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UNIT 1 : INTERACTION AMONG LIVING THINGS A habitat is aLIVE natural living ANIMALS IN place for all animals.


ANIMALS LIVE IN SOLITARY Many animals live in alone. Exp : giant panda, cheetah, eagle, bear. Why : To avoid competition for food and space.

Many animals live in groups. Exp : elephants, !ebras, baboons, lions, buffaloes, deers, olves. Why : "or safety # protect themselves from enemies.

Animals require a certain amount of space in hich to live, "or food # hunt for find food and food together. reproduce. Living things in a habitat depend on one another for their needs such as food and shelter.
Interaction can be occur :

$nteraction bet een animals

$nteraction bet een animals

$nteraction bet een plants and animals

Types of interaction :

Cooperation : Occurs between animals to find food and defending themselves from enemies.

Competition : Occurs among animals and plants to compete for the same needs.

Is greater when the number of living things increase and the resources are limited. Winning animals will continue survive and loser will die or separate from habitat.


Animals compete with each other for : Food water mate shelter territory ! space

"ompettion for :

Foo !ater Mate In the mating season male animals will compete for female animals #$ample % two male cats will compete each other for female cat. &appen when shortage of water or during dry season #$ample % animals that live in around drying pool Animals that live in the same place and eat the same food #$ample % carnivores animals

She"ter 'ery important for animals to protect themselves from danger rain and sun.

Territor# $ %pa&e Animals need a certain amount of space to live find food and reproduce. Animals will compete among themselves if placed in limited space.


* +lants will compete for space sunlight nutrient and water. * +lants which are strong will win while plants are wea, will die or have stunted growth. * The strong woody plants will grow as high as possible to get enough sunlight.


E'TINCTION OF SPECIES (o longer e$ists in this world. #$ample % dinosaur dodo hairy mammoth )uagga and Tasmanian wolf.

EN(ANGERE( SPECIES Animals that facing the threat of e$tinction. #$ample % orang utan giant panda tapir rhinoceros rafflesia pitcher plants and blue whale.

The number of species decreasing from time to time. The animals and plants are facing the threat of e$tinction because of human activities such as: ILLEGAL OR E'CESSIVE LOGGING Forest are logged &abitats of plants and animals are destroyed Animals lose their food scource and lead to E'CESSIVE (EVELOPMENT e$tin$tion of animals. #$ample % orang utan tapir As population increase morehornbill demand rafflesia for food pitcher plants areand facing the threat. supplies shelter other basic needs. Forest are cleared for the building of roads housing agriculture and industrial development /eforestation due to ILLEGAL OR E'CESSIVE HUNTING -ost animals li,e tigers elephants blue whale and rhinoceros are facing e$tinct because they are being hunted by humans. EGG Tiger COLLECTING for s,in elephants for ivory .lue whale for fat rhinoceros horn &umans collect turtle eggs and sell for them as food. Leatherbac, turtles are almost e$tinct because most of their eggs are collected by humans.

RIVER AN( SEA POLLUTION "ausing by disposing rubbish and to$ic wastes -any sea creatures and water plants were dying. 0eals are almost e$tinct because their habitat is polluted.

!A)S TO PREVENT ANIMALS * PLANTS FROM E'TINCTION "onservation Organi1ing campaigns against e$cessive logging #ducating public the importance of protecting animals and plants from e$tinction. #nforcing law and regulations 2eforestation 3 forests which have been logged should be replanted4 #stablish centre for animals to reproduce. #stablish forest reserves and national par,s such as Taman (egara +ahang. Avoid consuming or buying products made from endangered species. IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON THE ENVIRONMENT

&uman activities often affect the balance of nature. The destruction of the environment caused by human activities are: 0oil erosion Landslide Flash flood Water pollution Air pollution

/eforestation % clearing the forest by cutting down the trees to build road house industrial and agricultural.

+lants roots play an important role to hold the soil in place.

%oil erosion

landslid e

"lash flood

Air pollutio n

Water pollutio nm