECTIVE

To be able to gain knowledge regarding the properties of concrete and concrete mix

design.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

2

INPUT 1

2.1 Introduction

It’s a good idea if you could refer to section 6 of BS 8110: Part 1 before going

through this unit. Section 6 of the code gives some guidelines on concrete materials,

2.2 Concrete

The selection of concrete grade and type that are to be used in design depends on the

strength required. For example, a concrete of higher strength is needed for ground

level column rather than increasing the column size, which will in turn decrease the

floor area.

The grade of concrete appropriate for use should be selected from the preferred grade

b) durability

According to clause 3.1.7.2, BS 8110, the lowest grade that could be used is C25 for

environment should use a denser and higher grade of concrete. For interior member,

such as, in school buildings and office blocks, a lower concrete grade is preferable.

3

Generally, ordinary Portland cement is used for most building structures but other

types of cement could be used such as rapid hardening, low heat, and sulphate –

In design mix, the contractor should select the mix proportion in order to get the

required strength and workability of concrete. In specified mix, however the engineer

2.4 Reinforcement

Please refer to clause 3.1.7.4 and Table 3.1, BS 8110 regarding the strength of steel

reinforcement to be used. Reinforcements are in the form or round, mild steel bars,

high-yield bars and fabric reinforcement bars (BRC). Mast reinforcement is produced

by hot rolling process. Considerable advantage is gained from using these types of

reinforcement that has a high ductility. Ductility is the ability of a bar to be bent in a

small radius without loss of strength. This is of particular importance to tie the main

Fabric reinforcement gives considerable advantage when used in floor slabs, walls

and pavement. Construction and labour costs could be cut down drastically when the

4

designer are welding ability (potential loss of strength when welded), fatigue

possible, even though this may involve using a larger amount of reinforcement that

The standard sizes of reinforcing bars and the lengths in which they are readily

5

ACTIVITY 2a

INPUT!

………………………………………………………………………….

a)…………………………………………………

b)………………………………………………….

c)…………………………………………………

d)…………………………………………………

e)…………………………………………………

a)………………………………………………..

b)………………………………………………..

2.4 What is the lowest concrete grade that should be used with manual weight aggregate?

……………………………………………………………………………

6

2.5 State 3 other types of cement other than Ordinary Portland Cement.

a)……………………………………………………

b)…………………………………………………….

c)……………………………………………………

a)……………………………………………………..

b)………………………………………………………

c)…………………………………………………….

7

FEEDBACK 2a

The answers are as follows. Check whether your answers are correct before you

iii) very durable; i.e long lasting relatively cheaper than other material fire

resistance.

INPUT 2

8

The aim in mix design is to select the optimum proportion of cement, water and

workability, durability and economy. Mix design methods are useful as guides in the

Mix design methods are based on the following two sample observations:

a) The free w/c ratio is the single most important factor that influences the

b) The water content is the single most important factor that influences the

In calculating w/c ratio in (a) above, only the weight of the free water is used. The

total water in the concrete mix consists of the water absorbed by aggregate and the

free water, which is the total water less than the absorbed water. It is available for the

The water content in (b) is expressed as the weight of the free water per unit volume

of concrete. The water content required for a specified workability depends on the

9

maximum size, the shape, grading and surface texture of the aggregate but is

relatively independent of the cement content. (i.e. the weight of cement per unit

volume of concrete.)

(Please note that only DOE Method will be described in this unit)

ACTIVITY 2b

10

Answer the following questions by indicating ‘Y, for Yes or ‘N’ for No for the

statements given.

2.7 The aim of mix design is to select the optimum proportion of the

2.8 w/c refers to water/cost ratio Y/N

Y/N

2.9 w/c refers to water/cement ratio.

Y/N

Y/N

2.10 w/c ratio influences the strength of concrete.

Y/N

Y/N

2.12Total water = free water + absorbed water. Y/N

Y/N

11

Try to do your best. Best of luck!

FEEDBACK 2b

Please check your answers here. Award 10 marks for every correct answer.

ANSWERS:

2.7 Y

2.8 N

2.9 Y

2.10Y

2.11Y

2.12Y

2.13N

2.14N

2.15Y

2.16Y

12

INPUT 3

estimate of the mix proportions as a basis to make trial mixes to arrive at the final mix

a) Given the required characteristic strength at a specified age, use equation (1)

to obtain the target mean strength at that age, which is of compressive strength

…………………..equation 1

f m = f k + 1.64σ

fk = Characteristic Strength

σ = Deviation

13

In the following example, we shall suppose that the target mean strength

b) Given the type of cement and aggregate, use Table (1) to obtain the

compressive strength, at the specified age that corresponds to a free w/c ratio

of 0.5. Ordinary Portland cement and uncrushed aggregate are used. Then

Table (1) shows that the compressive strength is 40N/mm 2 at 28 days. (and

27N/mm2 at 7 days and so on). This pair of data (40N/mm2, w/c ratio 0.5) will

now be used to locate the appropriate strength – w/c ratio curve in Figure (1),

as explained below.

coarse Age (Days)

aggregate 3 7 28 91

Ordinary Uncrushed 18 27 40 48

Portland Crushed 23 33 47 55

Rapid- Uncrushed 25 34 46 53

Hardening crushed 30 40 53 60

Portland

14

c) In Figure (1), follow the ‘starting line’ to locate the curve which passes

through the point (40N/mm2, w/c ratio 0.5), in this particular case, it is the 4th

curve from the top of the figure. This curve shows that to obtain our target

mean strength of 43 N/mm2, we need a w/c ratio of 0.47. Note that in figure

(1) a curve happens to pass almost exactly through the point (40 N/mm2, w/c

ratio = 0.5), this does not always happen, so that in practice it is usually

15

Given the slump or VB time, determine the water content from Table (2). In using

Table (2), when coarse and fine aggregates of different types are used, the water

(N/mm2)

Good control with weight batching, use of 4 -5

graded aggregates, etc. Constant

supervision.

Fair control with weight batching. Use of 5–7

two sizes of aggregates. Occasional

supervision.

Poor control. Inaccurate volume batching of 7 – 8 and above

all-in aggregates. No supervision.

Where,

The aggregate type in Table (2) refers to all the aggregates used and not just the

coarse aggregate.

16

…...equation (2)

The value given by equation (2) should be checked against any maximum and

If the cement content calculated from equation (2) below is a specified minimum, this

minimum must be used. If the calculated cement content is higher than a specified

maximum, try changing the type of cement and the type and maximum size of the

aggregate.

aggregate =1- ….equation (3)

cement content water content

−

γc γm

Where,

17

Therefore,

content (kg/m3)

Where,

Refer to Table (3) to determine the fine and coarse aggregate content. In this table,

fine aggregate is classified into grading zones. For given slump and w/c ratio, the

proportion of fine aggregate can be determined from Figure (2) in which the grading

VB time (seconds) >2 12 - 6 6-3 3-0

Max. size of Type of

aggregate (mm) aggregate

10 Uncrushed 150 180 205 225

Crushed 180 205 230 250

20 Uncrushed 135 160 180 195

Crushed 170 190 210 225

40 Uncrushed 115 140 160 175

crushed 155 175 190 205

18

Standard Grading Grading Grading Grading

sieve zone1 zone2 zone3 zone4

10 mm 100 100 100 100

(2.36mm)

No.14 30 - 70 55 - 90 75- 100 90 – 100

(1.18 m)

No.25 15 - 34 35 - 59 60 - 79 80 – 100

(600 μm)

No.52 5 - 20 8 - 30 12 - 40 15 – 50

(300 μm)

No.100 0 - 10 0 - 10 0 - 10 0 - 15

(150 μm)

19

For example, suppose the slump is 10-30 mm. The w/c ratio is 0.47, and the fine

aggregate is in grading zone 3, then Figure (2) gives the proportion of fine aggregate

as between 32% and 38% by weight, say 35%. Therefore, for this particular example,

Note that Figure (2) is for use where the nominal maximum size of the coarse

aggregate is 10mm. The DOE document contains similar design charts for 20mm and

20

2.5.1 Example:

Using DOE method, design a mix if the target mean strength is 43 N/mm 2 at 28 days

and the required slump is 10 – 30 mm. The following data are given :

Aggregate type :

Maximum cement content : 550 kg/m3 (From Table 3.4, BS 8110 : Part 1)

Minimum cement content : 300 kg/m3 (From Table 3.4, BS 8110 : Part 1)

Solution:

Cement content =

180

0.47

= 385 kg/m3

21

385 180

( 2600)[1 − − ]

3150 1000

= 1815 kg/m3

GOOD JOB. KEEP IT UP!

22

ACTIVITY 2c

Fill in the blanks with the correct answers. Remember, you must do it on your own.

2.17 The final mix proportions should satisfy the strength, workability

and______________ requirements.

2.18In the DOE mix design method, only two (2) types of aggregates are considered.

b)___________________________

2.19 The data for workability include the _____________ and the

23

is___________________.

2.22There are five (5) steps to follow in the preparation of the concrete mix design

according to DOE Method. Match the steps according to the items needed at

each stage.

24

FEEDBACK 2c

2.17 Durability

2.18a) uncrushed

b) crushed

2.19a) slump

b) VB time

2.20 compressive

2.21 weights of materials per unit volume of fully compacted fresh concrete , kg/m2

25

2.22

26

SUMMARY

2. Workability is the ease with which concrete can be mixed, placed, compacted

and finished.

needed.

5. Mix design method is based on free water/ cement ratio and the water content

6. The average strength of concrete is called the target mean strength and is

7. DOE mix design method has three features. They are as follows:

27

b) Data for workability include the slump and VB time but not the

compacting factor.

8. The DOE mix design method involves five steps in the design

28

SELF-ASSESSMENT

Answer all the questions given by circling the alphabet corresponding to the correct

answer of your choice. Award one mark for every correct answer. Time allocation for

this test is 30 minutes. You may start now when you are ready. You may refer to BS

1. For structural design purposes, the unit weight of concrete made with normal

A. 0.24 kN/m3

B. 2.4 kN/m3

C. 24.0 kN/m3

D. 240 kN/m3

cube strength.

A. 5

B. 7

C. 14

D. 28

3. The following tests are to be performed if DOE method is used. Which of the

29

A. Compacting factor

B. VB Consistometer

C. Slump

D. Setting time

B. Cement content

A. kg/m3

B. g/m2

C. g/m3

D. mg/m2

6. Given that fcu is equal to 25 N/mm2 and σ = 4.5 N/mm2. The target mean

strength is ….

A. 0.32 N/mm2

B. 3.2 N/mm2

30

C. 32.0 N/mm2

D. 324.0 N/mm2

7. The quantity 1.64σ represents the current margin by which the target mean

strength must ….

A. be less than

B. be exceeded

C. be equal to

A. Degree of supervision

9. One of the listed items need not be specified in the final mix proportion.

A. Admixture content

B. Aggregate content

C. Water content

D. cement content

31

10. If w/c = 0.58 and the water content is 200 kg/m3, what is the cement content

A. 3.45 kg/m3

B. 34.5 kg/m3

C. 345.0 kg/m3

D. 3450 kg/m3

FEEDBACK OF SELF-ASSESSMENT

Now, check your answers below and calculate the percentage you have scored.

32

Answers:

1.C

2. D

3.A

4. B

5. A

6. C

7. B

8. D

9. A

10. C

33

You should score more than 80% to pass this unit. If your score is more than 80%,

you may proceed to the next unit. Congratulations! But if you scored less than 80%,

you should go through this unit again. You can go through the entire unit or only the

END OF UNIT 2

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