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iLib08 - Citavi

Blask, David E. (2008): Melatonin, sleep disturbance and cancer risk. In: Sleep medicine reviews. Online
verfügbar unter doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2008.07.007.
Abstract The pineal hormone melatonin is involved in the circadian regulation and facilitation
of sleep, the inhibition of cancer development and growth, and the enhancement of
immune function. Individuals, such as night shift workers, who are exposed to light
at night on a regular basis experience biological rhythm (i.e., circadian) disruption
including circadian phase shifts, nocturnal melatonin suppression, and sleep
disturbances. Additionally, these individuals are not only immune suppressed, but
they are also at an increased risk of developing a number of different types of
cancer. There is a reciprocal interaction and regulation between sleep and the
immune system quite independent of melatonin. Sleep disturbances can lead to
immune suppression and a shift to the predominance in cancer-stimulatory
cytokines. Some studies suggest that a shortened duration of nocturnal sleep is
associated with a higher risk of breast cancer development. The relative individual
contributions of sleep disturbance, circadian disruption due to light at night
exposure, and related impairments of melatonin production and immune function to
the initiation and promotion of cancer in high-risk individuals such as night shift
workers are unknown. The mutual reinforcement of interacting circadian rhythms of
melatonin production, the sleep/wake cycle and immune function may indicate a
new role for undisturbed, high quality sleep, and perhaps even more importantly,
uninterrupted darkness, as a previously unappreciated endogenous mechanism of
cancer prevention.

Kakizaki, M.; Inoue, K.; Kuriyama, S.; Sone, T.; Matsuda-Ohmori, K.; Nakaya, N. et al. (2008): Sleep duration
and the risk of prostate cancer: the Ohsaki Cohort Study. In: British journal of cancer, Jg. 99, H. 1, S. 176–178.
Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604425.
Abstract In a prospective study of prostate cancer incidence (127 cases), among 22 320
Japanese men, sleep duration was associated with lower risk; the multivariate
hazard ratio of men who slept >or=9 h per day compared with those who slept less
was 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.29-0.79, P for trend=0.02).
Schlagwörter Aged; Humans; Incidence; Japanepidemiology; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective
Studies; Prostatic Neoplasmsepidemiologyetiology; Risk Factors; Sleep; Time

Kakizaki, M.; Kuriyama, S.; Sone, T.; Ohmori-Matsuda, K.; Hozawa, A.; Nakaya, N. et al. (2008): Sleep duration
and the risk of breast cancer: the Ohsaki Cohort Study. In: British journal of cancer, Jg. 99, H. 9, S. 1502–1505.
Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604684.
Abstract In a prospective study of 23 995 Japanese women, short sleep duration was
associated with higher risk of breast cancer (143 cases), compared with women
who slept 7 h per day, the multivariate hazard ratio of those who slept </=6 h per
day was 1.62 (95% confidence interval: 1.05-2.50; P for trend=0.03).
Schlagwörter Adult; Aged; Breast Neoplasmsetiology; Cohort Studies; Female; Humans;
Melatoninphysiology; Middle Aged; Proportional Hazards Models; Prospective
Studies; Risk; Sleep; Time Factors

Kloog, Itai; Haim, Abraham; Stevens, Richard G.; Barchana, Micha; Portnov, Boris A. (2008): Light at night co-
distributes with incident breast but not lung cancer in the female population of Israel. In: Chronobiology
international, Jg. 25, H. 1, S. 65–81. Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1080/07420520801921572.
Abstract Recent studies of shift-working women have reported that excessive exposure to
light at night (LAN) may be a risk factor for breast cancer. However, no studies have
yet attempted to examine the co-distribution of LAN and breast cancer incidence on
a population level with the goal to assess the coherence of these earlier findings
with population trends. Coherence is one of Hill's "criteria" (actually, viewpoints) for
an inference of causality. Nighttime satellite images were used to estimate LAN
levels in 147 communities in Israel. Multiple regression analysis was performed to
iLib08 - Citavi
investigate the association between LAN and breast cancer incidence rates and, as
a test of the specificity of our method, lung cancer incidence rates in women across
localities under the prediction of a link with breast cancer but not lung cancer. After
adjusting for several variables available on a population level, such as ethnic
makeup, birth rate, population density, and local income level, a strong positive
association between LAN intensity and breast cancer rate was revealed (p<0.05),
and this association strengthened (p<0.01) when only statistically significant factors
were filtered out by stepwise regression analysis. Concurrently, no association was
found between LAN intensity and lung cancer rate. These results provide
coherence of the previously reported case-control and cohort studies with the co-
distribution of LAN and breast cancer on a population basis. The analysis yielded
an estimated 73% higher breast cancer incidence in the highest LAN exposed
communities compared to the lowest LAN exposed communities.
Schlagwörter Breast Neoplasms; Female; Humans; Israel; Light; Lung Neoplasms; Multivariate
Analysis; Risk Factors

Kloog, Itai; Haim, Abraham; Stevens, Richard G.; Portnov, Boris A. (2009): Global co-distribution of light at night
(LAN) and cancers of prostate, colon, and lung in men. In: Chronobiology international, Jg. 26, H. 1, S. 108–125.
Online verfügbar unter doi:10.1080/07420520802694020.
Abstract The incidence rates of cancers in men differ by countries of the world. We
compared the incidence rates of three of the most common cancers (prostate, lung,
and colon) in men residing in 164 different countries with the population-weighted
light at night (LAN) exposure and with several developmental and environmental
indicators, including per capita income, percent urban population, and electricity
consumption. The estimate of per capita LAN exposure was a novel aspect of this
study. Both ordinary least squares (OLS) and spatial error (SE) regression models
were used in the analysis. We found a significant positive association between
population exposure to LAN and incidence rates of prostate cancer, but no such
association with lung cancer or colon cancer. The prostate cancer result is
consistent with a biological theory and a limited number of previous studies of
circadian disruption and risk. The LAN-prostate cancer connection is postulated to
be due to suppression of melatonin and/or disruption of clock gene function. An
analysis holding other variables at average values across the 164 countries yielded
a risk of prostate cancer in the highest LAN-exposed countries 110% higher than in
the lowest LAN exposed countries. This observed association is a necessary
condition for a potentially large effect of LAN on risk of prostate cancer. However, it
is not sufficient due to potential confounding by factors that increase the risk of
prostate cancer and are also associated with LAN among the studied countries.