Anda di halaman 1dari 12

Ramos Peace and Development Foundation[edit]

He founded the Ramos Foundation for Peace and Development (RPDEV) with offices located in the Urban Bank Building (now ExportBank Plaza). The Ramos Peace and Development Foundation, Inc. (RPDEV) is a non-partisan, nonprofit, non-stock organization dedicated to the promotion of peace and development in the Philippines and in the larger Asia-Pacific region. RPDEV supports Philippine national interests and people empowerment. Operating as a network of individuals and institutions inside and outside the country, it will serve as a catalyst of constructive change, a medium for fostering unity, stability and progress, and a force for mutual understanding.
Presidency At the time of his assumption into power, Ramos was the oldest person to become President of the Philippines at the age of 64. He is also the first Protestant President of the country and the only Filipino officer in history to have held every rank in the Philippine military from Second Lieutenant to Commander-in-Chief. The first few years of his administration (19921995) were characterized by economic boom, technological development, political stability and efficient delivery of basic needs to the people. During his time, he advocated party platforms as outline and agenda for governance. As in his case, he was the first Christian Democrat to be elected in the country, being the founder of Lakas-CMD (Christian-Muslim Democrats Party). He was one of the most influential leaders and the unofficial spokesman of liberal democracy in Asia.[6]

Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces and Secretary of National Defense[edit]


After Aquino assumed the Presidency, she appointed Ramos Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and later Secretary of National Defense. During this time, Ramos personally handled the military operations that crushed nine coup attempts against the Aquino government. During Ramos' presidency, the National Unification Commission was created, and its chairman Haydee Yorac, together with Ramos, recommended to President Aquino to grant amnesty to the rebel military officers of the Reform the Armed Forces Movement (RAM) led by Col. Gregorio "Gringo" Honasan.

Marriage[edit]
He married Amelita Martinez on 21 October 1954, and together they have five daughters: Angelita Ramos-Jones, Josephine Ramos-Samartino (19572011), Carolina Ramos-Sembrano, Cristina Ramos-Jalasco and Gloria Ramos. Ramos completed his elementary education at Lingayen Elementary School, graduating as the class valedictorian. For his secondary education, he initially studied at the University of the Philippines Integrated School (UPIS) but graduated from Centro Escolar University Integrated School. In 1946, a few months after enrolling at the National University (NU) in Manila, Ramos earned a government scholarship to study at the United States Military Academy (more popularly known as West Point) in New York, USA. This opportunity paved the way for Ramos' career as a professional soldier. He graduated from West Point in 1950 with a bachelor's degree in military engineering. The following year, he obtained a master's degree in civil engineering from the University of Illinois, also as a government scholar. He is a licensed civil engineer in the Philippines, passing the board exams in 1953 and finishing in the top 10.

Ramos also holds a master's degree in national security administration from the National Defense College of the Philippines and a master's in business administration (MBA) from the Ateneo de Manila University (ADMU).

Combat record[edit]
When belittled by the press regarding his combat record, Ramos responded with trademark sarcasm (July 31, 1987): I fought the communists as part of the battalion combat teams, I went up the ladder. Battalion staff officer. Company commander. Task Force commander. Special Forces group commander. Brigade commander. All in different periods in our country. Huk campaign. Korean Warcampaign. The Vietnam War, and I was the head of the advance party of the PHILCAG (Philippine Civil Action Group to Vietnam) that went to a tiny province at the Cambodian border the so-called Alligator Jaw War Zone Z where even Max Soliven said The Viet-Cong will eat us up.Of course, we were physically there as non-combat troops. But you try to be a non-combat troop in a combat area that is the toughest kind of assignment. Korea as a platoon leader. Recon leader. What is the job of a recon leader? To recon the front line no mans land. And what did we do? I had to assault a fortified position of the Chinese communists and wiped them out. And what is this Special Forces group that we commanded in the Army '62 '65? That was the only remaining combat unit in the Philippine Army. The rest were training in a division set-up. We were inLuzon. We were in Sulu. And then, during the previous regime, Marawi incident. Who was sent there? Ramos. We defended the camp, being besieged by 400 rebels. So next time, look at the mans record, don't just write and write. You said, no combat experience, no combat experience. Look around you who comes from the platoon, who rose to battalion staff, company commander, group commander, which is like a battalion, brigade commander, here and abroad. Abroad, I never had an abroad assignment that was not combat. NO SOFT JOBS FOR RAMOS. Thirty-seven years in the Armed Forces. REMEMBER THAT. Youre only writing about the fringe, but do not allow yourself to destroy the armed forces by those guys. You write about the majority of the Armed Forces who are on the job. That's why we're here enjoying our freedom, ladies and gentlemen. You are here. If the majority of the Armed Forces did not do their job, I doubt very much if youd all be here.[5]

Martial Law and the EDSA Revolution[edit]


He headed the Philippine Constabulary, then a major service branch of the Armed Forces, that acted as the country's national police until 1972, whenFerdinand Marcos imposed Martial Law. Ramos is

held responsible by some (see below) for human rights abuses committed under Martial Law as head of the Philippine Constabulary chief; his supporters claim he initiated measures to ensure that the rights of the political detainees were protected and respected. He would also build the fighting capabilities of the PC. In 1975, all civic and municipal police forces in the country were integrated by decree, and it became known as the Integrated National Police (INP), which was under the control and supervision of the Constabulary. As head of the PC, Ramos was ex officio the INP's first concurrent Director-General. Martial Law was formally lifted nine years later on 17 January 1981, but Marcos retained absolute powers. Due to his accomplishments, Ramos became one of the candidates to become the new chief of staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines in 1981, to replace retiring General Romeo Espino. longest Martial law, chief of staff. However, Marcos instead opted and appointed his trusted military officer, General Fabian Ver, a graduate of the University of the Philippines, into the top military post. Thus, Ramos, Marcos' cousin was named AFP Vice-Chief of staff in 1982, became the military's second most powerful official after Ver and receiving the rank of three-star general. On 8 August 1983, during a speech in Camp Crame to commemorate Philippine Constabulary Day, Marcos announced his removal of Defense Secretary Juan Ponce Enrile from the chain of command, and the creation of a new arrangement with himself as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces until AFP Chief of Staff Ver. Marcos also removed the operational control of the Integrated National Police from the Philippine Constabulary under Ramos and transferred it under direct control of Ver; the Constabulary then had only administrative supervision over the INP. When Ver was implicated in the 21 August 1983 assassination of former opposition Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr., Ramos became Acting AFP Chief of Staff until Ver's reinstatement in 1985 after he was acquitted of charges related to the killing. Ramos at this time also formed the Special Action Force of the Philippine Constabulary to deal with terrorist-related crimes. On 22 February 1986, then-Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile protested alleged fraud committed by Marcos in the 1986 snap elections, withdrawing support and triggering the non-violent People Power Revolution. General Ramos later also defected and followed Enrile into Camp Crame, and the duo shifted their fealty to Corazn Aquino, the widow of Senator Aquino and Marcos' main election rival. On 25 February, the "EDSA Revolution" reached its peak when Marcos, along with his family and some supporters, fled into exile in Hawaii with the assistance of the United States government, ending his 20-year rule, leaving Aquino to accede as the country's first female President.

Early life and education[edit]


Rented family house of Narciso Ramos and Angela Valdez in Lingayen, where Fidel andLeticia Ramos-Shahani were born, 1995.

Fidel Ramos was born on March 18, 1928 in Lingayen, Pangasinan. His father, Narciso Ramos(19001986), was a lawyer, journalist and five-term legislator of the House of Representatives,

who eventually rose to the position of Secretary of Foreign Affairs. As such, Narciso Ramos was the Philippine signatory to the ASEAN declaration forged in Bangkok in 1967, and was a founding member of the Liberal Party. His mother, Angela Valdez (19051977), was an educator, womansuffragette and member of the respected Valdez clan of Batac, Ilocos Norte, making him a second degree cousin to President Ferdinand E. Marcos. Ramos received secondary education at the Centro Escolar University in the City of Manila. Afterwards he went to the United States and he graduated from the United States Military Academy, with Bachelor of Science and the University of Illinois, with a masters degree in civil engineering. He also holds a master's degree in National Security Administration from the National Defense College of the Philippines and a Master's degree in Business Administration from Ateneo de Manila University.

Economic policy[edit]
Leftist groups have also criticized Ramos for his economic reforms such as privatization, deregulation and trade liberalization, claiming that the economic growth posted during his presidency was "artificial." They blamed him for the slowdown of the Philippine economy during the 1997 East Asian financial crisis.[21] The sale of 40% of Petron to Aramco is specifically criticized for resulting in the loss of the government's effective leverage on domestic oil prices. In 1998, the Union for Socialist Ideas and Action told a left-wing Australian organization that Ramos hesitantly admitted that contrary to his government's earlier claimed, the economic fundamentals of the country may actually be unsound. His admission came following the discovery of a secret memorandum issued by the National Economic Development Authority director-general urging the president to tell the Filipinos the truth about the state of the economy and that they ought to prepare for worse. According to former University of the Philippines president Francisco Nemenzo, Ramos "has done nothing to reverse or slow down the implementation" of the harmful IMF-imposed structural reforms.[22]

Charter Change[edit]
During his final years in office, Ramos tried to amend the country's 1997 constitution; a process popularly known to many Filipinos as Charter Change or the so-called "Cha-Cha". Widespread protests led by Corazon Aquino and the Catholic Church stopped him from pushing through with the plan. Political analysts were divided as to whether Ramos really wanted to use Cha-Cha to extend his presidency or only to imbalance his opponents, as the next presidential election neared. [15]

Asian Financial Crisis[edit]


Main article: Asian Financial Crisis The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, which started in Thailand, was a major blow to the Ramos administration. The economy was hit by currency devaluation. [11] The same was true for the Thai baht, Malaysia ringgit and Indonesia rupiah. Growth fell to about 0.6% in 1998 from 5.2% in 1997, but recovered to 3.4% by 1999. It also resulted to the shut down of some businesses, a decline in importation, rise unemployment rate and unstable financial sector.

Controversies[edit]
Clark Centennial Expo Scandal Supposedly, one of his notable contributions to the Philippines was the revival of nationalistic spirit by embarking on a massive promotion campaign for the centennial of Philippine Independence celebrated on June 12, 1998. However, charges of alleged massive corruption or misuse of funds blemished the resulting programs and various projects, one of which was the Centennial Expo and Amphitheater at the former Clark Air Base in Angeles City, Pampanga, supposedly Ramos' pet project. The commemorative projects, particularly those undertaken at the former Clark Air Base, were hounded by illegal electioneering and corruption controversies even years after the Centennial celebrations. A special report by the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ) showed how the projects relating to the Expo site not only revealed the extravagance and inefficiency of the administration, but also served as convenient vehicle to effect election fund-raising for the LAKAS political party of Ramos at the expense of the tax-paying Filipinos and in violation of the Election Code. The Centennial Expo Pilipino project, intended to be the centerpiece for the celebrations for the 100th anniversary of the country's independence from Spain, also earned extensive criticisms for being an expensive white elephant project that disadvantaged the government at the cost of P9 billion, or 1.7 percent of the country's 1998 national budget.[12] Six ranking Ramos cabinet members and officials, headed by Chairman Salvador Laurel (former Vice-President) of the Centennial Commission were cleared by the Ombudsman and Sandigan Bayan (People's Court). Ramos appeared before a Congressional Committee in October 1998 to help exonerate said officials of any wrongdoing. Wikileaks In 2011, Wikileaks released a leaked 1994 diplomatic note from the US Embassy in Manila, recounting a private conversation between a diplomat and Joel De Los Santos, a retired Filipino university professor who specialized in Islamic affairs. Mr. De Los Santos alleged that Libyan leader Muammar al-Qaddafi had channeled $200,000 (5 million pesos) to Ramos' 1992 election campaign.[13] Ramos dismissed the claim as "hearsay by itself, and is further based on a string of successive hearsay conversations" and challenged anyone who believed the claim to produce evidence.[14]

Migrant Workers Protection[edit]


One of the downturns of his administration was his experience in handling migrant workers protection. On the eve of his 67th birthday on March 17, 1995, Ramos was on a foreign trip when Flor Contemplacin was hanged in Singapore. His last minute effort to negotiate with Singapore President Ong Teng Cheong and Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong never succeeded and he was marred with protests after his return to Manila. The protests also caused the resignation of Foreign Affairs Secretary Roberto Romulo and Labor Secretary Nieves Confesor from the Cabinet. He immediately recalled Philippine ambassador to Singapore Alicia Ramos and suspended diplomatic relations

to Singapore. He created a special commission to look into the case and to try to rescue his sagging popularity. The commission was led by retired justice Emilio Gancayco. As also recommended by the Gancayco Commission, Ramos facilitated the enactment of Republic Act 8042, better known as the Magna Carta for Overseas Workers or the Migrant Workers Act. The Migrant Workers Act was signed into law on June 7, 1995. Learning from the lessons of Contemplacin case, Ramos immediately ordered UAE Ambassador Roy Seeres to facilitate negotiations after learning the death penalty verdict of Sarah Balabagan on September 1995. Balabagan's sentence was lowered and she was released August 1996. After tensions cooled off, Ramos restored diplomatic relations with Singapore after meeting Goh Chok Tong during the sidelines of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations in New York City.

Spratly Islands[edit]
President Fidel V. Ramos troops the honor guards at the Pentagon with Secretary of DefenseWilliam Cohen during a State visit in 1998.

In early 1995, the Philippines discovered a primitive Chinese military structure on Mischief Reef in the Spratly Island, one hundred and thirty nautical miles off the coast of Palawan. The Philippine government issued a formal protest over China's occupation of the reef and the Philippine Navy arrested sixty-two Chinese fishermen at Half Moon Shoal, eighty kilometers from Palawan. A week later, following confirmation from surveillance pictures that the structures were of military design, President Fidel Ramos had the military forces in the region strengthened. He ordered the Philippine Air Force to dispatch five F-5 fighters backed by four jet trainers and two helicopters, while the navy sent two additional ships. The Peoples Republic of China had claimed that the structures were shelters for fishermen but these small incidents could have triggered a war in the South China Sea.

Power crisis[edit]
The Philippines then was experiencing widespread blackouts due to huge demand for electricity and antiquity of power plants, the abolishment of the Department of Energy and discontinuation of the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant during the Aquino administration. During his State of the Nation address on July 27, 1992, he requested that the Congress enact a law that would create an Energy Department that would plan and manage the Philippines' energy demands. Congress not only created an Energy Department but gave him special emergency powers to resolve the power crisis. Using the powers given to him, Ramos issued licenses to independent power producers (IPP) to construct power plants within 24 months. Ramos issued supply contracts that guaranteed the government would buy whatever power the IPPs produced under the contract in U.S. dollars to entice investments in power plants. This became a problem during the East Asian Financial Crisis when the demand for electricity contracted and the Philippine peso lost half of its value. The country was considered risky by investors due to previous coup attempts by military adventurists led by Gregorio Honasan, and experienced blackouts at an almost daily basis lasting 4 12 hours

during the term of President Aquino. The low supply of power and perceived instability had previously held back investments and modernization in the country. Under Ramos, the Philippines was a pioneer in the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) scheme where private investors are invited to build certain government projects (i.e. tollways, powerplants, railways, etc.), make money by charging users, and transfer operation to the government after a set amount of time.

Economic reforms[edit]
During his administration, Ramos began implementing economic reforms intended to open up the once-closed national economy, encourage private enterprise, invite more foreign and domestic investment, and reduce corruption. Ramos was also known as the most-traveled Philippine President compared to his predecessors with numerous foreign trips abroad, generating about US$ 20 billion worth of foreign investments to the Philippines. To ensure a positive financial outlook on the Philippines, Ramos led the 4th Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders' Summit in the Philippines on November 1996. Under his administration, the Philippines enjoyed economic growth and stability. The Philippine Stock Exchange in the mid-1990s was one of the best in the world and his visions of 'Philippines 2000' that led the country into a newly industrialized country in the world and the "Tiger Cub Economy in Asia". [8] Philippines 2000 Five-Point Program:

Peace and Stability Economic Growth and Sustainable Development Energy and Power Generation Environmental Protection Streamlined Bureaucracy

Encyclopedia of World Biography on Fidel Valdez Ramos


Fidel Valdez Ramos (born 1928) was inaugurated president of the Philippines in June 1992. He had the mandate to continue the democratic reforms gained by the country during Corazon Aquino's peaceful people-power revolution of 1986. The eighth president of the postwar Philippine Republic, Fidel Valdez Ramos was known as a hero of the 1986 people-power revolution, the bloodless coup that ousted dictator Ferdinand Marcos. Corazon Aquino, the widow of Marcos' assassinated archenemy, was installed in the presidency at that time. People power was Ramos' idea of how to fight the weapons of the Marcos regime when the dictator, losing confidence in Constabulary Chief Fidel Ramos and his defense minister, Juan Ponce Enrile, set out to destroy them. Ramos asked Jaime Cardinal Sin to send people to protect their fortress, the Constabulary Camp at EDSA (Epifanio de los Santos Avenue). Cardinal Sin appealed to the people by radio, and millions of people...

Fidel Ramos - Biographical Information


President, Republic of the Philippines 1992-98 Fidel Ramos was President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. Under his leadership the Philippines experienced a period of political stability and rapid economic growth and expansion. Prior to his election as president, Fidel Ramos served as Secretary of National Defence (1988-1991) and Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (1986-1988) with the rank of General. As President, Fidel Ramoss policies and programmes to foster national reconciliation and unity led to major peace agreements with Muslim separatists, communist insurgents and military rebels, which renewed investor confidence in the Philippine economy. Ramos pushed for the deregulation of key industries and the liberalization of the economy. He encouraged the privatization of public entities, to include the modernization of public infrastructure through the expanded Build-OperateTransfer (BOT) law. During the years 1993-1997, the Philippine economy recovered dramatically. Gross National Product averaged 5 percent annually, the total inflow of foreign exchange into the country outpaced that of the combined periods of rule of both Presidents Marcos and Aquino, and the average income of the Filipino family grew more during Ramos administration than in the preceding two decades. This allowed Fidel Ramos government to implement a comprehensive Social Reform Agenda (SRA) that addressed long-standing problems regarding poverty, health, education and skills training, housing, environmental protection, children and the youth, the elderly and the handicapped, jobs and livelihood, agrarian reform and access to equal opportunity. The peace agreement which Ramos brokered with military rebels and the MNLF southern secessionists won for him (together with Chairman Nur Misuari) and the Philippines the coveted 1997 UNESCO Peace Prize - the first for Asians. His public service

spanned a total period of 51 years. Activity after public politics Ramos founded the Ramos Peace and Development Foundation, a non-partisan and non-profit organisation dedicated to the promotion of peace and development in the Philippines and in the larger Asia-Pacific region. In 1998, together with Bob Hawke, former Prime Minister of Australia, and Morihiro Hosokawa, former Prime Minister of Japan, Ramos founded the Boao Forum for Asia (BFA), a premier forum for leaders in government, business and academia in Asia and other continents who are committed to promoting regional economic integration and bringing Asian countries even closer to their development goals. Memberships and Associations

Trustee, International Crisis Group (ICG) Member, Advisory Group, UN University for Peace Honorary Director, General Douglas MacArthur Foundation Founding Member, Policy Advisory Commission, World Intellectual Property Organization (PAC-WIPO)

Post-Presidency
After his presidency, Ramos remained an influential political leader in the Philippines, although he has always been rumored to be involved in attempts to grab power from the government. His objective of continuing to serve the Filipinos became his basis of establishing the Ramos Foundation for Peace and Development (RPDEV). As of November 2007, he is the chairman emiritus of Lakas-CMD (Lakas-Christian-Muslim Democrats) Party. He also served as Carlyle Group Asia Advisor board member until its disbandment in February 2004. In January 2001, Ramos joined members of the opposition andcivil society groups in ousting President Joseph Estrada from power through People Power II or EDSA 2. Expressing his belief in continued economic progress, good governance, and stability, Ramos successfully convinced President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo not to resign from office at the height of theelection-rigging scandal in July 2005. He repeatedly stated that the scandal is nowhere as grave as the stagnant Philippine economy in the final years of the Marcos regime and the allegedly massive corruption of the Estrada administration. However, Ramos recommended that Arroyo clear all issues regarding her alleged involvement in the wiretapped conversation with an election official. Ramos also reiterated his proposals for constitutional change, citing the need for the Philippines to be more economically competitive, globalized, and properly governed. He suggested that Arroyo should start the process of charter change with a set deadline in 2007 (by which time the new charter and new government will take effect). Ramos supports the transformation of the country's political system from the Philippine presidential-unitarian government system into a parliamentary-federal form. However, as of November 2007, Ramos' proposed charter change has not taken place due to

strong opposition from various sectors and the silent majority. This proved that Ramos was not the choice of the Filipino people.

Clark Centennial Expo Scandal


Supposedly, one of his notable contributions to the Philippines was the revival of nationalistic spirit by embarking on a massive promotion campaign for the centennial of Philippine Independence celebrated on June 12, 1998. However, charges of alleged massive corruption or misuse of funds blemished the resulting programs and various projects, one of which was the Centennial Expo and Amphitheater at the former Clark Air Base in Angeles City, Pampanga, supposedly Ramos' pet project. The commemorative projects, particularly those undertaken at the former Clark Air Base, were hounded by illegal electioneering and corruption controversies even years after the Centennial celebrations. A special report by the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ) showed how the projects relating to the Expo site not only revealed the extravagance and inefficiency of the administration, but also served as convenient vehicle to effect election fund-raising for the LAKAS political party of Ramos at the expense of the tax-paying Filipinos and in violation of the Election Code. The Centennial Expo Pilipino project, intended to be the centerpiece for the celebrations for the 100th anniversary of the country's independence from Spain, also earned extensive criticisms for being an expensive white elephant project that disadvantaged the government at the cost of P9 billion, or 1.7 percent of the country's 1998 national budget.[5] Six ranking Ramos cabinet members and officials, headed by Chairman Salvador Laurel (former Vice-President) of the Centennial Commission were cleared by the Ombudsman and Sandigan Bayan (People's Court). Ramos appeared before a Congressional Committee in October 1998 to help exonerate said officials of any wrong-doing.
[edit]

PEA-Amari Scandal

President Fidel Ramos was accused of corruption in the PEA-Amari deal. The controversial deal involved the acquisition of 158 hectares of reclaimed land on Manila Bay that was to be converted into so-called Freedom Islands. The deal was forged in April 1995 as part of the Ramos administration's Manila Bay Master Development Plan (MBMDP). The PEA-Amari deal in addition to other projects in Manila Bay - displaced over 3,000 fishing and coastal families in Manila Bay just to give way to what fisherfolk activists from Pambansang Lakas ng Kilusang Mamamalakaya ng Pilipinas (Pamalakaya) described as an immoral, illegal and grossly unconstitutional state venture". The Ramos administration was accused of selling out the government's interests by favoring Amari Coastal Bay Resources and Filinvest Development topping off a growing list of other corporate beneficiariesover higher bidders in various lucrative real estate development schemes. Data obtained from Public Estate Authority (PEA) revealed that the property was sold to Amari for P1.9 billion or P 1,200 pesos per square meter although the value of properties in adjacent areas were pegged at P90,000 per square meter. The Senate in its inquiry in 1998 found a paper trail representing commissions paid to certain PEA officials amounting to P1.7 billion. [citation needed]Ramos denied accusations that the PEA-Amari deal was clinched to benefit members of the ruling Lakas-NUCD as alleged by opposition groups. However, ex- solicitor general

Franciso Chavez filed a petition to nullify the PEA-Amari deal because the government stood to lose billions of pesos in the sale of reclaimed lands to Amari. On April 25, 1995, PEA entered into a joint venture with Amari to develop Freedom Islands and on June 8 of the same year, Ramos okayed deal. On November 29, 1996, then-Senate President Ernesto Maceda delivered a privilege speech assailing the deal as the "grandmother of all scams".[6]

Philippine Centennial Celebrations[edit]


On June 12, 1998, the nation celebrated its centennial year of Independence from Spain. The celebrations were held simultaneously nationwide by then President Fidel V. Ramos and Filipino communities worldwide. A commission was established for the said event, the National Centennial Commission headed by former Vice President Salvador Laurel presided all events around the country. One of the major projects of the commission was the Expo Pilipino, a grand showcase of the Philippines' growth as a nation for the last 100 years, located in the Clark Special Economic Zone (formerly Clark Air Base) in Angeles City, Pampanga.

End of presidency[edit]
Ramos was the first president under the 1987 constitution to be barred of seeking another term. His predecessor, Corazon Aquino, was still eligible to run for president since she took office under the 1973 Constitution. As his term was winding down he was pushing for constitutional amendments, however did not succeed.(Further Information: Charter Change under President Fidel V. Ramos) Nonetheless, Ramos supported his friend then-Speaker Jose de Venecia, Jr. for the 1998 presidential election. However the latter lost to Ramos' Vice-President, Joseph Estrada. On June 30, 1998, outgoing President Fidel Ramos accompanied his successor to the Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan for the oath-taking rights and later at the Quirino Grandstand in Luneta for the inaugural address.

Major legislation signed[edit]


Republic Act No. 7653 - The New Central Bank Act . Republic Act No. 7638 - Charter of the Department of Energy. Republic Act No. 7648 - Electric Power Crisis Act. Republic Act No. 7832 - Anti-electricity and Electric Transmission Lines/Materials Pilferage Act of 1994. Republic Act No. 7881 Amended certain provisions of RA 6657 and exempted fishponds and prawns from the coverage of CARP. Republic Act No. 7905 Strengthened the implementation of the CARP. Republic Act No. 8179 - An act further liberalizing foreign investments, amending for the purpose Republic Act No. 7042, and for other purposes. Republic Act No. 8293 - The Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines (Philippine copyright law). Republic Act No. 8435 (Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act AFMA) Plugged the legal loopholes in land use conversion.

Republic Act 8532 (Agrarian Reform Fund Bill) Provided an additional Php50 billion for CARP and extended its implementation for another 10 years.

Overview[edit]
Fidel V. Ramos, the 12th President of the Philippines (19921998), is remembered for steadfastly promoting the principles of people empowermentand global competitiveness. He quickly led the nation out of darkness in 1993, putting an end to the power crisis that crippled Filipino homes and industries for two years. He pursued, focused and converged programs to fight poverty in accordance with the will of the Filipino people expressed by 229 structural/reform laws enacted by Congress during his term. The Philippine economy recovered dramatically during the years 1993-1997. Ramos vigorously implemented a comprehensive Social Reform Agenda (SRA) that addressed the long-standing problem of poverty: jobs and livelihood, health, education and skills training, housing, environmental protection, children and the youth, the elderly and the handicapped, agrarian reform, and access to equal opportunity. Gross National Product averaged 5 percent annually. Average income of the Filipino family grew more during his administration than in the preceding two decades. He pushed for the deregulation of key industries and the liberalization of the economy. He encouraged the privatization of public entities, to include the modernization of public infrastructure through an expanded Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) law. While communist insurgency dwindled to historic lows, he achieved a peace agreement with military rebels and the secessionist Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) for which he won for the Philippines the coveted 1997 UNESCO Peace Awardthe first for Asians. FVR is known as the "Centennial" President, having planned and supervised the 100th Anniversary of the country's Declaration of Independence from Spain on 12 June 1998.File:FVRamos