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Soil Treatment

Base Layers with Hydraulic Binders


Soil Treatment
Base Layers with Hydraulic Binders
Wirtgen GmbH
Reinhard-Wirtgen-Strasse 2 53578 Windhagen Germany
Phone: +49 (0) 26 45 / 131-0
Fax: +49 (0) 26 45 / 131-242
.
Introduction
Soil Treatment and Base Layers with Hydraulic
Binders is a manual intended as a useful tool to
support design engineers, executing companies
and supervisors in their daily work.
The manual presents the different standards,
specications, directives, codes of practice and
own knowledge in such a way that the contents
are made available, in readily understandable form,
in a single, application-based work.
The manual has been compiled based on the
German body of rules and regulations and on the
authors many years of experience. It makes no
claim to be complete or entirely free of errors.

Our special thanks go to Holcim (Sddeutschland)
GmbH who have kindly provided us with the
entire contents of the manual on Soil Treatment
and Base Layers with Hydraulic Binders.
This manual has been translated from German
into English.
Contents
1 Soil Treatment 11
1.1 Definition of terms 12
1.1.1 Definitions according to the Directives for the standardization of the superstructures
of trafficked surfaces (RStO 01) 12
1.1.2 Terms and body of rules and regulations for soil treatment 14
1.1.3 Correlating rules and regulations with the different layers 16
1.2 Definition of terms in soil treatment 18
1.2.1 Soil stabilization 18
1.2.2 Soil improvement 18
1.2.3 Qualified soil improvement 18
1.2.4 Base layers with hydraulic binders 18
1.3 Geotechnical investigations 19
1.3.1 General 19
1.3.2 Description of soil types according to DIN EN ISO 14688-1 (old: 4022, Part 1) 19
1.3.3 Soil classification according to DIN 18196 20
1.3.3.1 Soil groups 20
1.3.3.2 Principles of soil classification 21
1.3.3.3 Coarse-grained soils 22
1.3.3.4 Mixed-grained soils 22
1.3.3.5 Fine-grained soils 22
1.3.3.6 Organogenic and organic soils 22
1.3.3.7 Chart 23
1.3.3.8 Classifying soils according to their plastic properties 24
1.3.3.8.1 Determining consistency 24
1.3.3.8.2 Plasticity chart for classification of fine-grained soils 25
1.3.3.9 Classifying soils according to DIN 18196 26
1.4 Frost susceptibility of soils and rock of variable strength 30
1.4.1 Classifying soil groups in accordance with frost susceptibility 30
1.4.2 Frost susceptibility after soil improvement with binders 31
1.5 Application 32
1.5.1 Soil improvement 32
1.5.2 Qualified soil improvement 32
1.5.2.1 Reducing pavement thickness by means of qualified soil improvement 34
1.5.2.2 Requirements on qualified soil improvement at subgrade level 35
1.5.3 Soil stabilization 36
1.5.3.1 Soil stabilization not counting toward the pavement 36
1.5.3.2 Soil stabilization counting toward the pavement 37
1.5.3.3 Excerpt from the Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of
trafficked surfaces (RStO 01), Chart 1 38
1.5.3.4 Excerpt from the Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of
trafficked surfaces (RStO 01), Chart 2 40
1.6 Basic principles of earthworks 42
1.6.1 Compaction 42
1.6.2 Compaction requirements on subsoil and subgrade 42
1.6.3 Requirements on the subgrade 43
1.6.4 Deformation modulus on the subgrade (minimum 10 percentile) 44
1.6.5 Requirements on compaction characteristics 45
1.7 Quality assurance 46
1.7.1 Tests to be performed prior to construction 46
1.7.1.1 Tests to be performed by the client 46
1.7.1.2 Tests to be performed by the contractor 46
1.7.1.3 Testing specifications for mix designs 49
1.7.2 Tests to be performed during construction 50
1.7.2.1 Type and scope of tests to be performed in soil treatment operations 50
1.7.2.2 Testing methods and testing procedures 52
1.7.2.2.1 Testing methods for testing compaction characteristics 53
1.7.2.2.2 Testing procedures for determining compaction parameters 54
1.7.2.2.3 Testing deformation modulus, correct vertical and horizontal position
and evenness on the subgrade 57
1.8 Soils and mineral construction materials for soil treatment 58
1.8.1 Suitable soils (according to DIN 18196) 58
1.8.2 Soils (according to DIN 18196) and construction materials suitable to a limited extent 58
1.8.3 Non-suitable soils 58
1.8.4 Natural and artificial aggregates and recycled construction materials 59
1.8.5 Sulphate influence 59
1.9 Binders 60
1.9.1 General 60
1.9.2 Types of binder 60
1.9.3 Mode of binder action 60
1.9.3.1 Building limes 60
1.9.3.2 Cements 62
1.9.3.3 Mixed binders 62
1.9.4 Binders with special properties 63
1.9.4.1 Low-dust binders 63
1.9.4.2 Hydrophobic binders 63
1.9.5 Binder applications 64
1.9.6 Binder processing times 66
1.9.7 Binder reaction times 66
1.10 Water 68
1.11 Effects of weather 70
1.11.1 Precipitation 70
1.11.2 Wind 70
1.11.3 Temperature 71
1.12 Soil treatment Construction 72
1.12.1 Mixing procedures 72
1.12.2 Mixed-in-plant process 72
1.12.3 Mixed-in-place process 74
1.12.3.1 Principles of construction for the mixed-in-place process (all fields of soil treatment) 74
1.12.4 Requirements for soil treatment 80
1.12.4.1 Binder quantity 80
1.12.4.2 Compaction characteristics 80
1.12.4.3 Verification of binder quantity 82
1.12.4.4 Surface 82
1.12.4.5 Evenness 82
1.12.4.6 Paving thickness 82
1.13 Structural backfills 84
1.13.1 Terms 84
1.13.2 Construction materials 84
1.13.2.1 Drainage area 84
1.13.2.2 Backfill and cover fill areas 84
Contents
1.13.3 Compaction 85
1.14 Refilling utility trenches 86
1.14.1 General 86
1.14.2 Working in the binder 86
1.14.3 Compaction 86
2 Base Layers with Hydraulic Binders 91
2.1 General 91
2.2 Terminology 92
2.3 Base layers with hydraulic binders in accordance with the Additional technical
conditions of contract and directives for the construction of base layers with hydraulic
binders and concrete pavements (ZTV Beton-StB) and soil stabilization in accordance
with the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in
road construction (ZTV E-StB) 93
2.4 Principles of production 94
2.4.1 General 94
2.5 Tests Definitions 95
2.5.1 Initial testing (mix design) 95
2.5.2 Factory production control 95
2.5.3 Internal control testing 97
2.5.4 Compliance testing 97
2.6 Construction materials 98
2.6.1 Soils and aggregates for soil stabilization 98
2.6.2 Aggregates and construction material mixtures for hydraulically bound base layers 99
2.6.3 Aggregates and construction material mixtures for concrete base layers 102
2.6.4 Hydraulic binders 103
2.6.5 Water 104
2.6.6 Concrete admixtures / Concrete additives 104
2.7 Requirements on base layers with hydraulic binders 105
2.7.1 Design 105
2.7.2 Pavement layers with binders 105
2.7.3 Minimum paving thicknesses 105
2.7.3.1 Stabilized layers 105
2.7.3.2 Hydraulically bound base layers 105
2.7.3.3 Concrete base layers 106
2.7.4 Edge design of base layers 106
2.7.4.1 Details of edge design 107
2.7.5 Drainage of base layers 108
2.7.6 Execution at low / high temperatures and frost 108
2.7.7 Correct vertical and horizontal position 108
2.7.8 Evenness 108
2.7.9 Tolerances of paving thickness 109
2.7.10 Grooves or joints 109
2.7.11 Curing 110
2.7.11.1 Table: Summary of requirements on base layers with hydraulic binders in accordance
with the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction
of base layers with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements (ZTV Beton-StB) 112
2.8 Producing stabilized layers 114
2.8.1 Requirements on paving mixes for stabilized layers 114
2.8.2 Production 114
2.8.3 Mixed-in-place process 114
2.8.4 Mixed-in-plant process 115
2.8.5 Placing and compaction 116
2.8.6 Requirements on the degree of compaction 116
2.9 Producing hydraulically bound base layers 117
2.9.1 Requirements on the paving mix 117
2.9.2 Production, transport and placing 117
2.9.3 Requirements on the finished layer 118
2.10 Producing concrete base layers 118
2.11 Type and scope of testing 119
2.11.1 Initial testing for stabilized layers 119
2.11.2 Initial testing for hydraulically bound base layers 121
Contents
2.11.3 Initial testing for concrete base layers 122
2.11.4 Internal control and compliance testing for stabilized layers 122
2.11.5 Internal control and compliance testing for hydraulically bound base layers 124
2.11.6 Internal control and compliance testing for concrete base layers 125
2.12 Using reclaimed asphalt and reclaimed tar-bound road construction materials
in base layers with hydraulic binders 126
2.12.1 General 126
2.12.2 Source materials Aggregates 126
2.12.3 Additives 126
2.12.4 Storing reclaimed tar-bound road construction materials 127
2.12.5 Construction material mixtures 127
2.12.6 Requirements 127
2.12.7 Initial testing 127
References 128
Body of technical rules and regulations 129
10 // 11
Soil treatment with binders (soil improvement and
soil stabilization) comprises a range of proven
construction methods which, from the mid-1950s,
gained increasing economic importance in earth-
works.
The investigations carried out then were the basis
for developing the current body of rules and
regulations and still form the basis of construction
today.
The continued development in earthworks entailing
very short construction times, higher loads (heavy-
vehicle trafc, rapid-transit railway systems etc.)
and the saving of resources whilst complying with
the provisions of the Closed Substance Cycle and
Waste Management Act (Kreislaufwirtschafts-
und Abfallgesetz [KrW- / AbfG]) has changed the
boundary conditions of earthwork operations.
The environmental responsibility to reduce CO
2

emissions has an additional impact on framework
conditions in the construction industry.
These developments require building in poor
weather conditions using the native soils, or the
environmentally compatible use of soils, aggre-
gates and recycled construction materials.
Soil treatment offers just the right solutions and
ideal economic conditions to meet these chal-
lenges.
The soil-binder mixtures lead to a permanent
increase in bearing capacity (even in the event of
water ingress), signicantly improve shear strength
and considerably reduce settlement behaviour.
These properties enable them to be used in many
areas of earthworks and road construction.
1. Soil Treatment
General
Pavement
Surfacing plus one or several base layers.
Fully bound pavement
Asphalt pavement: asphalt surfacing and base
layer on subgrade.
Concrete pavement: concrete surfacing, bre mat
and base layer with hydraulic binder directly on
subgrade.
Asphalt surfacing
Asphalt binder course plus overlying asphalt
surface course or asphalt surface course only.
Concrete surfacing
Single-layer or dual-layer concrete surfacing.
Stone paving
Paving blocks, paving bedding and jointing.
Slab paving
Slabs, slab bedding and jointing.
Combined base and surface course
Single-layer asphalt course which has the dual
function of surfacing and base layer.
1.1 Denition of terms
1.1.1 Denitions according to the Directives for the standardization of the
superstructures of trafcked surfaces (RStO 01)
Subgrade
Subgrade
Pavement
Subsoil
Subsoil / subgrade (possibly stabilized)
Frost blanket
Gravel or crushed-stone base
Asphalt base layer or base layer
with hydraulic binder
Asphalt surfacing
Embankment Cut
Shoulder
q 2.5%
after soil treatment
q 4.0%
for soils susceptible
to water
q 4.0%
at crown
12 // 13
Base layer
Base underlying the surfacing and, depending on
formulation, distinguished into:
Base layer without binder
- Frost blanket
- Crushed-stone base
- Gravel base
Base layer with binder
- Stabilized layer with hydraulic binders
- Hydraulically bound base
- Concrete base
- Asphalt base
Base layer with special properties
- Roller-compacted concrete base
- Porous concrete base
Subsoil
Soil or rock lying immediately below the pavement
or subgrade.
Subgrade
Articial earth structure between subsoil and
pavement.
Area of application
Generic term
Terms
Subsoil / Subgrade
Soil treatment
Soil improvement Qualified soil improvement
Correlation with
rules and regulations
Application and
resulting reduction
Increase of bearing capacity
of subgrade
Increase of bearing capacity
of subgrade
Reduction of pavement
thickness by means of
qualified soil improvement
at subgrade level
F2 / F3 soil
1.1.2 Terms and body of rules and regulations for soil treatment
ZTV E-StB
1)
Code of practice on soil
improvement and soil stabiliza-
tion with binders (Merkblatt
ber Bodenverbesserungen
und Bodenverfestigungen mit
Bindemitteln)
1)
Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construction
2)
Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of trafficked surfaces
3)
Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of base layers with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements
ZTV E-StB
1)
Code of practice on soil
improvement and soil stabiliza-
tion with binders (Merkblatt
ber Bodenverbesserungen
und Bodenverfestigungen mit
Bindemitteln)
14 // 15
Pavement
Base layers with
hydraulic binders
Stabilized layer with
hydraulic binders
Hydraulically bound
base layers
Soil stabilization
F2 / F3 soil F1 soil
Reduction of pavement
thickness by means of
stabilizing the F2 / F3 soil
Increase of bearing
capacity of coarse-
grained soils; count-
ing toward pavement
Reduction of layer thickness
of asphalt pavement
No reduction of pavement
thickness in case of fully
bound pavement
Attribution of terms
RStO
2)
ZTV Beton-StB
3)
RStO
2)
ZTV Beton-StB
3)
RStO
2)
ZTV E-StB
1)
Code of practice on soil
improvement and soil stabiliza-
tion with binders (Merkblatt
ber Bodenverbesserungen
und Bodenverfestigungen mit
Bindemitteln)
1.1.3 Correlating rules and regulations with the different layers
Surfacing (asphalt / concrete)
Asphalt base
Subsoil / subgrade possibly stabilized
or qualified soil improvement
Gravel or crushed-stone base
and / or frost blanket or layer of
frost-resistant material
Base layer with hydraulic binder
and / or
16 // 17
ZTV Beton-StB
1)
1)
Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for
the construction of base layers with hydraulic binders and
concrete pavements
2)
Technical delivery terms for asphalt mix for the construction of
paved traffic areas
3)
Technical delivery terms for construction materials and
construction material mixtures for base layers with hydraulic
binders and concrete pavements
4)
Additional technical conditions of contract and directives
for the construction of unbound granular layers in road
construction
5)
Technical delivery terms for aggregates in road construction
6)
Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for
earthworks in road construction
7)
Technical delivery terms for soils and construction materials in
earthworks for road construction
8)
Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of
trafficked surfaces ZTV Beton-StB
1)
ZTV E-StB
6)
ZTV SoB-StB
4)
TL Asphalt-StB
2)
TL Beton-StB
3)
TL Beton-StB
3)
RStO
8)
TL BuB E-StB
7)
TL Gestein-StB
5)
Soil treatment is a generic term for processes in
which soils are modied to meet certain specied
properties. It is distinguished into soil stabilization
and soil improvement.
1.2 Denition of terms in soil treatment
1.2.1 Soil stabilization
Soil stabilization comprises a range of processes
in which binders are added to the existing soil to
increase its resistance to stresses caused by
trafc loading and climate, thus creating perma-
nent bearing capacity and frost resistance.
1.2.2 Soil improvement
Soil improvement comprises a range of processes
which improve both the suitability for placing and
compactability of existing soils and facilitate the
execution of construction work.
1.2.3 Qualied soil improvement
Qualied soil improvement comprises a range of
soil improvement processes complying with more
stringent requirements in terms of, for example,
frost resistance and bearing capacity.
1.2.4 Base layers with hydraulic binders
Base layers with hydraulic binders comprise con-
crete base layers according to DIN EN 206-1 and
DIN 1045-2 and hydraulically bound base layers
produced in-plant for use in the pavement, as well
as stabilized base layers (hydraulically stabilized
base) produced either in-place or in-plant for use
in the pavement or on the subgrade in earthworks.
Hydraulic base layers transfer the static and dynamic
loads acting on the surfacing into the subsoil or
subgrade respectively.
They count toward the overall pavement thickness.
The most important design parameter for base lay-
ers is layer thickness. It is determined based on:
the trafc volume;
the bearing capacity of the subgrade; and
the requirements placed on frost resistance.
18 // 19
The soil must be investigated and tested well in
advance with regard to
its properties;
its suitability as subsoil or construction material;
any lls; and
any contamination with harmful substances
so that the ndings can be considered
in the planning process;
for design-related conclusions; and
in the concept of construction and construction
sequence.
Soils reclaimable from excavations, side cuts and
borrow pits require testing for their possible use.
This enables other investigations and tests re-
quired during construction to be determined well
in advance.
Geotechnical investigations required for invitations
to tender have to be performed by the client.
If the construction project is executed on the basis
of an alternative tender, feasibility and tness for
purpose have to be veried in supplementary
investigations to be performed by the contractor.
1.3 Geotechnical investigations
1.3.1 General
1.3.2 Description of soil types according to DIN EN ISO 14688-1 (old: 4022, Part 1)
Inorganic soils are classied and designated
according to the standards specied in the follow-
ing table.
Soils composed of several particle size ranges are
also designated in accordance with this table.
Composite soils are designated by means of
a noun for the major fraction; and
one or several adjectives for the minor fractions.
The following basic rules apply:
Major fraction is dened as
the largest mass fraction; or
the fraction determining the properties of the
soil.
Minor fractions are those fractions which do not
determine but may nevertheless inuence the
properties of the soil.
For coarse-grained and mixed-grained soils, minor
fractions having
minor inuence are characterized by the prex
slightly; and
major inuence are characterized by the prex
highly.
If two major determining fractions of approximately
equal proportions are present in coarse-grained
soils, both are designated using the conjunction
and.
Range / Designation
Letter symbol
DIN EN 14688
Letter symbol
DIN 4022
Particle size range [mm]
Coarse
aggregate
range
Blocks Bo Y > 200 mm
Stones Co X from > 63 mm to 200 mm
Gravel
Coarse gravel
Medium gravel
Fine gravel
Gr (Gravel)
CGr
MGr
FGr
G
gG
mG
fG
from > 2 mm to 63 mm
from > 20.0 mm to 63.0 mm
from > 6.3 mm to 20.0 mm
from > 2.0 mm to 6.3 mm
Sand
Coarse sand
Medium sand
Fine sand
Sa (Sand)
CSa
MSa
FSa
S
gS
mS
fS
from > 0.06 mm to 2 mm
from > 0.6 mm to 2.0 mm
from > 0.2 mm to 0.6 mm
from > 0.06 mm to 0.2 mm
Fine
aggregate
range
Silt
Coarse silt
Medium silt
Fine silt
Si (Silt)
CSi
MSi
FSi
U
gU
mU
fU
from > 0.002 mm to 0.06 mm
from > 0.02 mm to 0.06 mm
from > 0.006 mm to 0.02 mm
from > 0.002 mm to 0.006 mm
Clay
(ultra-nes)
Cl (Clay) T < 0.002 mm
1.3.3 Soil classication according to DIN 18196
For the purpose of describing the civil engineering
properties and suitability according to DIN 18196,
the different types of soil are classied into
main groups and into groups with approximately
the same material composition and similar proper-
ties.
1.3.3.1 Soil groups
20 // 21
For civil engineering purposes, soil is classied ac-
cording to its material composition based on:
particle size range;
plastic properties; and
organic constituents.
The different types of soil are designated by letter
symbols, the rst letter signifying the major con-
stituent and the second letter signifying the minor
constituent, where
G = gravel O = organic matter
S = sand H = peat, humus
U = silt F = digested sludge
T = clay K = lime
Z = degraded peat
N = marginally degraded peat
Grading is designated as follows:
W = wide grading
E = narrow grading
I = gap grading
The plastic properties are designated as follows:
L = low plasticity
M = medium plasticity
A = high plasticity
1.3.3.2 Principles of soil classication
Silts and clays: organogenic soils and soils con-
taining organic matter are classied according to
the plasticity chart. They are below the A-line.
Coarse-grained and mixed-grained soils: they are
distinguished based on the type of matter con-
tained (humic, calcareous, siliceous).
1.3.3.6 Organogenic and organic soils
Gravels and sands with a maximum content of
nes < 0.06 mm of 5% by mass constitute coarse-
grained soils.
1.3.3.3 Coarse-grained soils
Mixtures of gravel, sand, silt and clay with a con-
tent of nes < 0.06 mm ranging between 5% by
mass and 40% by mass constitute mixed-grained
soils.
1.3.3.4 Mixed-grained soils
Fine-grained soils are classied according to their
plastic properties.
Plasticity is the relevant criterion.
It is assessed based on the water content at the
liquid limit w
L
and plasticity index I
p
.
1.3.3.5 Fine-grained soils
22 // 23
1.3.3.7 Chart
Coarse-grained soils
Soil classification based
on grading
non-cohesive
Grain-to-grain contact
Fines < 0.063 mm:
< 5% by mass
Frost-proof
Low compressibility
Large pore spaces
High or relatively high
water permeability, low
water-binding capacity
Gravels and sands Peat, humus,
digested sludge
Clayey-silty gravels and sands Silts and clays
slightly cohesive
Grain-to-grain contact
Fines < 0.063 mm:
5% to 15% by mass
Slightly frost-susceptible
Low compressibility
Large pore spaces
High water perme ability,
low water-binding
capacity
cohesive
No grain-to-grain
contact
Coarse grain floats in
fine-grained matrix
Fines < 0.063 mm:
15% to 40% by mass
Highly frost-susceptible
Properties of fine grain
are dominant
Small pore spaces
Low water permeability,
medium water-binding
capacity
highly cohesive
Small pore spaces
Very low water permeability,
high to very high water-binding
capacity
cohesive-loose
Fibrous structure
Highly frost-susceptible
Small pore spaces
Very low water perme-
ability and very high
water-binding capacity
Organic soils Fine-grained soils
Soil classification based on plas-
tic properties only (consistency
limits according to DIN 18122)
Coarse-grained soils
Soil classification based on grading
and plastic properties
Fines < 0.063 mm:
< 5% by mass
Particle size fraction
< 2 mm
> 40% by
mass
< 40% by
mass
GE SE
GW SW
GI SI
Fines < 0.063 mm:
> 40% by mass
IP 4% or
below the
A-line
IP 7% or
above the
A-line
UL TL
UM TM
UA TA
Fines < 0.063 mm: < 5% by mass
< 15% by mass > 15% by mass
Particle size fraction < 2 mm
> 40% by mass < 40% by mass
GU SU
GT ST
GU* SU*
GT* ST*
Parallel
structure
Lump
structure
Honeycomb
structure
Macropore
Micropore
Consistency limits and consistency ranges
1.3.3.8.1 Determining consistency
1.3.3.8 Classifying soils according to their plastic properties
Soil crumbles when trying to roll into 3 mm
thick rolls but is moist enough for moulding
into a lump
Plastic limit wP
Water content at the point of
transition from plastic
to semi-firm state
Liquid limit wL
Water content at the point
of transition from liquid to
plastic state
Shrinkage limit wS
Water content at the point
of transition from semi-firm
to firm state
At the point of transition from the semi-firm to firm state,
the soil is in the optimum water content range, i.e., it is ideal
for placing and compacting.
Soil can no longer be kneaded but can
only be crushed
Soil is difficult to knead but can be rolled into
3 mm thick rolls by hand without tearing or
crumbling
Soil is easy to knead
Soil creeps out between the fingers when
pressing together by making a fist
liquid
I
C
= 0
Liquid
limit wL
P
l
a
s
t
i
c
i
t
y

r
a
n
g
e

w
i
t
h

p
l
a
s
t
i
c
i
t
y

i
n
d
e
x

I
p
Plastic
limit wP
Shrinkage
limit wS
I
C
= 0.50
I
C
= 0.75
I
C
= 1.00
I
C
= w
s
mushy
soft
stiff
semi-firm
firm
Consistency range Consistency range
24 // 25
1.3.3.8.2 Plasticity chart for classication of ne-grained soils
(according to DIN 18196, 10.88 edition)
1)
Tests performed to determine the plasticity index of soils having a low liquid limit give inaccurate results. Soils in the intermediate range
must therefore be classified into the clay and silt ranges by means of other processes, for example, in accordance with DIN 4022,
Part 1, 09.87, section 8.5 to section 8.9.
Sand-silt
mixtures SU
Intermediate range
1)
Clays of medium
plasticity TM
Sand-silt
mixtures SU
Sand-clay
mixtures ST
Clays of high
plasticity TA
Clays of low
plasticity TL
Silts contain-
ing organic
matter and
organogenic
silts OU and
silts of medium
plasticity UM
Clays containing organic matter,
organogenic clays OT and silts of
high compressibility UA
0 10 20 30 35 40 50 60 70 80
50
40
30
20
10
7
4
Liquid limit w
L
in %
A
-
l
i
n
e

I
P

=

0
.
7
3

(
w
L
-
2
0
)
P
l
a
s
t
i
c
i
t
y

i
n
d
e
x

I
P

i
n

%
1.3.3.9 Classifying soils according to DIN 18196
Definition and designation
Frost-
susceptibility
class
)
Distinguishing characteristics
(including lines 16 to 21)
Examples
L
i
n
e
M
a
i
n

g
r
o
u
p
sParticle size fraction
in % by mass
Plasticity
index and
position
relative to
A-line
(see chart)
L
e
t
t
e
r

s
y
m
b
o
l
G
r
o
u
p

s
y
m
b
o
l
Dry strength
Response to
vibration testing
Plasticity in
kneading test
Particle size
0.06 mm 2 mm
1
C
o
a
r
s
e
-
g
r
a
i
n
e
d

s
o
i
l
s
< 5%
60%
Narrow-graded gravels GE
F1
Steep grading curve due to prevalence of one particle size range
River gravel and beach gravel
Terrace gravel
Volcanic slag
2 Wide-graded gravel-sand mixtures GW Continuous grading curve extending over several particle size ranges
3 Gap-graded gravel-sand mixtures GI
Mostly staggered grading curve due to lack of one
or several particle size ranges
4
> 60%
Narrow-graded sands SE Steep grading curve due to prevalence of one particle size range
Dune sand and drifting sand, quicksand, Berlin
sand, basin sand, tertiary sand
5 Wide-graded sand-gravel mixtures SW Steep grading curve due to prevalence of one particle size range
Moraine sand, terrace sand, granitic sand
6 Gap-graded sand-gravel mixtures SI Steep grading curve due to prevalence of one particle size range
7
M
i
x
e
d
-
g
r
a
i
n
e
d

s
o
i
l
s
5 - 15%
60%

Gravel-silt mixtures
5% to 15%
by mass 0.06 mm
GU
F2 *
)
Wide-graded
or gap-graded
grading curve
F
i
n
e
s

c
o
n
t
e
n
t

i
s
silty
Moraine gravel
Weathered gravel
Talus deposits
Boulder clay
8 Gravel-clay mixtures GT clayey
9
> 60%
Sand-silt mixtures SU silty
10 Sand-clay mixtures ST clayey
11
15 - 40%
60%

Gravel-silt mixtures
15% to 40%
by mass 0.06 mm
GU*
F3
silty Tertiary sand
12 Gravel-clay mixtures GT* clayey Alluvial loam, sandy loess
13
> 60%
Sand-silt mixtures SU* silty Tertiary sand, creeping sand
14 Sand-clay mixtures ST* clayey Boulder clay, glacial till
15
F
i
n
e
-
g
r
a
i
n
e
d

s
o
i
l
s
> 40%
IP 4% or
below the
A-line
Silts of low plasticity wL < 35% UL
F3
low quick none to low Loess, alluvial loam
16 Silts of medium plasticity 35% wL 50% UM low to medium slow low to medium Lacustrine clay, basin silt
17 Silts of high plasticity wL > 50% UA high none to slow medium to high Volcanic soils, pumice soils
18
IP 7% and
above the
A-line
Clays of low plasticity wL < 35% TL medium to high none to slow none to low Glacial till, varved clay
19 Clays of medium plasticity 35% wL 50% TM high none none to low
Loess loam, basin clay, saliferous clay,
lacustrine clay
20 Clays of high plasticity wL > 50% TA F2 very high none none to low Trass, Lauenburg clay, basin clay
Soils are classied in accordance with their suitability for civil engineering purposes using DIN 18196.
1)
In accordance with the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construction (ZTV E-StB)
*
)
To be classied as F1 if, where U 15.0, the nes content (d < 0.063 mm) is 5.0% by mass or, where U 6.0, the nes content
(d < 0.063 mm) is 15.0% by mass. Where 6.0 < U < 15.0, the particle fraction smaller 0.063 mm permissible for classifying as
F1 may be interpolated linearly (see chart).
26 // 27
Definition and designation
Frost-
susceptibility
class
)
Distinguishing characteristics
(including lines 16 to 21)
Examples
L
i
n
e
M
a
i
n

g
r
o
u
p
sParticle size fraction
in % by mass
Plasticity
index and
position
relative to
A-line
(see chart)
L
e
t
t
e
r

s
y
m
b
o
l
G
r
o
u
p

s
y
m
b
o
l
Dry strength
Response to
vibration testing
Plasticity in
kneading test
Particle size
0.06 mm 2 mm
1
C
o
a
r
s
e
-
g
r
a
i
n
e
d

s
o
i
l
s
< 5%
60%
Narrow-graded gravels GE
F1
Steep grading curve due to prevalence of one particle size range
River gravel and beach gravel
Terrace gravel
Volcanic slag
2 Wide-graded gravel-sand mixtures GW Continuous grading curve extending over several particle size ranges
3 Gap-graded gravel-sand mixtures GI
Mostly staggered grading curve due to lack of one
or several particle size ranges
4
> 60%
Narrow-graded sands SE Steep grading curve due to prevalence of one particle size range
Dune sand and drifting sand, quicksand, Berlin
sand, basin sand, tertiary sand
5 Wide-graded sand-gravel mixtures SW Steep grading curve due to prevalence of one particle size range
Moraine sand, terrace sand, granitic sand
6 Gap-graded sand-gravel mixtures SI Steep grading curve due to prevalence of one particle size range
7
M
i
x
e
d
-
g
r
a
i
n
e
d

s
o
i
l
s
5 - 15%
60%

Gravel-silt mixtures
5% to 15%
by mass 0.06 mm
GU
F2 *
)
Wide-graded
or gap-graded
grading curve
F
i
n
e
s

c
o
n
t
e
n
t

i
s
silty
Moraine gravel
Weathered gravel
Talus deposits
Boulder clay
8 Gravel-clay mixtures GT clayey
9
> 60%
Sand-silt mixtures SU silty
10 Sand-clay mixtures ST clayey
11
15 - 40%
60%

Gravel-silt mixtures
15% to 40%
by mass 0.06 mm
GU*
F3
silty Tertiary sand
12 Gravel-clay mixtures GT* clayey Alluvial loam, sandy loess
13
> 60%
Sand-silt mixtures SU* silty Tertiary sand, creeping sand
14 Sand-clay mixtures ST* clayey Boulder clay, glacial till
15
F
i
n
e
-
g
r
a
i
n
e
d

s
o
i
l
s
> 40%
IP 4% or
below the
A-line
Silts of low plasticity wL < 35% UL
F3
low quick none to low Loess, alluvial loam
16 Silts of medium plasticity 35% wL 50% UM low to medium slow low to medium Lacustrine clay, basin silt
17 Silts of high plasticity wL > 50% UA high none to slow medium to high Volcanic soils, pumice soils
18
IP 7% and
above the
A-line
Clays of low plasticity wL < 35% TL medium to high none to slow none to low Glacial till, varved clay
19 Clays of medium plasticity 35% wL 50% TM high none none to low
Loess loam, basin clay, saliferous clay,
lacustrine clay
20 Clays of high plasticity wL > 50% TA F2 very high none none to low Trass, Lauenburg clay, basin clay
1.3.3.9 Classifying soils according to DIN 18196
Soils are classied in accordance with their suitability for civil engineering purposes using DIN 18196.
Definition and designation
Frost-
susceptibility
class
)
Distinguishing characteristics
(including lines 16 to 21)
Examples
L
i
n
e
M
a
i
n

g
r
o
u
p
sParticle size fraction
in % by mass
Plasticity
index and
position
relative to
A-line
(see chart) L
e
t
t
e
r

s
y
m
b
o
l
G
r
o
u
p

s
y
m
b
o
l
Dry strength
Response to
vibration testing
Plasticity in
kneading test
Particle size
0.06 mm 2 mm
21
O
r
g
a
n
o
g
e
n
i
c

)

s
o
i
l
s

a
n
d

s
o
i
l
s


c
o
n
t
a
i
n
i
n
g

o
r
g
a
n
i
c

m
a
t
t
e
r
> 40%

IP 7%
and below
the A-line
Silts containing organic
matter and organogenic
silts
n
o
t

f
l
a
m
m
a
b
l
e


o
r

s
m
o
u
l
d
e
r
a
b
l
e
35% wL 50% OU F3 medium slow to very quick medium
Lacustrine marl
Diatomaceous earth
Topsoil
22
Clays containing
organic matter and
organogenic clays
wL > 50% OT
F2
high none high
Alluvial mud
Tidal mud
Tertiary carboniferous clays
23
< 40%
Coarse-grained to
mixed-grained soils
containing humic matter
OH
Contains organic matter, mostly dark in colour, musty smell,
loss on ignition of up to approx. 20% by mass
Topsoil
Palaeosol
24
Coarse-grained to
mixed-grained soils
containing calcareous,
siliceous formations
OK
Contains non-organic matter, mostly light in colour,
low weight, high porosity
Calcareous sand
Tuffaceous sand
Bog lime
25
O
r
g
a
n
i
c

s
o
i
l
s

Non-degraded to mod-
erately degraded peats
(humus)
f
l
a
m
m
a
b
l
e


o
r

s
m
o
u
l
d
e
r
a
b
l
e
HN
Native humus
formations
Degree of degradation 1 to 5, fibrous,
rich in wood, light brown to brown in colour
Fen peat
Raised bog peat
Fen-wood peat
26 Degraded peats HZ
Degree of degradation 6 to 10, blackish-brown
to black
27
Muds as a collec-
tive term for digested
sludge, organic silt,
gyttja, dy, sapropel
F
Underwater (sedimentary) muds consisting of organic matter, faeces
and microorganisms, frequently interspersed with sand, clay and lime,
blue-black or greenish to yellow-brown, occasionally dark grey-brown to
blue-black, springy, soft-spongy
Organic silt
Digested sludge

)
In accordance with the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construction (ZTV E-StB)

)
Soils formed as a result of microorganism action
*
)
To be classied as F1 if, where U 15.0, the nes content (d < 0.063 mm) is 5.0% by mass or, where U 6.0, the nes content
(d < 0.063 mm) is 15.0% by mass. Where 6.0 < U < 15.0, the particle fraction smaller 0.063 mm permissible for classifying as F1 may be
interpolated linearly (see chart).
28 // 29
Definition and designation
Frost-
susceptibility
class
)
Distinguishing characteristics
(including lines 16 to 21)
Examples
L
i
n
e
M
a
i
n

g
r
o
u
p
sParticle size fraction
in % by mass
Plasticity
index and
position
relative to
A-line
(see chart) L
e
t
t
e
r

s
y
m
b
o
l
G
r
o
u
p

s
y
m
b
o
l
Dry strength
Response to
vibration testing
Plasticity in
kneading test
Particle size
0.06 mm 2 mm
21
O
r
g
a
n
o
g
e
n
i
c

)

s
o
i
l
s

a
n
d

s
o
i
l
s


c
o
n
t
a
i
n
i
n
g

o
r
g
a
n
i
c

m
a
t
t
e
r
> 40%

IP 7%
and below
the A-line
Silts containing organic
matter and organogenic
silts
n
o
t

f
l
a
m
m
a
b
l
e


o
r

s
m
o
u
l
d
e
r
a
b
l
e
35% wL 50% OU F3 medium slow to very quick medium
Lacustrine marl
Diatomaceous earth
Topsoil
22
Clays containing
organic matter and
organogenic clays
wL > 50% OT
F2
high none high
Alluvial mud
Tidal mud
Tertiary carboniferous clays
23
< 40%
Coarse-grained to
mixed-grained soils
containing humic matter
OH
Contains organic matter, mostly dark in colour, musty smell,
loss on ignition of up to approx. 20% by mass
Topsoil
Palaeosol
24
Coarse-grained to
mixed-grained soils
containing calcareous,
siliceous formations
OK
Contains non-organic matter, mostly light in colour,
low weight, high porosity
Calcareous sand
Tuffaceous sand
Bog lime
25
O
r
g
a
n
i
c

s
o
i
l
s

Non-degraded to mod-
erately degraded peats
(humus)
f
l
a
m
m
a
b
l
e


o
r

s
m
o
u
l
d
e
r
a
b
l
e
HN
Native humus
formations
Degree of degradation 1 to 5, fibrous,
rich in wood, light brown to brown in colour
Fen peat
Raised bog peat
Fen-wood peat
26 Degraded peats HZ
Degree of degradation 6 to 10, blackish-brown
to black
27
Muds as a collec-
tive term for digested
sludge, organic silt,
gyttja, dy, sapropel
F
Underwater (sedimentary) muds consisting of organic matter, faeces
and microorganisms, frequently interspersed with sand, clay and lime,
blue-black or greenish to yellow-brown, occasionally dark grey-brown to
blue-black, springy, soft-spongy
Organic silt
Digested sludge
1.4 Frost susceptibility of soils and rock
of variable strength
In terms of frost susceptibility, the soil groups are
distinguished in accordance with the classication
specied in the table below.
The susceptibility to frost of the weathered prod-
uct is the relevant criterion for rock of variable
strength.
1) To be classied as F1 if, where U 15.0, the nes content
(d < 0.063 mm) is 5.0% by mass or, where U 6.0, the nes
content (d < 0.063 mm) is 15.0% by mass.
Where 6.0 < U < 15.0, the particle fraction smaller 0.063 mm
permissible for classifying as F1 may be interpolated linearly
(see chart).
1.4.1 Classifying soil groups in accordance with frost susceptibility
Frost
susceptibility
Soil groups
(DIN 18196)
F1
not susceptible
to frost
GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
F2
low to medium
susceptibility to
frost
TA
OT, OH, OK
ST, GT
SU, GU
F3
highly susceptible
to frost
TL, TM
UL, UM, UA
OU
ST*, GT*
SU*, GU*
1 5 10 15
Coefficient of uniformity U =
d
60
d
10
15
10
5
0
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

d


0
.
0
6
3

m
m

(
%

b
y

m
a
s
s
)
ST*, GT*
SU*, GU*
TL, TM
UL, UM, UA
OU
ST, GT
SU, GU
ST, GT
SU, GU
TA
OT, OH
OK
F 1
F 2
GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
F 1
}
1)
Soil groups TL, TM, UL, UM, UA, ST*, SU*, GU*
are classied into frost-susceptibility class F2 if the
requirements specied for qualied soil improve-
ment are complied with (see section 1.5 Applica-
tion

1.5.2 Qualied soil improvement).


30 // 31
1.4.2 Frost susceptibility after soil improvement with binders
Re-classication leads to a reduction in design
strength according to the Directives for the
standardization of the superstructures of traf-
cked surfaces (RStO 01).
This is tantamount to substantial reductions in
the pavement cost.
In the construction of roads and trafc surfaces,
soil improvement is used in earthworks at sub-
grade or subsoil level.
Examples: construction of embankments, em-
bankment shoulders, backlls, rells, site transport
roads or similar.
Soil improvement with binders enables wet, insuf-
ciently compactable soils:
to be turned into a condition suitable for placing
and compacting;
to be given a higher bearing capacity; and
to be given improved weather resistance.
When used on subgrades, embankment shoulders
and other surfaces, soil improvement with binders
offers improved protection from exposure to ero-
sion and weather.
1.5 Application
1.5.1 Soil improvement
1.5.2 Qualied soil improvement
In the construction of roads and trafc surfaces,
qualied soil improvement can be used in earth-
works at subgrade or subsoil level.
Examples: construction of embankments, em-
bankment shoulders, backlls, subgrade area.
Qualied soil improvement
improves bearing capacity;
minimizes settlements and deformations;
improves shear strength; and
has a positive inuence on the soils
susceptibility to frost.
Qualied soil improvement allows certain soils of
frost-susceptibility class F3 to achieve the proper-
ties required of soils of frost-susceptibility class
F2.
Re-classication leads to a reduction in design
strength according to the Directives for the
standardization of the superstructures of traf-
cked surfaces (RStO 01).
This is tantamount to substantial reductions in
the pavement cost.
32 // 33
Road embankment with raised bridge abutment,
backlled with improved soil.
Example of application of qualied soil improvement
Qualified soil improvement
Graded binder contents in the area of
the bridge abutments
Bridge
with raised abutments
Stepped subsoil
Qualified soil improvement adding,
for example, 7% by mass of binder
Qualified soil
improvement
adding, for
example, 3%
by mass of
binder
Qualified soil im-
provement adding,
for example, 5% by
mass of binder
Qualified soil improvement
adding, for example, 7%
by mass of binder
1.5.2.1 Reducing pavement thickness by means of qualied soil improvement
Qualied soil improvement carried out at a
minimum layer thickness of 25 cm enables the
subsoil or subgrade to be classied into frost-
susceptibility class F2.
The parameters specied for soils of frost-
susceptibility class F2 (see the Directives for
the standardization of the superstructures of
trafcked surfaces [RStO 01], Table 6) may be
used as baseline values for designing the mini-
mum thickness of a frost-resistant pavement if
a deformation modulus of E
v2
70 MN / m has
been veried on the subgrade.
Directives for the standardization of the
superstructures of trafficked surfaces
(RStO 01), Table 6
Baseline values for determining the minimum
thickness of a frost-resistant pavement
Line Frost-susceptibility class
Thickness in cm for construction class
SV / I / II III / IV V / VI
1 F2 55 50 40
2 F3 65 60 50
34 // 35
Example: Reducing the thickness of a frost-resistant pavement by 10 cm in accordance with Table
6 of the Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of trafcked surfaces (RStO 01),
Construction class III IV, by means of qualied soil improvement
1.5.2.2 Requirements on qualied soil improvement at subgrade level
- Binder content 3% by mass.
- Unconned compressive strength according to
the Technical testing regulations for soil and
rock in road construction (TP BF-StB), Part
B 11.3, 0.5 N / mm; specimens stored for a
period of 28 days.
- The loss in strength after soaking in water for
24 hours must not exceed 50%.
Alternatively:
- CBR according to the Technical testing regu-
lations for soil and rock in road construction
(TP BF-StB), Part B 7.1, 40%; specimens
stored for a period of 28 days.
- The loss in strength after soaking in water for
24 hours must not exceed 50%.
- The test may also be performed after 7 days
and / or at other testing times.
EV2 > 45 MN / m
2
E
V2
> 45 MN / m
2
EV2 > 70 MN / m
2
EV2 > 45 MN / m
2
F3 soil F2 soil
F2 soil
Pavement thickness
50 cm
Baseline values for determining the thickness of a frost-resistant pavement of construction class III / IV (Di-
rectives for the standardization of the superstructures of trafcked surfaces [RStO 01], Table 6)
Pavement thickness
60 cm
Pavement thickness
50 cm
Reduction
by 10 cm
Subgrade
1.5.3.1 Soil stabilization not counting toward the pavement
1.5.3 Soil stabilization
Soil stabilization is performed in the upper part
of the subgrade or subsoil of roads and trafc
surfaces. Soil stabilization improves the bearing
capacity and therefore trafckability of the pave-
ment, increasing its frost resistance.
Examples of trafc surfaces: rural roads, bicycle
paths and footpaths, airelds, container storage
areas, industrial sites.
F2 and F3 soils:
Construction methods involving a fully bound
pavement enable soil stabilization of the subsoil
or subgrade to be performed at a minimum layer
thickness of 15 cm in case of poor bearing capac-
ity and unfavourable water conditions.
This type of soil stabilization does not count
toward the overall pavement thickness.
36 // 37
F2 and F3 soils:
The thickness of the frost-resistant pavement may
be reduced by 20 cm if:
the upper zone of the subsoil or subgrade is sta-
bilized in accordance with the Additional tech-
nical conditions of contract and directives for
earthworks in road construction (ZTV E-StB).
F1 soils:
If the subsoil or subgrade immediately underlying
the pavement is an F1 soil (e.g. narrow-graded
sands) of limited bearing capacity or trafckability,
then:
the frost blanket may be omitted if soil stabi-
lization is performed in accordance with the
Additional technical conditions of contract and
directives for the construction of base layers
with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements
(ZTV Beton-StB).
The F1 soil must have a minimum thickness in this
design corresponding to that of the frost blanket
overlying an F2 or F3 soil.
Directives for the standardization of the super-
structures of trafcked surfaces (RStO),
Figure 5: Construction methods on F1 soil
stabilized in accordance with the Additional
technical conditions of contract and direc-
tives for the construction of base layers with
hydraulic binders and concrete pavements
(ZTV Beton-StB):
1.5.3.2 Soil stabilization counting toward the pavement
This type of stabilized layer forms part of the pave-
ment of trafc areas and is dealt with in the Additional
technical conditions of contract and directives for the
construction of base layers with hydraulic binders and
concrete pavements (ZTV Beton-StB).
Choice of pavement in accordance
with RStO
2)
as from top edge of
stabilized layer in:
Chart 1, lines 2.2 and 2.3
Chart 2, lines 1.2 and 1.3
Subsoil / Subgrade
F1 soil of sufficient thickness
Stabilized layer in accordance with
ZTV Beton-StB
1)
Thickness in accordance with
RStO
2)
, Chart 1 or Chart 2:
15 to 25 cm
1)
Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of base layers with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements
2)
Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of trafficked surfaces
1.5.3.3 Excerpt from the Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of
trafcked surfaces (RStO 01), Chart 1
Base layers with hydraulic binders underlying an
asphalt surfacing
(Thickness in cm;
E
v2
minimum values in MN / m
2
)
Chart 1: Asphalt surfacing design for pave-
ments on F2 and F3 subsoil / subgrade
1)
If values deviate, the layer thicknesses of the frost blanket or frost-
resistant material respectively have to be determined by taking the
difference.
2)
Applicable with round aggregates only if proven locally.
3)
Applicable only with crushed aggregates and if proven locally.
4)
To be executed only if the frost-resistant material and material to be
stabilized can be placed as a single layer.
L
i
n
e
Construction class SV I II III IV V VI
Equivalent 10-tonne axle loads
in millions
B > 32 > 10 and 32 > 3.2 and 10
> 1.8 and 3.2 /
> 1.0 and 1.8
> 0.3 and 1.0 0.3 0.3
Thickness of frost-resistant
pavement
1)
55 65 75 85 55 65 75 85 55 65 75 85 45 55 65 75 45 55 65 75 35 45 55 65 35 45 55 65
2.1
Asphalt base and base with hydraulic binder on top of frost blanket or layer of frost-resistant material
Asphalt surface course
Asphalt binder course
Asphalt base
Hydraulically bound base
Frost blanket
Thickness of frost blanket 34
2)
44 28
3)
38 48 30
2)
40 50 34
2)
44 26
3)
36 46 16
3)
26 36 16
3)
26 36
2.2
Asphalt surface course
Asphalt binder course
Asphalt base
Stabilized layer
Layer of frost-resistant material (F1)
- wide-graded or gap-graded in
accordance with DIN 18196 -
Thickness of layer of
frost-resistant material
10
4)
20
4)
30 40 14
4)
24 34 44 18
4)
28 38 48 12
4)
22 32 42 16
4)
26 36 46 6
4)
16
4)
26 36 6
4)
16
4)
26 36
2.3
Asphalt surface course
Asphalt binder course
Asphalt base
Stabilized layer
Layer of frost-resistant material (F1)
- narrow-graded in accordance with
DIN 18196 -
Thickness of layer of
frost-resistant material
5
4)
15
4)
25 35 9
4)
19
4)
29 39 13
4)
23 33 43 7
4)
17
4)
27 37 16
4)
26 36 46 6
4)
16
4)
26 36 6
4)
16
4)
26 36
120
45
45
50
20
18
8
4
45
41
15
15
14
14
8
8
4
4
45
38 // 39
L
i
n
e
Construction class SV I II III IV V VI
Equivalent 10-tonne axle loads
in millions
B > 32 > 10 and 32 > 3.2 and 10
> 1.8 and 3.2 /
> 1.0 and 1.8
> 0.3 and 1.0 0.3 0.3
Thickness of frost-resistant
pavement
1)
55 65 75 85 55 65 75 85 55 65 75 85 45 55 65 75 45 55 65 75 35 45 55 65 35 45 55 65
2.1
Asphalt base and base with hydraulic binder on top of frost blanket or layer of frost-resistant material
Asphalt surface course
Asphalt binder course
Asphalt base
Hydraulically bound base
Frost blanket
Thickness of frost blanket 34
2)
44 28
3)
38 48 30
2)
40 50 34
2)
44 26
3)
36 46 16
3)
26 36 16
3)
26 36
2.2
Asphalt surface course
Asphalt binder course
Asphalt base
Stabilized layer
Layer of frost-resistant material (F1)
- wide-graded or gap-graded in
accordance with DIN 18196 -
Thickness of layer of
frost-resistant material
10
4)
20
4)
30 40 14
4)
24 34 44 18
4)
28 38 48 12
4)
22 32 42 16
4)
26 36 46 6
4)
16
4)
26 36 6
4)
16
4)
26 36
2.3
Asphalt surface course
Asphalt binder course
Asphalt base
Stabilized layer
Layer of frost-resistant material (F1)
- narrow-graded in accordance with
DIN 18196 -
Thickness of layer of
frost-resistant material
5
4)
15
4)
25 35 9
4)
19
4)
29 39 13
4)
23 33 43 7
4)
17
4)
27 37 16
4)
26 36 46 6
4)
16
4)
26 36 6
4)
16
4)
26 36
120
120
120
120 100 100
45 45 45 45 45 45
45 45 45 45 45 45
46
42
38
29 29 29
14
20
20
15 15 15
14
10
10
10 10 10
8 8
4
4 4 4 4 4 4
41
37
33
29 29 29
37
35
31
29 29 29
15
15
15
15 15 15
15
15
15
15 15 15
14
10
10
10 10 10
10
8
8
8 8
4
8 8
4
10 10 10
4 4 4 4 4 4
4 4 4 4 4 4
45 45 45 45 45 45
1.5.3.4 Excerpt from the Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of
trafcked surfaces (RStO 01), Chart 2
Base layers with hydraulic binders underlying a
concrete surfacing
(Thickness in cm;
E
v2
minimum values in MN / m
2
)
Chart 2: Concrete surfacing design for pave-
ments on F2 and F3 subsoil / subgrade
1)
If values deviate, the layer thicknesses of the frost blanket or frost-
resistant material respectively have to be determined by taking the
difference.
2)
Applicable with round aggregates only if proven locally.
3)
Applicable only with crushed aggregates and if proven locally.
4)
To be executed only if the frost-resistant material and material to be
stabilized can be placed as a single layer.
The additional conditions of contract for the
German States (Bundeslnder) have to be
complied with.
Soil treatment can be used as a safeguarding
measure for soils of paving class 2.
Reference is made to the Code of practice on
the treatment of soils and construction materi-
als with binders to reduce the leachability of
environmentally relevant substances (Merkblatt
ber die Behandlung von Bden und Baustoffen
mit Bindemitteln zur Reduzierung der Eluier-
barkeit umweltrelevanter Inhaltsstoffe).
L
i
n
e
Construction class SV I II III IV V VI
Equivalent 10-tonne axle
loads in millions
B
> 32 > 10 and 32 > 3.2 and 10
> 1.8 and 3.2 /
> 1.0 and 1.8
> 0.3 and 1.0 0.3 0.3
Thickness of frost-resistant
pavement
1)
55 65 75 85 55 65 75 85 55 65 75 85 45 55 65 75 45 55 65 75 35 45 55 65 35 45 55 65
1.1
Base with hydraulic binder on top of frost blanket or layer of frost-resistant material
Concrete surfacing
Hydraulically bound base
Frost blanket
Thickness of frost blanket 33
2)
43 25
3)
35 48 26
3)
36 46 27
3)
37
1.2
Concrete surfacing
Stabilized layer
Layer of frost-resistant
material (F1)
- wide-graded or gap-graded in
accordance with DIN 18196 -
Thickness of layer of
frost-resistant material
8
4)
18
4)
28 38 15
4)
25 35 45 16
4)
26 36 46 7
4)
17
4)
27 37
1.3
Concrete surfacing
Stabilized layer
Layer of frost-resistant material (F1)
- narrow-graded in accordance with
DIN 18196 -
Thickness of layer of
frost-resistant material
3
4)
13
4)
23 33 10
4)
20 30 40 11 21 31 41 2
4)
12
4)
22 32
120
45
45
45
42
47
52
15
20
25
27
27
27
40 // 41
L
i
n
e
Construction class SV I II III IV V VI
Equivalent 10-tonne axle
loads in millions
B
> 32 > 10 and 32 > 3.2 and 10
> 1.8 and 3.2 /
> 1.0 and 1.8
> 0.3 and 1.0 0.3 0.3
Thickness of frost-resistant
pavement
1)
55 65 75 85 55 65 75 85 55 65 75 85 45 55 65 75 45 55 65 75 35 45 55 65 35 45 55 65
1.1
Base with hydraulic binder on top of frost blanket or layer of frost-resistant material
Concrete surfacing
Hydraulically bound base
Frost blanket
Thickness of frost blanket 33
2)
43 25
3)
35 48 26
3)
36 46 27
3)
37
1.2
Concrete surfacing
Stabilized layer
Layer of frost-resistant
material (F1)
- wide-graded or gap-graded in
accordance with DIN 18196 -
Thickness of layer of
frost-resistant material
8
4)
18
4)
28 38 15
4)
25 35 45 16
4)
26 36 46 7
4)
17
4)
27 37
1.3
Concrete surfacing
Stabilized layer
Layer of frost-resistant material (F1)
- narrow-graded in accordance with
DIN 18196 -
Thickness of layer of
frost-resistant material
3
4)
13
4)
23 33 10
4)
20 30 40 11 21 31 41 2
4)
12
4)
22 32
120
120
120
45 45 45
45 45 45
45 45 45
45
44
43
40
39
38
40
39
38
20
20
20
15
15
15
15
15
15
25
24
23
25
24
23
25
24
23
At the start of compaction, the contractor has to
complete a trial eld to verify that the compaction
requirements will be met.
The maximum bulk thickness (or maximum thick-
ness of the improved layer respectively) must be
such that the specied degree of compaction is
achieved over the entire layer thickness.
Special conditions for compaction or construction
apply to embankment shoulders. This may inu-
ence the bulk width of an embankment in case of
soil stabilization or stabilization of the pavement.
When placing weather-sensitive construction
materials, the bulk surfaces have to be built with a
cross slope of no less than 6%.
1.6 Basic principles of earthworks
Area Soil groups D
Pr
in %
n
a
in % by
volume
Subgrade to a depth of 1.00 m for
embankments
Subgrade to a depth of 0.50 m for cuts
GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
GU, GT, SU, ST
100
1.00 m below grade to embankment base
GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
GU, GT, SU, ST
98
Subgrade to embankment base
Subgrade to a depth of 0.50 m for cuts
GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*
U, T, OU
1)
, OT
1)
97 12
2)
1.6.1 Compaction
1.6.2 Compaction requirements on subsoil and subgrade
The subsoil or subgrade of roads and paths has
to be compacted so as to meet the following
requirements on the minimum 10 percentile for
the degree of compaction D
Pr
or the maximum
10 percentile for the air voids ratio n
a
respectively.
1) These requirements apply to soils of groups OU and OT only if their
suitability and placing conditions have been investigated separately
and determined in consultation with the client.
2) If the soils are not improved by means of soil stabilization or quali-
ed soil improvement, a requirement on the maximum
10 percentile for the air voids ratio is recommended as follows:
8% by volume when placing water-sensitive mixed-grained or
ne-grained soils; and
6% by volume when placing rock of variable strength.
This has to be indicated in the specication of works.
42 // 43
1.6.3 Requirements on the subgrade
The subgrade must comply with specications in
terms of correct vertical and horizontal position,
evenness and bearing capacity.
Requirements on the correct vertical and horizon-
tal position:
Deviation: 3 cm from design level
2 cm if the subgrade is to be
overlaid with a bound base layer
The subgrade must have the following cross slope:
4.0% for water-sensitive soils and construction
materials
2.5% after soil treatment with binders
Example: q
Pavement
= 2.5%
q
Subgrade
= 4.0%
Width of subgrade = 6.00 m
Savings: approx. 0.30 m
3
/ m
At the raised edge of the carriageway, the sub-
grade has to be designed with a reverse gradient.
Reducing the cross slope after soil
treatment results in huge potential savings in
pavement material.
When performing soil improvement operations at
subgrade level, the edge design of embankment
structures may require excess proling due to the
production methods and equipment used.
Traffic lane Shoulder Shoulder Traffic lane
6 %
2.5 %
12 %
1
:

1
.
5
Being the foundation for the roads pavement,
the subgrade must exhibit adequate bearing and
deformation behaviours.
The static and dynamic deformation moduli can be
inferred from the following table.
1.6.4 Deformation modulus on the subgrade (minimum 10 percentile)
Frost-resistant subsoil or subgrade
(F1 soil)
Construction class SV, I to IV
E
v2
120 MN / m
2
E
vd
65 MN / m
2
Construction class V to VI
E
v2
100 MN / m
2
E
vd
50 MN / m
2
Frost-susceptible subsoil or subgrade
(F2 and F3 soils)
Construction class SV, I to VI
E
v2
45 MN / m
2
Frost-susceptible subsoil or subgrade
(F2 and F3 soils) after qualied soil
improvement
E
v2
70 MN / m
2
If the specied deformation modulus on the sub-
grade cannot be achieved by compacting, one of
the following measures has to be taken:
improve or stabilize the subsoil or subgrade; or
increase the layer thickness of the granular
base.
44 // 45
1) Including qualied soil improvement.
2) Requirements on the minimum 10 percentile for the degree of
compaction of the soil-binder mixture immediately after compac-
tion has been completed.
3) These requirements apply to soils of groups OU and OT only if their
suitability and placing conditions have been investigated separately
and determined in consultation with the client.
na air voids ratio
1.6.5 Requirements on compaction characteristics
Higher requirements on compaction may be dened
in the specication of works for earth structures ex-
posed to especially high levels of loading (including
partial sections, such as structural backlls).
The edge design of embankments may require
excess proling when performing soil improvement
operations at subgrade level.
Requirements on the minimum 10 percentile for the degree of compaction D
Pr
or maximum
10 percentile for the air voids ratio n
a
when improving or stabilizing the subgrade
Cut
Requirements on E
v2
see separate table
Embankment
Requirements on E
v2
see separate table
Subgrade
Subgrade
0.00 m
0.00 m
0
.
5
0

m
0
.
5
0

m
1
.
0
0

m
Stabilized
subsoil
Stabilized
subgrade
DPr 98 %
2)
immediately after completion of compaction
DPr 98 %
2)
immediately after completion of compaction
Improved
subsoil
1)
Improved
subgrade
1)
Improved subgrade*
DPr 100 % for GW, GI, GE, SW, SI, SE, GU, GT, SU, ST
DPr 97 % and na 12% for GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*, U, T, OU
3)
, OT
3)
DPr 100 % for GW, GI, GE, SW, SI, SE, GU, GT, SU, ST
DPr 97 % and na 12% for GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*, U, T, OU
3)
, OT
3)
DPr 98 % for GW, GI, GE, SW, SI, SE, GU, GT, SU, ST
DPr 97 % and na 12% for GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*, U, T, OU
3)
, OT
3)
Requirements according to structural
soil analysis
Requirements according to structural
soil analysis
Soil treatment operations require mix designs. Mix designs, internal control testing and compli-
ance testing are performed in accordance with the
pertinent technical regulations in effect at the time.
1.7 Quality assurance
1.7.1 Tests to be performed prior to construction
1.7.1.1 Tests to be performed by the client
For a reliable assessment of the construction work
to be tendered, the soil or construction material
has to be tested to determine its bearing capacity,
re-usability as embankment ll and suitability for
soil treatment with binders.
These tests have to be arranged for by the client
as part of soil investigation and within the para-
meters of the preconstruction phase.
1.7.1.2 Tests to be performed by the contractor
Mix designs have to be performed within the
parameters of construction.
The contractor is required to commission a test-
ing laboratory experienced in and certied for
soil treatment, for example, a testing laboratory
approved in accordance with the Directives for
accreditation of test centres for building materials
and building material mixtures in road construc-
tion (RAP Stra), with performing the mix design.
The amount of binder determined in the mix
design is specied by the contractor as it is his
responsibility to ensure that the construction work
is completed free of any defects.
The following estimated periods of time are
required for the mix design:
soil stabilization approx. 5 weeks
qualied soil
improvement approx. 2 to 5 weeks
This period may be shorter if an assessment
based on 7-day strengths is also possible.
soil improvement approx. 1 to 2 weeks
This period may be longer if additional testing is
required. These tests may include:
frost-resistance testing (freeze-thaw test / frost
heaving test); and
proof of compatibility with water-management
requirements.
46 // 47
The mix designs provide information on the type
and amount of binder and water to be added, the
amount of any additives to be used and the tness
for use of the soils and soil-binder mixtures.
The values given in the following table can be used
to determine the amount of binder to be added in
the mix design.
Table: Soil-specic empirical values for binder quantities in soil stabilization, soil improvement
and qualied soil improvement
Binder content in % by mass
Soil group Fine lime
according to
DIN EN 459-1
Hydrated lime
according to
DIN EN 459-1
Cement
according to
DIN EN 197-1
DIN-1164-10
Hydraulic soil
and road binder
according to
DIN 18506
Mixed
binders
S
o
i
l

s
t
a
b
i
l
i
z
a
t
i
o
n
Coarse-grained soils
(GE, GW, GI, SE,
SW, SI)
3-7 3-7 3-7
Mixed-grained soils
(GU, GT, SU, ST,
GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*)
4-6+* 4-8* 4-12 4-12 4-12
Fine-grained soils
(UL, TL, UM, UA,
TM, TA)
4-6 4-8 7-16 7-16 4-16
Artificial aggregates 5-12 5-12 5-12
Recycled construc-
tion materials
4-10 4-10 4-10
S
o
i
l

i
m
p
r
o
v
e
m
e
n
t
*
*
Coarse-grained soils
(GE, GW, GI, SE,
SW, SI)
3-6 3-6 3-6
Mixed-grained soils
(GU, GT, SU, ST,
GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*)
2 (3)-4 2 (3)-5 3-6 3-6 2 (3)-6
Fine-grained soils
(UL, TL, UM, UA,
TM, TA)
2 (3)-4 2 (3)-5 3-6 3-6 2 (3)-6
* Only in case of sufciently large fractions of reactive substances in the soil
** Values in parentheses relate to qualied soil improvement
48 // 49
1.7.1.3 Testing specications for mix designs
Use of hydraulic binders
For soil stabilization, the mix design is per-
formed in accordance with the Technical testing
regulations for soil and rock in road construc-
tion (TP BF-StB), Part B 11.1.
For soil improvement and qualied soil improve-
ment, the mix design is performed in accord-
ance with the Technical testing regulations for
soil and rock in road construction (TP BF-StB),
Part B 11.3.
Use of building limes
For soil stabilization, soil improvement or quali-
ed soil improvement, the mix design is per-
formed in accordance with the Technical testing
regulations for soil and rock in road construc-
tion (TP BF-StB), Part B 11.3.
Use of mixed binders
For soil stabilization, the mix design is per-
formed in accordance with the Technical testing
regulations for soil and rock in road construc-
tion (TP BF-StB), Part B 11.1 or Part B 11.3
depending on the composition of the various
constituents.
For soil improvement and qualied soil improve-
ment, the mix design is performed in accord-
ance with the Technical testing regulations for
soil and rock in road construction (TP BF-StB),
Part B 11.3.
Reaction times
The reaction times between mixing and com-
paction are determined in the Technical testing
regulations for soil and rock in road construction
(TP BF-StB) as a function of the binder used.
Typical values are:
for hydraulic binders: 1 to 2 hours
for mixed binders: 4 hours
for building limes: 6 hours
1.7.2.1 Type and scope of tests to be performed in soil treatment operations
The tests are performed for quality assurance purposes, taking into account the testing procedures and testing
methods according to the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construc-
tion (ZTV E-StB) and the pertinent Technical testing regulations for soil and rock in road construction (TP BF-StB).
1.7.2 Tests to be performed during construction
* The scope of testing depends on the testing method chosen (method M1, M2 or M3).
Soil stabilization Qualied soil improvement Soil improvement
Parameter Internal control testing Compliance testing Internal control testing Compliance testing Internal control testing Compliance testing
Binders
Conformity of binder supplied with binder type
and grade agreed

each delivery
(delivery note)

random checks

each delivery
(delivery note)


random checks

each delivery
(delivery note)

random checks
Soil
Grading
State variables
Organic constituents
Water content
Proctor density and related water content

every 250 m or 3,000 m
as required
every 250 m or 3,000 m
as required




random checks

every 250 m or 3,000 m
as required
every 250 m or 3,000 m
as required
-



random checks
Soils intended for stabilization
Degree of compaction
Correct vertical and horizontal position
*
3 times every 20 m
every 250 m or 3,000 m


random checks
Stabilized layer
Degree of compaction

Binder quantity
Correct vertical and horizontal position
Evenness

every 250 m or 3,000 m


as required
3 times every 20 m
as required

every 250 m or 3,000 m
at least once per day
every 1,000 m
every 50 m
as required

every 250 m or 3,000 m

as required
3 times every 20 m
as required

every 250 m or 3,000 m
at least once per day
every 1,000 m
every 50 m
as required
Layer thickness
Layer thickness

as required

every 1,000 m
2
Deformation modulus
on the subgrade
Deformation modulus E
v2
Deformation modulus E
vd



according to testing method M1 or M2



according to testing method M1 or M2



according to testing method M1 or M2
50 // 51
Type, scope and frequency of internal control and compliance testing for soil treatment operations:
Soil stabilization Qualied soil improvement Soil improvement
Parameter Internal control testing Compliance testing Internal control testing Compliance testing Internal control testing Compliance testing
Binders
Conformity of binder supplied with binder type
and grade agreed

each delivery
(delivery note)

random checks

each delivery
(delivery note)


random checks

each delivery
(delivery note)

random checks
Soil
Grading
State variables
Organic constituents
Water content
Proctor density and related water content

every 250 m or 3,000 m
as required
every 250 m or 3,000 m
as required




random checks

every 250 m or 3,000 m
as required
every 250 m or 3,000 m
as required
-



random checks
Soils intended for stabilization
Degree of compaction
Correct vertical and horizontal position
*
3 times every 20 m
every 250 m or 3,000 m


random checks
Stabilized layer
Degree of compaction

Binder quantity
Correct vertical and horizontal position
Evenness

every 250 m or 3,000 m


as required
3 times every 20 m
as required

every 250 m or 3,000 m
at least once per day
every 1,000 m
every 50 m
as required

every 250 m or 3,000 m

as required
3 times every 20 m
as required

every 250 m or 3,000 m
at least once per day
every 1,000 m
every 50 m
as required
Layer thickness
Layer thickness

as required

every 1,000 m
2
Deformation modulus
on the subgrade
Deformation modulus E
v2
Deformation modulus E
vd



according to testing method M1 or M2



according to testing method M1 or M2



according to testing method M1 or M2
Internal control tests and compliance tests for the
stabilized layer are performed jointly by the con-
tractor and the client immediately after compac-
tion.
Internal control tests performed in the presence of
an agent appointed by the client may be acknowl-
edged as compliance tests.
As the processing times of hydraulic binders are
extremely short, internal control tests and compli-
ance tests should be performed jointly by the con-
tractor and the client immediately after completion
of a soil treatment operation.
Binder content, degree of compaction and bearing
capacity cannot be tested at a later date.
Performing these tests at a later date allows any
necessary adjustment of the operation or correc-
tion of the layer thickness, evenness or correct
vertical and horizontal position to be effected to a
limited extent only.
Determining the unconned compressive strength
on core samples or plate samples taken from the
completed layer does not allow any conclusions
to be drawn on compliance with the requirements
of the Additional technical conditions of contract
and directives for earthworks in road construction
(ZTV E-StB).
Compressive strength testing of the completed
stabilized layer has therefore not been specied.
Due to the relatively low strength, it is only rarely
possible to drill out suitable cores. In addition, the
shearing surfaces forming during compressive
strength testing are affected by hairline cracks
beginning to form and by larger single grains
embedded in the layer.
Compressive strength testing is performed as part
of the mix design only to determine the appropri-
ate binder quantity.
1.7.2.2 Testing methods and testing procedures
When performing the tests, a distinction is made
between testing methods and testing procedures.
Testing method: refers to the systematic ap-
proach used to verify the intended quality in
accordance with the specied requirements on
compaction characteristics.
Testing procedure: denes and determines the
test criteria. The testing procedures include spe-
cic work instructions to determine the compac-
tion characteristics.
52 // 53
Method M1: approach in accordance with sta-
tistical testing schedule
This method proceeds in accordance with Part E 1
of the Technical testing regulations for soil and rock
in road construction (TP BF-StB).
Method M1 determines the statistical distribution
of the test criterion within an inspection lot on the
basis of random checking. Based on the sampling
results, the decision is then made whether to accept
or to reject the inspection lot (refer to the Code of
practice for the compaction of subsoil and subgrade
in road construction (Merkblatt fr die Verdichtung
des Untergrundes und Unterbaues im Straenbau).
Method M1 can be used for all types of soil.
Method M1 is recommended in particular:
for large inspection lots;
for inspection lots tested to assess the uniform-
ity of compaction; and
for inspection lots tested using quick testing
procedures the results of which are available
immediately.
Method M2: approach when applying
continuous dynamic measuring procedures
This method proceeds in accordance with Part E 2
of the Technical testing regulations for soil and rock
in road construction (TP BF-StB).
Method M2 uses a measuring device installed at the
roller to continuously determine a dynamic measur-
ing value resulting from the interaction between roller
and soil and correlated with the soils stiffness and
degree of compaction. This method performs a full
inspection of the compacted layer (= inspection
surface) by means of an indirect testing procedure
(= dynamic measuring value) based on which a deci-
sion is then made whether to accept or reject the
inspection surface (= inspection lot).
Further information can be obtained from the Code
of practice on continuous dynamic procedures for
testing compaction in earthworks (Merkblatt ber
chendeckende dynamische Verfahren zur Prfung
der Verdichtung im Erdbau) and Code of practice
for the compaction of subsoil and subgrade in road
construction (Merkblatt fr die Verdichtung des
Untergrundes und des Unterbaues im Straenbau).
Method M2 is recommended in particular:
for construction projects with high daily output
rates and soils of largely uniform composition;
for inspection surfaces tested to assess the uni-
formity of compaction; and
where compaction is to be assessed as an integral
part of the operation.
Method M3: approach for monitoring the
working procedure
This method proceeds in accordance with Part E 3
of the Technical testing regulations for soil and rock
in road construction (TP BF-StB).
Method M3 typically uses trial compaction to prove
the suitability of the compaction procedure used.
A work instruction for compaction is then set up
based on the results of the trial compaction. Com-
paction of the earth structure tendered is carried out
in accordance with the work instruction. Adherence
to the work instruction must be documented.
Further information can be obtained from the
Code of practice for the compaction of subsoil and
subgrade in road construction (Merkblatt fr die
Verdichtung des Untergrundes und des Unterbaues
im Straenbau).
Method M3 is recommended, for example, for
smaller construction projects and restricted space
conditions.
1.7.2.2.1 Testing methods for testing compaction characteristics
Sampling and testing are carried out in accord-
ance with the Technical testing regulations for soil
and rock in road construction (TP BF-StB).
1. Degree of compaction D
Pr
The degree of compaction D
Pr
indicates the per-
centage of dry density
d
in the Proctor density
Pr

(= 100%) of the soil sample to be tested.
hat.
D
Pr
=
x
100 [%]

Pr
The Proctor density has to be determined for each
soil sample from the eld.
For soils and construction materials of uniform
composition, it is also possible to use the Proctor
density determined in the mix design or during trial
compaction.
2. Dry density
d
and voids ratio n
The dry density
d
and voids ratio n may be de-
ned as substitute parameters for materials which
do not allow a reliable determination of the Proc-
tor density (e.g. rock of variable strength, stony
ground, recycled construction materials, certain
industrial by-products etc.).
The specication values have to be agreed be-
tween the client and contractor based on:
local experience; or
investigations performed previously.
Voids ratio n

=
1-
[-]

d
= particle density of the native soil
3. Air voids ratio n
a
The air voids ratio is calculated from the results of
the density measurement and determination of the
water content.
The air voids ratio may be dened as an additional
characteristic for compaction.
Air voids ratio n
a
=
1 - w x
d
-
[-]

s
1.7.2.2.2 Testing procedures for determining compaction parameters
54 // 55
4. Indirect testing procedures for the degree of
compaction
For coarse-grained soils (GE, GW, GI, SE, SW,
SI) and mixed-grained soils with a nes content
< 15% by mass (GU, GT, SU, ST), the following
substitute procedures may be used to determine
the degree of compaction:
static plate bearing test according to DIN 18134;
and
dynamic plate bearing test in accordance with
Part B 8.3 of the Technical testing regulations
for soil and rock in road construction (TP BF-
StB).
Calibration tests must be performed to determine
the correlation between the indirect testing method
chosen and the degree of compaction.
E
v
d

[

M
N

/

m
2
]
D
Pr
[ % ]
Relation between D
Pr
and E
vd
95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
For coarse-grained soils, the following correlation applies according to the Additional technical condi-
tions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construction (ZTV E-StB):
Guideline values for correlating the static deformation modulus E
v2
and the ratio E
v2
/ E
v1
with the
degree of compaction D
Pr
in coarse-grained soils:
An even higher E
v2
/ E
v1
ratio is permissible if E
v1
reaches 60% of the E
v2
value specied.
Soil group Static deformation
modulus
E
v2
in MN / m
2
Ratio
E
v2
/ E
v1
Degree of compaction
D
Pr
in %
GW, GI 100
80
2.3
2.5
100
98
GE, SE, SW, SI 80
70
2.3
2.5
100
98
Soil group Dynamic deformation
modulus
E
vd
in MN / m
2
Degree of compaction
D
Pr
in %
GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
50
40
100
98
Guideline values for correlating the dynamic deformation modulus E
vd
with the degree of
compaction D
Pr
in coarse-grained soils:
On the subgrade, the bearing and deformation
behaviour must be veried by means of the defor-
mation modulus E
v2
or the dynamic deformation
modulus E
vd
.
The following methods and procedures must be
used:
Testing method M1 (statistical testing schedule)
Testing is conducted by means of:
- the static plate bearing test according to
DIN 18134; and
- the dynamic plate bearing test according to
the Technical testing regulations for soil and
rock in road construction (TP BF-StB), Part
B 8.3.
Testing method M2 (continuous dynamic meas-
uring procedure) to the extent that it is suitable
for use in terms of soil mechanics
The test results have to be calibrated to the
deformation modulus E
v2
or E
vd
respectively
(see Technical testing regulations for soil and
rock in road construction [TP BF-StB], Part
E 4).
Testing method M3 (monitoring the working pro-
cedure by means of single testing) according to
DIN 18134 or the Technical testing regulations
for soil and rock in road construction
(TP BF-StB), Part B 8.3.
56 // 57
1.7.2.2.3 Testing deformation modulus, correct vertical and horizontal position and
evenness on the subgrade
The suitability of soils for soil treatment (depend-
ing on the binder used) must be veried within the
scope of a mix design.
The soils to be treated should be available in a
largely homogeneous quality.
1.8 Soils and mineral construction materials for
soil treatment
1.8.1 Suitable soils (according to DIN 18196)
Coarse-grained soils with a maximum particle
size of 63 mm
GE, GW, GI, SE, SW, SI
Fine-grained and mixed-grained soils
SU, ST, GU, GT, SU*, ST*, GU*, GT*, UL, UM,
UA, TL, TM
1.8.2 Soils (according to DIN 18196) and construction materials suitable to
a limited extent
Clays of high plasticity to the extent that they
are of soft to stiff consistency and can be
sufciently crushed
TA
Mixed-grained soils containing stones larger
than 63 mm to the extent that these can be
removed or crushed if in weathered state
Soils containing organic matter and organogenic
soils
Soils of varying composition or nature
Recycled and manufactured aggregates
Rocks of variable strength (siltstones and clay
stones) if they can be sufciently crushed and
have a sufciently high water content to allow
compaction (reduction of air voids ratio)
1.8.3 Non-suitable soils
Non-suitable soils include soils which cannot
be substantially improved (suitability for placing,
compactability) or sufciently stabilized (bearing
capacity, frost resistance) by adding high binder
contents and using standard equipment.
Clays of high plasticity and semi-rm to rm
consistency TA
Rocks of variable strength (siltstones and clay
stones) if they cannot be sufciently crushed
Organic soils
Heaving may destroy the structure as a result of
chemical reactions of the sulphates and sulphides
(pyrite) with the free calcium contained in the
lime or cement (or both substances when using a
mixed binder).
In the process, volumetric strains ranging from
10% to 30% develop at swelling pressures of
up to 5 MPa caused by ettringite or thaumasite
growth.
Caution should generally be exercised with all
sulphate-bearing soils or waters, pyrite, gypsum
and anhydrite in combination with free calcium at a
pH value > 10.5.
Criteria for assessing native soils
No risk: electrical conductivity of soil saturation
extract < 200 S / cm
Low risk: sulphate content between 3,000 ppm
and 5,000 ppm
Medium to high risk: sulphate content between
5,000 ppm and 8,000 ppm
Soil not suitable for soil treatment: sulphate
content > 8,000 ppm
A mineralogical analysis of the soil should always
be performed on critical soil types in order to avoid
exposure of the structure to any risk.
Ettringite or thaumasite reaction is, among other
things, additionally inuenced by the following
factors:
temperature (reaction requires temperatures
< 15C);
dry-wet cycles;
pore size of soil mixture (compaction);
sulphate type and solubility; and
clay content of soil (clay content < 10%
unproblematic).
58 // 59
Natural aggregates are classied based on grading
in accordance with DIN 18196.
Articial aggregates and recycled construction
materials must comply with both environmentally
relevant and water-management requirements.
These requirements are stipulated, for example,
in the Directives for the environmentally compat-
ible use of industrial by-products and recycled
construction materials in road construction
(RuA-StB), Directives for the environmentally
compatible use of reclaimed materials contain-
ing tar-bound matter and for the use of reclaimed
asphalt in road construction (RuVA-StB) and
Technical delivery terms for aggregates in road
construction (TL Gestein-StB).
Recycled construction materials intended for
use in soil treatment must always be tested for
sulphates!
1.8.5 Sulphate inuence
1.8.4 Natural and articial aggregates and recycled construction materials
The following binders may be used for soil treat-
ment without requiring further agreement provided
they comply with the pertinent standards:
Cements according to DIN 197-1 and DIN 197-4
Cements according to DIN 1164-10
Building limes according to DIN EN 459-1
In addition, these must comply with supplementa-
ry requirements in terms of reactivity and grading
according to the Additional technical conditions
of contract and directives for earthworks in road
construction (ZTV E-StB).
Hydraulic soil and road binders according
to DIN 18506
Mixed binders produced from standard hydraulic
binders or their major hydraulic constituents
Other binders may be used provided that their
suitability has been veried and their use has been
agreed upon between the client and contractor.
The purpose of construction and goal of soil
treatment should be dened prior to selecting the
binder to be used.
This requires an investigation of the native soil
and its properties and of the requirements on the
structure in terms of soil analysis.
In the next step, tests have to be performed in
order to determine the means (soil improvement,
qualied soil improvement) by which and degree
to which the properties and soil characteristics can
be improved.
The mechanical properties of the treated soil
should be dened and determined to allow selec-
tion of the binder and mixing procedure to be
used.
The criteria to be determined include shear
strength, stiffness, swelling or shrinkage proper-
ties and durability in order to obtain a sustainable
structure.
The type, method and formula to be used for soil
treatment can be determined by means of mineral-
ogical and soil-mechanical investigations.
1.9 Binders
1.9.2 Types of binder
1.9.1 General
1.9.3 Mode of binder action
1.9.3.1 Building limes
A distinction in the mode of action of ne limes is
made between instantaneous and long-term reac-
tion.
The instantaneous reaction commences within min-
utes after mixing and is complete after some days.
The long-term reaction commences after some
days and may continue for a period of several
years.
Overall, there is only a moderate development of
strength.
60 // 61
Instantaneous reaction:
Quick reduction of water content in the soil-
binder mixture resulting from
- aeration during the mixing process
- the chemical bond of water
- vaporization as a result of the heat generated
during quicklime hydration
Crumbling caused by incipient chemical reac-
tions in the clay minerals and at their contact
surfaces
Aggregation of ne-grained soils
Increase of plastic limit
This leads to an increase of consistency index
I
c
and a reduction of plasticity index I
p
.
Result:
Improved compactability
Improved plastic properties and thus decreasing
susceptibility to water
Proctor curve shifts to the wet side resulting in
a decrease of the dry density and simultaneous
increase of the optimum water content
This results in an increase of the bearing
capacity
D
r
y

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

[

t

/

m
3
]
Water content w [%]
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
1.85
1.80
1.75
1.70
1.65
1.60
1.55
w
Pr
w
Pr
97 % D
Pr
97 % D
Pr
Clayey soil (TM)
untreated
treated with 2%
of binder
treated with
6% of binder
treated with
4% of binder
Long-term reaction:
Pozzolanic hardening (chemical conversion of
the clay minerals)
Cation exchange
Bridging
Carbonation (with CO
2
)
Result:
Volume stability, long-term increase in strength,
permanent bearing capacity and frost resist-
ance build up over a period of some months to
several years.
Mixed binder (lime-cement products) action is
based on the synergistic effects of ne lime and
cement, using all of the positive properties offered
by both products.
As a result, mixed binders can be used for nearly
all types of soil if applied at the appropriate mixing
ratio.
1.9.3.3 Mixed binders
Cement action is based on the binding effects of
the hardened cement paste.
The aggregate is coated and cured, and the reac-
tion takes place with the pore water.
Strength development is high caused by the for-
mation of the hardened cement paste.
1.9.3.2 Cements
Soil types ideal for treatment with cement:
coarse-grained soils with a very low silt content
Soil types ideal for treatment with mixed
binders:
clays of low to medium plasticity, mixed-
grained soils (of low to medium plasticity),
waterlogged coarse-grained soils
Soil types ideal for treatment with lime:
clays of medium to high plasticity
62 // 63
Hydrophobic binders are used on projects where
the binders cannot be mixed in right after spread-
ing or if a soil treatment operation is scheduled in
a season where rainfall tends to be higher.
The binders hydrophobic action is neutralized
by the milling operation, which extends the time
frame available for processing.
1.9.4.2 Hydrophobic binders
1.9.4 Binders with special properties
Low-dust binders are used on projects requiring
lower dust levels than is normal for such applica-
tions. This is the case in particular in the vicinity of
residential areas, infrastructure facilities, light metal
facades, glazed surfaces or similar sensitive areas.
The binder is treated by means of a special,
patented process which results in a signicant
reduction of dust development during spreading
and milling.
Examples of products: all DOROSOL mixtures,
DOROPORT TB N
1.9.4.1 Low-dust binders
1.9.5 Binder applications
During geotechnical investigations, the main crite-
ria for selecting the binder to be used are typically
grading or the plasticity and water content of the
soil.
The areas of application of the different types of
binders are shown in the grading chart.
a) In soil improvement operations, mixed binders
work most effectively in mixed-grained soils and
in soils of low to medium plasticity.
The natural water content of soils suitable for
this type of treatment is reduced and the bear-
ing capacity improved in a single operation.
Based on the grading curve, the most suitable
binder can be selected in accordance with the
grading chart.
b) The strength of mixed-grained soils and soils
of low plasticity (TL, GU*) is determined by the
hydraulic proportion of the binder while the
overall binder content remains unchanged. The
highest strengths are achieved using a mixed
binder with a high content of cement or a road
binder (cement).
Mixed binders produce the highest strengths
in clays of medium plasticity (TM). With clays
in the transition zone from medium to high
plasticity and with clays of high plasticity (TA),
the highest strengths are achieved when using
mixed binders with a high lime proportion or
lime respectively.
c) Coarse-grained soils are treated using either
mixed binders with a high content of cement or
road binders (cement).
d) Mixed binders with a higher content of lime are
used for soils with a high water content in order
to reduce the water content and obtain a soil-
binder mixture of ideal consistency for placing.
Particle diameter d [mm]
M
a
s
s

f
r
a
c
t
i
o
n

o
f

g
r
a
i
n
s

<

d

i
n

%

o
f

t
h
e

t
o
t
a
l

q
u
a
n
t
i
t
y

0.001 0.002 0.006 0.01 0.02 0.06 0.1 0.2 0.6 1 2 6 10 20 60 100
fine
Silt
Fine aggregate range
medium coarse
Ultra-
fines
M
i
x
e
d

b
i
n
d
e
r
s
F
i
n
e

l
i
m
e
Type of soil: TA
Type of soil: TM, TL, UM
Non-suitable,
not crushable
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
64 // 65
Particle diameter d [mm]
0.001 0.002 0.006 0.01 0.02 0.06 0.1 0.2 0.6 1 2 6 10 20 60 100
fine fine
Silt Sand Gravel
Fine aggregate range Coarse aggregate range
medium medium coarse coarse coarse
Stones
M
i
x
e
d

b
i
n
d
e
r
s
R
o
a
d

b
i
n
d
e
r
s
Type of soil: GU, SU
Type of soil: GW, GI
Non-suitable,
too coarse
Type of soil:
GU*, SU*
The processing time of a binder is the period of
time passing between spreading of the binder
and compaction of the soil (with the exception of
hydrophobic binders).
The following time intervals are permitted for pro-
cessing the soil-binder mixture:
Use of cement or road binder: measured from
commencement of spreading or addition of the
binder until completion of compaction
- maximum 2.0 hours at temperatures of up
to 20C
- maximum 1.5 hours at temperatures above
20C
Use of hydrophobic cement or hydropho-
bic road binder: measured from mixing of the
binder and soil until completion of compaction
- maximum 2.0 hours at temperatures of up to
20C
- maximum 1.5 hours at temperatures above
20C
Use of mixed binder: measured from com-
mencement of spreading or addition of the
binder until completion of compaction
- maximum 4.0 hours at temperatures of up to
20C
- maximum 3.0 hours at temperatures above
20C
These times are based on the different reaction
behaviours of the binders.
Cement and road binders react upon contact
with the moist soil and have fairly short process-
ing times.
Hydrophobic cement and hydrophobic road
binders react only when mixed into the soil.
Mixed binders react upon contact with the moist
soil and have longer processing times than ce-
ment.
1.9.6 Binder processing times
1.9.7 Binder reaction times
The reaction time of a binder is the period of time
passing between mixing-in of the binder and com-
paction of the soil.
Modication of the reaction time has a strong inu-
ence on Proctor density and strength.
For all binders, extending the reaction time
results in:
an increase of the optimum water content;
a reduction of the Proctor density; and
a reduction in strength of the soil-binder mixture.
66 // 67
Signicant reductions in strength occur when ex-
tending the reaction time of cement. The reaction
time of one hour specied for soil stabilization in
the Technical testing regulations for soil and rock
in road construction (TP BF-StB), Part B 11.1,
should also be complied with for soil improve-
ment. This approach results in the highest bearing
capacity and lowest sensitivity to water immersion
of the soil-binder mixture.
Longer reaction times are required for white ne
lime. The requirements specied in the Techni-
cal testing regulations for soil and rock in road
construction (TP BF-StB), Part B 11.3, stipulat-
ing a reaction time of six hours produce the most
signicant change in the Proctor curve. Factoring
in the development of strength, shorter reaction
times can be chosen also with a view to a way of
working that is more in line with practical require-
ments.
The following time periods between working in the
binder and compaction should be adhered to:
Binder -
Cement
CEM I
Mixed binder
Fine lime
CL90Q
Reaction time h 1 3 - 5 > 6
The reaction times of mixed binders depend on
their hydraulic proportion and have to be set to
between 3 and 5 hours.
Where appropriate, the reaction time of mixed
binders can be adjusted in accordance with their
main binder components.
1.10 Water
The water content of the soil to be treated should
be equivalent to the optimum water content for
placing and compacting.
If the water content of coarse-grained or mixed-
grained soils intended for soil treatment is too low,
water should be added as follows:
with ne-grained soils: early enough for the
moisture to have penetrated the soil completely
and uniformly when the binder is mixed in; and
with mixed-grained or coarse-grained soils:
shortly after spreading the binder.
As an option, the water to be added can also be
injected into the milling and mixing chamber dur-
ing the milling operation.
The water must not contain any substances
and / or impurities that would have a detrimental
effect on the soil treatment process.
If the water content of a mixed-grained or ne-
grained soil intended for soil treatment is signi-
cantly higher than the optimum water content, it
must be reduced by appropriate measures.
Appropriate measures include, for example, the
use of mixed binders. The ne lime contained in
mixed binders reduces the water content, resulting
in optimum conditions for placing and compacting.
The natural water content of the soil has an inu-
ence on the quantity of binder to be added, as has
the Proctor density to be achieved.
68 // 69
Cement:
water reduction by approx. 0.3% per 1% of binder
DOROSOL C 30 (example):
water reduction by approx. 0.5 1.0% per 1% of binder
DOROSOL C 50 (example):
water reduction by approx. 1.0 1.5% per 1% of binder
Fine lime:
water reduction by approx. 2.0 2.5% per 1% of binder
1 2 3 4 5
B
i
n
d
e
r

q
u
a
n
t
i
t
y


a
t

9
7
%

D
P
r
B
i
n
d
e
r

q
u
a
n
t
i
t
y


a
t

1
0
0
%

D
P
r
= Wnat < Wopt
= Wnat = Wopt
= Wnat > Wopt
Addition of binder (% by weight)
Optimum
water content
100% DPr
97% DPr
W
a
t
e
r

c
o
n
t
e
n
t

(
%

b
y

w
e
i
g
h
t
)
Example:
Rule of thumb for reduction of the water content:
1.11 Effects of weather
An effective drainage system must be in place
during construction to prevent any damage from
being caused by standing or running water.
In case of light precipitation, a dry binder must be
milled in sufciently fast after spreading to avoid
penetration of moisture and, as a result, caking of
the binder. Should any lumps have formed none-
theless, they must be adequately crushed during
milling.
Hydrophobic cements or road binders are usually
not prone to lump formation.
If the water content specied as a requirement for
adequate compaction of the soil is exceeded as a
result of precipitation, meaning that the soil-binder
mixture cannot be sufciently compacted, the
operation has to be interrupted until the soil has
dried to a sufcient degree.
1.11.1 Precipitation
1.11.2 Wind
Special binders (such as DOROSOL PRO C) can
be used to reduce binder drifts. These binders
signicantly reduce the development of dust.
Spreading of the dry binder must be discontinued,
however, if strong winds cause excessive binder
quantities to be blown away so that an unaccep-
table pollution of the environment occurs or the
safety of road users is put at risk.
70 // 71
Soil stabilization and qualied soil improvement
operations should preferably not be carried out at
ground and air temperatures below +5C.
If soil treatment operations are scheduled at
temperatures below +5C, the required protective
measures must be included in the specication of
works. Consideration also needs to be given to the
fact that, in the rst three days and for the longest
possible period of time thereafter, the temperature
of the soil-binder mixture should not fall below
+5C. Where appropriate, the next layer can be
placed as a protection for the previously treated
layer.
It is not permissible to perform soil treatment
operations on frozen ground.
If frost is to be expected, the drainage system
must be sufciently effective to prevent the sta-
bilized layer from freezing in the water-saturated
state.
At air temperatures above 25C or in case of
exposure to intense sunlight, the water content
has to be adjusted to ensure that the construction
material mixture retains the optimum water content
for compaction.
1.11.3 Temperature
1.12 Soil treatment Construction
1.12.1 Mixing procedures
A general distinction is made between two differ-
ent procedures which can be used to produce a
soil-binder mixture.
Mixed-in-plant process
Where the mixed-in-place process cannot be
used for technical reasons (due to, for exam-
ple, existing manholes, gullies, road widenings,
structures, trenches etc.) or is uneconomical,
soil-binder mixtures produced using the mixed-
in-plant process can be placed instead.
In soil treatment operations, it is usually not
economically feasible to produce soil-binder
mixtures using the mixed-in-plant process.
Mixed-in-place process
The mixed-in-place process is the standard
construction method used in soil treatment
operations.
The mixer travels on the layer prepared for treat-
ment, working in the previously spread binder
and, where appropriate, the required quantity of
water.
Variations in the sequence of the individual
operational steps are possible depending on the
location of the excavation and paving sites.
Special process
Where the paving site does not allow for a mixer
to be used (in case of road widenings, relling of
utility trenches or structural backlls, or in areas
or locations where binder drifts must be avoided
etc.), the binder can be spread and mixed in at
the excavation site. The soil-binder mixture is
then transported to the paving site, placed and
compacted.
1.12.2 Mixed-in-plant process
The soil, binder and required quantity of water
are mixed together in a central mixing plant. Both
batch mixers and continuous mixers can be used.
Mobile mixing plants are suitable for use in par-
ticular on larger construction projects.
Mixing of the soil and binder needs to continue
until a homogeneous mixture has been produced
(indicated by the uniform colour of the soil-binder
mixture). The nished mixture must then be trans-
ported to the paving site (preferably covered to
prevent dehydration) and placed.
The specied layer thickness must be complied
with.
The subsoil or subgrade must be levelled off
to enable the specied thickness and level to
be achieved after the stabilized layer has been
placed.
The subgrade or subsoil must comply with the
specied degree of compaction.
72 // 73
1.12.3 Mixed-in-place process
1.12.3.1 Principles of construction for the mixed-in-place process
(all elds of soil treatment)
Soil stabilization
Qualified
soil improvement
Soil improvement
Remove topsoil and organic matter.
Scarify and crush densely packed or semi-rm ne-grained or
mixed-grained soils as required.
Remove stones with a diameter > 63 mm. Prole and thickness
of the stabilized layer have to be maintained.
Fine lime can be added to neutralize excessively acidic soils.
A sufcient reaction time of several days has to be determined by
means of an extended mix design.
For mixed-grained or ne-grained soils of groups GU*, GT*, SU*,
ST*, U, T, OU and OT, the water content has to be adjusted so
as not to exceed the maximum value (maximum 10 percentile) of
12% by volume for the air voids ratio of the compacted soil-binder
mixture (refer to the Additional technical conditions of contract
and directives for earthworks in road construction [ZTV E-StB]).
Prior to spreading the binding agent, the soil must be levelled off
and compacted in accordance with the Additional technical con-
ditions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construc-
tion (ZTV E-StB).
The level of the pre-compacted subgrade has to be adjusted so
that, taking into account the degree of compaction in the stabi-
lized layer, the actual levels and layer thickness neither exceed nor
fall below the design levels and layer thickness.
The material-specic properties must be taken into account when
using articial aggregates and recycled construction materials.
The codes of practice applicable in each case have to be com-
plied with.
Soil improvement measures
have to be performed so as to
ensure that adequate compac-
tion and the correct vertical
and horizontal position of the
completed layer are achieved.
The layer to be improved must
be of uniform thickness, requir-
ing the soil to be levelled off
prior to spreading the binder.
Preparatory measures
74 // 75
The binder must be spread evenly using appro-
priate machinery.
Even distribution of the binder is not guaranteed
when using fertilizer spreaders or blowing the
binder from a silo transporter.
The latter is generally ruled out because of the
risk of accidents and pollution of the environ-
ment associated with this method. The pertinent
EC safety data sheet has to be complied with
when working with hydraulic binder and building
lime.
The quantity of binder applied must be veried
by means of test sheets placed on the ground
(see the Technical testing regulations for soil
and rock in road construction [TP BF-StB], Part
B 11.2). For the mixed-in-place process, the
amount of binder is specied in kg / m; for the
mixed-in-plant process, it is specied in % by
mass relative to the dry density of the soil.
In areas where access is difcult, it is advisable
to place a soil-binder mixture produced off the
paving site.
Adequate protection against binder drifts must
be ensured during construction. The spread-
ers should be tted with appropriate protective
equipment (such as low guards).
In soil improvement operations, dust develop-
ment caused by wind can be reduced by scari-
fying the surface prior to spreading the binder. In
addition, binders are available which cause less
dust during processing.
Spreading of the binder and mixing should gen-
erally be carried out in quick succession. Hydro-
phobic cements enable longer processing times
because of their water-repellent properties; their
reaction time does not commence until they are
mixed with the soil.
Preparatory measures
Soil stabilization
Qualified soil
improvement
Soil improvement
Soil stabilization
Qualified
soil improvement
Soil improvement
For soil stabilization, only high-performance machines (such as
soil stabilizers) may be used which enable proper homogenization
of the soil-binder mixture. Mixing needs to continue until a uniform
colouring, uniform water content and ne, crumbly soil structure
have been achieved over the entire specied layer thickness.
Cultivators, disc harrows and
bulldozers with suitable ancil-
lary equipment have proven to
be effective in stony soils. In
this rst machine pass, the soil
is loosened, and larger stones
(boulders) are removed.
Thorough mixing cannot be
achieved through the exclusive
use of graders, bulldozers with
rippers and excavators.
Mixing
76 // 77
Mixing result after one milling
pass
Mixing result after two milling
passes
Mixing result after three milling
passes
Soil stabilization
Qualified
soil improvement
Soil improvement
Grading and compacting
Different degrees of pre-compaction of the
milled soil and the wheel tracks caused by the
weight of the soil stabilizer have to be removed
prior to grading and compacting.
Stabilized soil should be graded in exceptional
cases and in selective areas only prior to com-
paction as otherwise continuous layer thick-
nesses cannot be guaranteed.
Information on compaction and the equipment
to be used can be obtained from the Code
of practice for the compaction of subsoil and
subgrade in road construction (Merkblatt fr
die Verdichtung des Untergrundes und des
Unterbaues im Straenbau). The equipment
used must be tailored to the type of soil, layer
thickness and number of passes.
The specied degree of compaction has to be
ensured over the entire layer thickness and
across the entire cross-section including the
peripheral areas. The contractor has to perform
a trial compaction at the start of compaction to
verify that the specied requirements are met by
the working procedures selected.
The following details for the working procedure
have to be stipulated in a work instruction:
- the compaction equipment selected;
- the placing method;
- the number of roller passes required; and
- the maximum bulk height of the individual lay-
ers to be placed.
78 // 79
Soil stabilization
Qualified
soil improvement
Soil improvement
Curing
Curing is meant to prevent premature drying of
soil stabilized with hydraulic binders.
Stabilized layers need to be kept moist for a pe-
riod of at least 3 days, for example, by spraying
a ne mist of water.
As an option, a bitumen emulsion (U 60 K) can
be sprayed on the fully compacted, moist layer
until a thin, continuous lm has formed. The
quantity to be sprayed needs to be determined
in preliminary tests on a case-by-case basis.
If site vehicles are to drive on the stabilized soil,
the emulsion has to be protected by spreading
chippings (e.g. of grade 1 / 3 mm or 2 / 5 mm)
immediately after spraying.
Reference values for the spreading quantity are
approx. 0.7 kg / m for ne-grained soils and ap-
prox. 1.1 kg / m for coarse-grained soils.
Curing can be omitted if an additional layer is
placed on top of the still fresh, compacted layer.
Care must be taken, however, that the subsoil or
subgrade is neither disturbed nor squeezed.
Curing is generally not required when carrying
out soil treatment operations using building lime
or soil improvement operations using mixed
binders.
1.12.4 Requirements for soil treatment
Soil stabilization
Coarse-grained soils:
The Additional technical conditions of contract and di-
rectives for the construction of base layers with hydraulic
binders and concrete pavements (ZTV Beton-StB) apply.
Fine-grained or mixed-grained soils:
The binder quantity has to be selected to meet the
following requirements:
Requirements on:
Requirements on the minimum 10 percentile for the
degree of compaction D
Pr
or maximum 10 percentile
for the air voids ratio n
a
GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
GU, GT, SU, ST
D
Pr
> 100%
GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*
U, T, OU
1)
, OT
1)
D
Pr
> 97%
and n
a
< 12%
Soil groups Frost resist-
ance (heaving
of specimen)
Compressive
strength
)
(af-
ter 28 days)
GU, GT, SU, ST
2)
6.0 N / mm
2
GU*, SU*, UL, UM
GT*, ST*, TL, TM, TA

Recycled and manu-


factured aggregates
6.0 N / mm
2
I
I
1
I
I
1
I
I
1
1)
The compressive strength is based on a specimen diameter of
10 cm.
In special cases, the 7-day strength can be tested taking into
account the development of strength of the binder. Hydraulic
binders resulting in a slow development of strength in the soil-binder
mixture may require the compressive strength to be veried after a
period exceeding 28 days.
2)
Compressive strength only is tested if the soil is classied into
frost-susceptibility class F1. Both tests are performed if the soil is
classied into frost-susceptibility class F2.
Fine lime and hydrated lime
according to the Technical testing regulations for soil
and rock in road construction (TP BF-StB), Part B 11.5
Compressive cylinder strength after exposure to frost
> 0.2 N / mm, binder quantity > 4% by mass
Requirement on the layer to be stabilized
(mixed-in-place process only)
Requirements on the degree of compaction of the
stabilized layer immediately after completion of
compaction
1)
These requirements apply to soils of groups OU and OT only if their
suitability and placing conditions have been investigated separately
and determined in consultation with the client.
1.12.4.2 Compaction characteristics
D
Pr
> 98% of the Proctor density of
the soil-binder mixture
1.12.4.1 Binder quantity
Hydraulic binders and mixed binders
80 // 81
Qualied soil improvement Soil improvement
Binder content 3% by mass
Qualied soil improvement of subgrade
The binder quantity has to be selected to meet the follow-
ing requirements:
Unconned compressive strength after 28 days and test-
ing in accordance with the Technical testing regulations
for soil and rock in road construction (TP BF-StB),
Part B 11.3, 0.5 N / mm
The loss in strength after soaking in water for 24 hours
must not exceed 50%.
Alternatively: CBR after 28 days and testing in accordance
with the Technical testing regulations for soil and rock in
road construction (TP BF-StB), Part B 7.1, 40%
The loss in strength after soaking in water for 24 hours
must not exceed 50%.
The test may also be performed after 7 days and / or at
other testing times.
Qualied soil improvement for other applications
Determination of the binder quantity in accordance with
the structural soil analysis.
Requirements on compaction
Requirements on the minimum 10 percentile for the
degree of compaction D
Pr
or maximum 10 percentile for
the air voids ratio n
a
Area Soil groups DPr
in %
na
in %
Subgrade to a depth of
1.00 m for embankments
Subgrade to a depth of
0.50 m for cuts
GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
GU, GT, SU, ST
> 100
1.00 m below grade to
embankment base
GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
GU, GT, SU, ST
> 98
Subgrade to embankment
base
Subgrade to a depth of
0.50 m for cuts
GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*
U, T, OU
1)
, OT
1)
> 97 < 12
Requirements on compaction
Requirements on the minimum 10 percentile for the
degree of compaction D
Pr
or maximum 10 percentile
for the air voids ratio n
a
Area Soil groups DPr
in %
na
in %
Subgrade to a depth of
1.00 m for embankments
Subgrade to a depth of
0.50 m for cuts
GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
GU, GT, SU, ST
> 100
1.00 m below grade to
embankment base
GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
GU, GT, SU, ST
> 98
Subgrade to embankment
base
Subgrade to a depth of
0.50 m for cuts
GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*
U, T, OU
1)
, OT
1)
> 97 < 12
1.12.4.4 Surface
Based on the results of the mix design, the con-
tractor species the binder quantity:
- in kg / m for the mixed-in-place process
- in % by mass for the mixed-in-plant process
The quantity of binder delivered for the construc-
tion lot must not:
- fall below the quantity determined in the mix
design by more than 5%
- exceed the quantity determined in the mix
design by more than 8%
Binder quantities determined individually (in ac-
cordance with the Technical testing regulations
for soil and rock in road construction
[TP BF-StB], Part 11.2) must not:
- fall below the design value determined in the
mix design by more than 10%
- exceed the design value determined in the mix
design by more than 15%
Max. deviation of the surface from the design
level: 2 cm
2.0 cm over a measured length of 4 m if the
stabilized layer is the base immediately under-
lying the pavement
Max. deviation of the paving thickness from the
design value: 10%
Soil stabilization
Requirements on:
1.12.4.3 Verication of binder quantity
1.12.4.5 Evenness
1.12.4.6 Paving thickness
82 // 83
Based on the results of the mix design, the con-
tractor species the binder quantity:
- in kg / m for the mixed-in-place process
- in % by mass for the mixed-in-plant process
The quantity of binder delivered for the construc-
tion lot must not:
- fall below the quantity determined in the mix
design by more than 5%
- exceed the quantity determined in the mix
design by more than 8%
Binder quantities determined individually (in ac-
cordance with the Technical testing regulations
for soil and rock in road construction [TP BF-StB],
Part 11.2) must not:
- fall below the design value determined in the
mix design by more than 10%
- exceed the design value determined in the mix
design by more than 15%
Requirements determined by position within the
structure
Requirements determined by position within the
structure
Requirements determined by position within the
structure
Requirements determined by position within the
structure
Requirements determined by position within the
structure
Requirements determined by position within the
structure
Qualied soil improvement Soil improvement
1.13 Structural backlls
Backll area
Drainage area (the drainage area is part of the
backll area)
Cover ll area
1.13.1 Terms
1.13.2 Construction materials
1.13.2.1 Drainage area
1.13.2.2 Backll and cover ll areas
The materials used must be resistant to weather-
ing and must not contain any substances capable
of swelling, sensitive to disintegration or aggres-
sive to the pavement.
The addition of binders enables the bearing ca-
pacity of the backll to be improved and the
inherent settlement to be reduced.
The drainage area has to be produced from
coarse-grained soil (DIN 18196).
Coarse-grained soils (SW, SI, SE, GW, GI, GE)
Mixed-grained soils (SU, ST, GU, GT)
Mixed-grained soils (SU*, ST*, GU*, GT*) and
ne-grained soils (TL, TM, UM, UL) combined
with qualied soil improvement
Manufactured aggregates and recycled con-
struction materials
Coal y ash, coal host rock and recycled con-
struction materials containing asphalt may be
used outside the drainage area only.
In addition, a soil-binder mixture can be placed
in backll areas where access is difcult; and
below the horizon underneath of which the
backll cannot be drained due to a lack of runoff
capability and nearly impermeable subsoil
in order to ensure proper compaction and / or
prevent any accumulation of water.
If mixed-grained soils are used, the structures
require a 1.0 m thick drainage layer.
84 // 85
The requirement on the minimum 10 percentile for
the degree of compaction of
applies to the
backll area;
cover ll area; and
embankment shoulders at the wings of the
structure.
In the backll and cover ll areas, the construc-
tion material must be placed and compacted in
uniform layers of approx. 30 cm in thickness.
Construction of the embankment cones at the
wings of the structure must proceed parallel to the
backlling or cover-lling operation.
The backll area must be tied-in with an embank-
ment or cutting slope in a stepped, interlocking
pattern.
1.13.3 Compaction
D
Pr
= 100%
Previously excavated soil has to be used for rell-
ing as required and as appropriate.
Appropriate measures have to be taken to main-
tain the stockpiled soil in a condition suitable for
placing.
Excavated, excessively wet soil can be treated
with binders to turn it into a condition suitable for
placing.
1.14 Relling utility trenches
1.14.1 General
1.14.2 Working in the binder
The binder is worked in either next to the trench
using a mixing shovel or on a stockyard using a
soil stabilizer.
Binder drifts must be avoided when working in the
immediate neighbourhood of residential areas.
Low-dust binders have to be used where appropri-
ate.
1.14.3 Compaction
The soil used to rell utility trenches in the body of
the road has to be compacted so as to meet the
following requirements on the minimum
10 percentile for the degree of compaction D
Pr
or
the maximum 10 percentile for the air voids ratio n
a

respectively.
Area Soil groups D
Pr
in %
n
a
in % by
volume
Subgrade to a depth of 1.00 m for
embankments
Subgrade to a depth of 0.50 m for cuts
GW, GI, GE, SW, SI,
SE, GU, GT, SU, ST
100
1.00 m below grade to embankment base
GW, GI, GE, SW, SI,
SE, GU, GT, SU, ST
98
Subgrade to embankment base
Subgrade to a depth of 0.50 m for cuts
GU*, GT*, SU*, ST*
U, T, OU
1)
, OT
1)
97 12
2
)
1) These requirements apply to soils of groups OU and OT only if their
suitability and placing conditions have been investigated separately
and determined in consultation with the client.
2) If the soils are not improved by means of soil stabilization or
qualied soil improvement, a requirement on the maximum
10 percentile for the air voids ratio is recommended as follows:
8% by volume when placing water-sensitive mixed-grained or
ne-grained soils; and
6% by volume when placing rock of variable strength.
86 // 87
A requirement on the minimum 10 percentile for
the degree of compaction of 97% applies for the
embedment of utility trenches in and outside of the
road body.
88 // 89
Today, base layers with hydraulic binders comprise
stabilized layers, hydraulically bound base layers
or concrete base layers.
Base layers form the lower part of the roads pave-
ment. The static and dynamic loads acting on the
pavement are transferred through the base and
into the subsoil or subgrade.
This manual addresses soil stabilization with
hydraulic binders and hydraulically bound base
layers.
Other types of base layers are cited for the pur-
pose of completeness only.
The Romans were the rst to successfully use
hydraulic binders in road construction.
Base layers consisting of lean concrete built at
the turn of the century can be found under some
of Munichs city-centre streets even today.
Hydraulic binders were used in the construction
of motorways and airport runways even prior to
World War II.
In the 1960s, there was a growing recognition in
Germany to manufacture cement-bound construc-
tion material mixtures for base layers in accord-
ance with the principles of soil mechanics.
Technical and economic reasons have led to base
layers with hydraulic binders being used to an
ever-increasing extent.
In addition to the benets of slab action, which
reduces the loads exerted on the subsoil or
subgrade, and their insusceptibility to temperature
uctuations, base layers with hydraulic binders
offer the following additional advantages:
low susceptibility to long-term load action; no
creeping;
no permanent deformation under load at high
temperatures;
suitable recycled construction materials and
industrial by-products can be used; and
high durability (service life) of the base layer.
Introduction
90 // 91
2. Base Layers with Hydraulic Binders
2.1 General
According to the Directives for the standardiza-
tion of the superstructures of trafcked surfaces
(RStO), a distinction is made between:
base layers without binders;
base layers with hydraulic binders; and
base layers with special properties.
Construction material mixtures are mixtures
consisting of aggregates with a dened grading
without binder and water.
Paving mixes are construction material mixtures
with binder and water.
The leaching behaviour of harmful substances
must be determined when using construction ma-
terial mixtures containing recycled material.
Depending on the technology, source material and
mixing process used, base layers with hydraulic
binders are distinguished into:
Stabilized layers with hydraulic binders
Soil stabilization comprises a range of construc-
tion processes aiming at increasing the resist-
ance of granular base layers to stresses caused
by trafc loading and climate.
The construction material mixture is compacted
after completion of the stabilizing operation.
In the process, hydraulic binders and water are
added to the soils and / or construction material
mixtures using the mixed-in-place or mixed-in-
plant process.

- Mixed-in-place process
The mixer travels on the layer prepared for
soil stabilization, scarifying it and mixing in
the specied hydraulic binder and required
quantity of water.
- Mixed-in-plant process
The soil or aggregate mixture is mixed with
the specied binder and required quantity
of water (mixing water) in stationary mixing
plants, transported to the construction site
and placed.
Hydraulically bound base layers
(produced using the mixed-in-plant process
only)
Hydraulically bound base layers consist of un-
crushed and / or crushed construction material
mixtures and hydraulic binders.
Grading of the construction material mixture
must be within specied grading ranges. The
paving mix must be produced in mixing plants.
Concrete base layers
Concrete base layers are base layers of con-
crete in accordance with DIN EN 206-1 and
DIN 1045-2.
2.2 Terminology
92 // 93
2.3 Base layers with hydraulic binders in accord-
ance with ZTV Beton-StB
1)
and soil stabiliza-
tion in accordance with ZTV E-StB
2)
1)
Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of base layers with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements
2)
Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construction
Position of the base layer with hydraulic binders according
to ZTV Beton-StB
1)
Position of the stabilized layer
in the subsoil or subgrade
according to ZTV E-StB
2)
Asphalt surfacing
Asphalt base
Concrete surfacing Stone paving Concrete pavement
Asphalt surfacing
Asphalt base
Concrete surfacing
Frost-proof material
[frost blanket]
(paved or native)
Base layers with
hydraulic binders
Stabilization of
subsoil or subgrade
Subsoil
(F2 / F3 soils)
Deformation modulus
on subgrade
Ev2 45 MN / mm
Degree of compaction
of stabilized layer
DPr 98 %
F
r
o
s
t
-
p
r
o
o
f

d
e
s
i
g
n
F
r
o
s
t
-
p
r
o
o
f

d
e
s
i
g
n
2.4 Principles of production
Stabilized layers and hydraulically bound base lay-
ers are produced in line with the principles of soil
mechanics, meaning that:
the Proctor density and corresponding optimum
water content are determined from the soil-
binder mixture or construction material-binder
mixture by means of the Proctor test;
the required binder content is determined from
the Proctor specimen by means of compressive
testing and frost testing; and
the degree of compaction is determined from
the Proctor density and eld density.
Concrete used for concrete base layers is pro-
duced in accordance with DIN EN 206-1 and
DIN 1045-2.
Compressive strength and frost resistance are
tested on cubes.
2.4.1 General
94 // 95
Initial tests are tests that have to be performed by
the contractor. They have to be performed prior to
rst use in accordance with the Technical delivery
terms for construction materials and construction
material mixtures for base layers with hydraulic
binders and concrete pavements (TL Beton-StB)
and Technical testing regulations for base layers
with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements
(TP Beton-StB).
Initial tests are performed to verify the suitability of
the construction materials, construction mate-
rial mixtures and paving mixes for the intended
paving conditions and intended use in accordance
with the requirements stipulated in the building
contract.
Verication has to be provided by submitting test
certicates issued by a testing laboratory certied
for the respective construction materials and con-
struction material mixtures.
2.5 Tests Denitions
2.5.1 Initial testing (mix design)
2.5.2 Factory production control
Factory production control is required for
soils;
construction material mixtures; and
paving mixes
delivered by third-party suppliers.
The supplier is obliged to present the results of
factory production controls.
If the soils or the construction material mixtures
and paving mixes are supplied or manufactured by
the paving companies, factory production control
is an integral part of internal control.
Type of base layer Initial testing Factory production control
Binders
Binder type and grade
stabilized layer and hy-
draulically bound base
comparison of delivery
notes for each delivery
Soil or construction material mixture
Grading
stabilized layer and
hydraulically bound
base
in each instance
for every 2,500 tonnes or
part thereof of quantity deliv-
ered, at least once per day
Fines content stabilized layer in each instance as required
Water content stabilized layer in each instance
as required, at least once
per day
Proctor density and
optimum water content
stabilized layer in each instance
Condition of aggregates
hydraulically bound
base
in each instance visual inspection
Paving mix
Binder content
stabilized layer and
hydraulically bound base
in each instance
as required, at least once
per day
Proctor density
stabilized layer and
hydraulically bound base
in each instance
Water content
stabilized layer and
hydraulically bound base
in each instance at least twice per day
Compressive strength
tested on specimen
stabilized layer and
hydraulically bound base
in each instance as required
Frost resistance
stabilized layer and
hydraulically bound base
on soils or construc-
tion material mixtures
with a fines content
0.063 mm between
5% and 15% by mass

Condition of aggregates hydraulically bound base visual inspection


Initial testing and factory production control on stabilized layers and hydraulically bound base
layers:
96 // 97
Internal control tests are tests that have to be
performed by the contractor.
These tests are performed to check whether the
properties of
the construction materials;
the paving mixes; and
the nished work
comply with the contractual requirements.
Compliance tests are tests that have to be per-
formed by the client.
These tests are performed to check whether the
properties of
the construction materials;
the construction material mixtures and paving
mixes; and
the nished work
comply with the contractual requirements.
Acceptance is based on the results of these tests.
An arbitration investigation is the repetition of a
compliance test in the proper execution of which
the client or contractor have reasonable doubts.
At the request of one of the contractual parties,
it has to be performed by a testing laboratory
approved by the contractor and client which has
not performed the compliance test. The result of
the arbitration investigation replaces the original
test result. The costs are borne by the party to
whose disadvantage the result turns out to be.
2.5.3 Internal control testing
2.5.4 Compliance testing
The following soils and aggregates can be used for
soil stabilization:
coarse-grained soils according to DIN 18196
mixed-grained soils of groups GU, SU, GT and
ST if they comply with the requirements of frost-
susceptibility class F1
aggregates complying with the requirements of
Annex G of the Technical delivery terms for ag-
gregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB).
The quality of soils intended for soil stabilization
is controlled in accordance with the Technical
delivery terms for construction material mixtures
and soils for the production of unbound granular
layers in road construction, Part: Quality control
(TL G SoB-StB).
The use of reclaimed asphalt and reclaimed tar-
bound road construction materials is governed
in Annex G of the Technical delivery terms for
construction materials and construction material
mixtures for base layers with hydraulic binders and
concrete pavements (TL Beton-StB).
In addition, compliance with the Directives for
the environmentally compatible use of reclaimed
materials containing tar-bound matter and for the
use of reclaimed asphalt in road construction
(RuVA-StB) is of particular importance.
2.6 Construction materials
2.6.1 Soils and aggregates for soil stabilization
If the nes content < 0.063 mm ranges between 5% by mass and
15% by mass, adequate frost resistance of the hardened paving mix
must be veried by means of frost testing as part of the mix design
(initial testing).
1 5 10 15
Coefficient of uniformity U =
d
60
d
10
15
10
5
0
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

d


0
.
0
6
3

m
m

(
%

b
y

m
a
s
s
)
ST*, GT*
SU*, GU*
TL, TM
UL, UM, UA
OU
ST, GT
SU, GU
ST, GT
SU, GU
TA
OT, OH
OK
F 1
F 2
GW, GI, GE
SW, SI, SE
F 1
98 // 99
2.6.2 Aggregates and construction material mixtures for hydraulically
bound base layers
The following soils and aggregates can be used for
hydraulically bound base layers:
natural, crushed and uncrushed aggregates;
aggregates and construction material mixtures
for base layers with hydraulic binders must
comply with the requirements of the Technical
delivery terms for aggregates in road construc-
tion (TL Gestein-StB). Their quality is controlled
in accordance with the Technical delivery terms
for construction material mixtures and soils for
the production of unbound granular layers in
road construction, Part: Quality control (TL G
SoB-StB).
articial aggregates (coal y ash, blast-furnace
slag, granulated blast-furnace slag, steel slag,
copper slag, foundry / cupola furnace slag, wet-
bottom boiler slag and volcanic slag) and coal y
ash as an additive or addition to the construc-
tion material mixture. The areas of application
specied in the table on page 98 have to be
complied with when using manufactured or
recycled aggregates and volcanic slags.
recycled aggregates in accordance with the
Code of practice for the reuse of concrete from
pavements (Merkblatt zur Wiederverwendung
von Beton aus Fahrbahndecken) without requir-
ing additional verication provided they are
reclaimed from and placed on the same site.
The use of reclaimed asphalt and reclaimed tar-
bound road construction materials is governed
in Annex G of the Technical delivery terms for
construction materials and construction material
mixtures for base layers with hydraulic binders and
concrete pavements (TL Beton-StB).
In addition, compliance with the Directives for
the environmentally compatible use of reclaimed
materials containing tar-bound matter and for the
use of reclaimed asphalt in road construction
(RuVA-StB) is of particular importance.
Property Stabilized layer
Hydraulically bound
base
Concrete base
Material designation determination of petrographic attributes according to DIN EN 932-3
Fines content in aggregate
fractions 0 / 2 and 0 / 5
has to be specified; permissible fines
contents in the construction material
mixture must not be exceeded
f
3
Fines content in aggregate
fractions 2 / 4 and 32 / 63
f
1
Particle shape of
coarse-grained aggregates
SI
50
(FI
50
)
Grading
Aggregate fractions /
aggregate product size
G
F
80 for 0 / 5 G
F
85
G
C
80 / 20 for 5 / 11, 11 / 22, 22 / 32, 32 / 45 and 45 / 56
Aggregate fractions /
aggregate product size
G
C
85 / 20 for 2 / 4, 4 / 8, 8 / 16, 16 / 32 and 32 / 64
G
C
90 / 15 for 5 / 8, 8 / 11, 11 / 16 and 16 / 22
Combined aggregate fractions
if D / d < 4: GT
C
20 / 15; if D / d 4: GT
C
20 / 17.5;
for aggregates according to DIN EN 13242: GT
NR
Grading tolerances GT
A
NR
tolerances according to Table 4,
lines 1 + 2 of the Technical delivery
terms for aggregates in road
construction (TL Gestein-StB)
Apparent density to be specified
Absorption of water W
cm
0.5
Resistance to frost F
4
Sunburn of basalt SB
SZ
(SB
LA
)
Organic impurities m
LPC
NR
Decay of dicalcium silicate in blast-fur-
nace slag or foundry / cupola-furnace slag
none
Decay of iron in blast-furnace slag or
foundry / cupola-furnace slag
none
Volume stability of steel slag V
5
steel slag not suitable for use
Alkali-silica reaction
compliance with the alkali guideline
issued by the German Committee for
Reinforced Concrete (DAfStB)
specify alkali-sensitivity classes
Substances disturbing the setting and
hardening process
have to be verified
Environmentally relevant attributes
The requirements on environmentally relevant attributes have to be
complied with when using manufactured aggregates and recycled
construction materials.
Requirements on aggregates in base layers with hydraulic binders in accordance with the
Technical delivery terms for aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB):
Areas of application for manufactured or recycled aggregates:
100 // 101
Construction
materials
Coal fly ash
Blast-furnace slag,
granulated blast-
furnace slag, copper
slag, foundry / cu-
pola-furnace slag,
wet-bottom boiler
slag, volcanic slag
Steel slag
Recycled
construction
materials
1)
Domestic
waste incinera-
tion ash
Construction class SV, I to VI SV, I to VI SV, I to VI SV, I to VI IV to VI
Stabilized layers
as an addition to
the aggregate
as aggregate as aggregate as aggregate
to a limited
extent
2)
Hydraulically bound
base layers
as an addition to
the aggregate
as aggregate as aggregate as aggregate
3)
Concrete base
layers
as additive as aggregate
3)
as aggregate
3)
1)
Recycled aggregates in accordance with the Code of practice for
the reuse of concrete from pavements (Merkblatt zur Wiederver-
wendung von Beton aus Fahrbahndecken) can be used for base
layers with hydraulic binders without requiring additional verication
provided they are reclaimed from and placed on the same site.
2)
In accordance with the Code of practice on the use of domestic
waste incineration ash in road construction (Merkblatt ber die Ver-
wertung von Hausmllverbrennungsasche im Straenbau - M HMV-A).
3)
Not applicable.
Aggregates as described in section 2.6.2,
Aggregates and construction material mixtures for
hydraulically bound base layers, the only restric-
tion being that suitable coal y ash cannot be used
as an addition to the aggregates but as an additive
only. The grading curves to be complied with are
based on the requirements of DIN EN 206-1 and
DIN 1045-2.
2.6.3 Aggregates and construction material mixtures for concrete base layers
102 // 103
Cements in accordance with DIN EN 197 or
DIN 1164-10 as shown in the table below or
hydraulic soil and road binders in accordance
with DIN 18506 (strength classes 12.5 and 32.5)
are used as binders.
1)
Applies only to trass according to DIN 51043 as the main constituent of up to max. 40% by mass
2)
Applies only to trass according to DIN 51043 as the main constituent
2.6.4 Hydraulic binders
Main types of cement Designation of cement types Main constituents
CEM I Portland cement
CEM II
Portland blast-furnace slag cement A / B S Granulated blast-furnace slag
Portland silica fume cement A D Silica fume
Portland pozzolanic cement A / B P / Q Pozzolans
Portland fly ash cement A V Fly ash
Portland burnt shale cement A / B T Shale
Portland limestone cement A LL Limestone
CEM II-M Portland composite cement
A
S-D, S-T, S-LL
S-P, S-V
D-T, D-LL, D-P
D-V
T-LL
P-V, P-T, P-LL
V-T, V-LL
B
S-D, S-T, S-P
D-T, D-P
P-T
CEM III Blast-furnace slag cement
A S
B S
CEM IV Pozzolanic cement B P
1)
CEM V Composite cement
A
S-P
2)
B
2.6.5 Water
Any naturally occurring water complying with the
requirements of DIN EN 1008 is suitable for use as
mixing water. For base layers with hydraulic
binders, residual water may be used in accordance
with the provisions specied in DIN EN 206-1, DIN
EN 1008 and DIN 1045-2.
2.6.6 Concrete admixtures / Concrete additives
Concrete admixtures must comply with the re-
quirements of DIN EN 934-2 or must be approved
for use by the supervising authority. DIN V 20000-
100 has to be complied with when using concrete
admixtures in accordance with DIN EN 934-2.
Concrete additives must comply with the require-
ments of DIN EN 450 and DIN EN 12620 for llers
or must be approved for use by the supervising
authority. The provisions specied in DIN EN 206-1
and DIN 10545-2 have to be complied with.
Soils can be improved in terms of grading by add-
ing coal y ash in accordance with the require-
ments of DIN EN 450-1.
104 // 105
The type and thickness of base layers with hy-
draulic binders which either underlie a concrete
or asphalt surfacing or are part of a fully bound
pavement depend on the construction class and
type of base layer to be built.
When building a base layer with hydraulic binders,
the asphalt base in construction classes SV, I to IV
is thinner by 8 cm to 4 cm according to the Direc-
tives for the standardization of the superstructures
of trafcked surfaces (RStO 01) than an asphalt
base built on top of a frost blanket.
2.7 Requirements on base layers with
hydraulic binders
2.7.1 Design
2.7.2 Pavement layers with binders
The minimum paving thicknesses of base lay-
ers with hydraulic binders are governed in the
Additional technical conditions of contract and
directives for the construction of base layers with
hydraulic binders and concrete pavements (ZTV
Beton-StB).
2.7.3 Minimum paving thicknesses
2.7.3.1 Stabilized layers
With stabilized layers, the minimum paving thick-
nesses depend on the mixing process used and
the maximum particle size of the paving mix.
Stabilized layers must have the following minimum
paving thicknesses:
> 12 cm when using the mixed-in-plant
process
> 15 cm when using the mixed-in-place
process
Depending on the maximum particle size, sta-
bilized layers must have the following minimum
paving thicknesses:
> 12 cm with paving mixes of
particle size 0 / 32 mm
> 15 cm with paving mixes of
particle size 0 / 45 mm
> 20 cm with paving mixes of
particle size > 0 / 45 mm.
2.7.3.2 Hydraulically bound base layers
Each layer of a hydraulically bound base must
have the following minimum layer thickness after
compaction:
> 12 cm with paving mixes of particle size
0 / 32 mm
> 15 cm with paving mixes of particle size
0 / 45 mm
Each layer of a concrete base must have a mini-
mum thickness of 12 cm, or 15 cm when com-
pacted by means of internal vibrators.
2.7.3.3 Concrete base layers
2.7.4 Edge design of base layers
If built without edging, base layers have to be
wider (by at least 50 cm) than the surfacing and
must be sloped at the edges.
Widening of the base layer improves the structural
behaviour of the pavement in the peripheral area,
creating a stable base for formwork or for the
contact surface of a slipform paver. If the contact
surface of the slipform paver is wider than 40 cm,
the excess width of the base layer must be at least
as wide as the contact surface plus 10 cm.
Base layers with hydraulic binders require the
lateral excess width at the raised edge of the car-
riageway to be built with a reverse outside gradient
in order to prevent the ingress of water into the
road structure from the side.
106 // 107
2.7.4.1 Details of edge design
Edge design of concrete surfacing on top of base layer with hydraulic binders:
Edge design of asphalt surfacing on top of base layer with hydraulic binders (hydraulically bound base):
Edge design of asphalt pavement on top of stabilized layer:
20 50 100
20 10 100
20 10 100
4 %
4 %
4 %
q 4 %
q 4 %
q 4 %
2
0
2
0
2
0
1
:
1
.
5
1
:
1
.
5
1
:
1
.
5
q 2.5 %
q 2.5 %
q 2.5 %


2

:

1


2

:

1
Concrete surfacing
Asphalt base
Asphalt binder course (where appropriate)
Asphalt binder course (where appropriate)
Asphalt surface course
Asphalt surface course
Asphalt base
Fibre mat
Base layer with hydraulic binder
(hydraulically bound base)
Base layer with hydraulic binder
(stabilized layer)
Base layer with hydraulic binder
Frost blanket
Frost blanket
Frost blanket
Subgrade
Subgrade
Subgrade
2.7.5 Drainage of base layers
The reverse gradient must be designed so as to
extend under the road pavement by up to 1.0 m
measured from the edge of the pavement. Other-
wise, special measures must be taken. In addition,
effective draining facilities must be in place which
have to be adjusted and protected and the func-
tion of which has to be maintained in accordance
with the progress of construction.
It is not permissible to build a base layer on frozen
subsoil or subgrade or to place frozen construction
material mixtures and paving mixes.
Paving mixes for base layers with hydraulic binders
may only be processed at temperatures of > 5C. If
frost is to be expected within the rst 7 days after
production of the base layer, the base layer must be
protected to ensure that no damage is caused.
Paving mixes for concrete base layers may only be
paved if the fresh concrete temperature is higher
than 5C and lower than 30C. If the air temperatures
to be expected during the concreting operation are
lower than 5C or higher than 30C, special meas-
ures have to be taken in accordance with the Addi-
tional technical conditions of contract and directives
for the construction of base layers with hydraulic
binders and concrete pavements (ZTV Beton-StB).
2.7.6 Execution at low / high temperatures and frost
2.7.7 Correct vertical and horizontal position
The surface of base layers with hydraulic binders
must not deviate from the design level by more
than 1.5 cm.
The surface of base layers with hydraulic binders
underlying a concrete road pavement must not
deviate from the design level by more than
+ 0.5 cm or -1.5 cm.
2.7.8 Evenness
The surface irregularities of stabilized layers and
hydraulically bound base layers must not exceed
1.5 cm over a measured length of 4 m.
The surface irregularities of concrete base layers
must not exceed 1.0 cm over a measured length
of 4 m.
108 // 109
2.7.9 Tolerances of paving thickness
The paving mass (in kg / m
2
) for
a stabilized layer;
a hydraulically bound base layer; and
a concrete base layer
may be lower than the specied paving mass by
max. 10%.
Determination of the paving mass for each layer is
typically based on the paving mass for the entire
construction lot or, as a minimum, the output of
one working day.
The paving thickness (in cm) must not be lower
than the specied thickness by more than
3.0 cm for a stabilized layer or hydraulic base
layer; and
2.5 cm for a concrete base layer.
Paving thickness is considered to be the arithmetic
mean of all single values for the respective layer
over the entire construction lot.
All base layers with binders must be separated
from permanent xtures by means of an expansion
joint.
Base layers with hydraulic binders underlying an
asphalt surfacing must be grooved or divided into
sections by means of contraction joints.
The grooves or contraction joints are typically
spaced at maximum intervals of 5 m.
A bre mat has to be laid between a base layer
with hydraulic binders and the concrete surfac-
ing (standard construction method) in order to
prevent reection cracking in the surfacing as well
as erosion of the base layer. Alternatively, it is also
possible to place an asphalt base.
In special cases where no bre mat is laid and the
concrete surfacing is placed right on top of the
base layer, the joints and grooves to be cut into
the base are determined by the longitudinal com-
pression joints and transverse contraction joints of
the concrete surfacing.
2.7.10 Grooves or joints
The grooves must have a minimum depth of 35%
of the specied paving thickness according to the
Additional technical conditions of contract and
directives for the construction of base layers with
hydraulic binders and concrete pavements (ZTV
Beton-StB). In base layers underlying a concrete
surfacing, the grooves must be cut in accordance
with the joint pattern of the concrete surfacing.
Work sections and daily sections have to be
vertical in design over the entire paving thickness.
Working joints have to be designed as compres-
sion joints. Expansion joints have to be created
adjacent to structures or around xtures.
Special regulations may be required for aircraft
movement areas due to the increased thickness of
the concrete surfacing.
2.7.11 Curing
The stabilized layer must be cured for a minimum
period of 3 days unless the base is overlaid with
an additional layer immediately after placing.
Curing options:
wet curing;
spraying a bitumen emulsion; or
applying a water-retaining cover.
Wet curing requires the stabilized layer to be kept
slightly moist by spraying water for a period of
3 days after placing and compaction.
When using a C60B1-S bitumen emulsion, the
solvent-free emulsion has to be sprayed evenly on
the compacted base layer as soon as the layer has
gone beyond the slightly moist state.
The emulsion is sprayed at a quantity of approx.
0.5 kg / m. A thin, continuous lm should be cre-
ated. Before the bitumen emulsion breaks, the
layer must have been gritted with chippings of
grain size 2 / 5 mm which have to be pressed down
gently by means of rollers.
If the base layer is to be trafcked at an early
stage, there is the risk of winding or unwinding of
the continuous lm.
When applying a water-retaining cover, the com-
pacted, slightly damp, hydraulically bound base
layer has to be covered with a burlap or polyethyl-
ene lm.
Concrete curing compounds are not suitable for
curing hydraulic base layers.
Longitudinal and transverse joints prior to being over-
laid with an asphalt surfacing
110 // 111
Curing can be omitted if an asphalt mix is placed
on top of the still fresh, compacted layer. Care
must be taken, however, that the structure of the
base layer with hydraulic binders is not disturbed
in the process.
In addition, the hot mix has a positive effect on
the development of strength in the base layer. A
base layer with hydraulic binders overlaid with an
asphalt base having a minimum thickness of 8 cm
can be opened to trafc immediately.
Wet curing of a nished hydraulic base layer
1)
Proctor density
2)
Standard requirement
3)
Higher requirement when underlying a concrete pavement
4)
When underlying an asphalt pavement
5)
No requirements when underlying a concrete pavement
6)
Paving thickness is considered to be the arithmetic mean of all
single values of the paving thickness for the respective layer over the
entire construction lot.
7)
Typically the mean value over the entire construction lot; however,
mean values may also be formed for partial sections which, as a
minimum, must equal the output of one working day.
8)
Tested on Proctor specimens with a height of 125 mm and diameter
of 150 mm; when testing on specimens with a height of 120 mm
and diameter of 100 mm, the compressive strength values deter-
mined have to be multiplied by 1.25 to be comparable with the
values indicated in the table.
9)
Mean value from three related specimens the single values of which
do not deviate from the mean value by more than 2.0 N / mm.
10)
Single value
11)
Mean value
12)
Binder quantity is considered to be the arithmetic mean of all single
values of the binder quantity in the stabilized layer over the entire
construction lot; excess quantities not exceeding the design value
by more than 15% only may be taken into account for determina-
tion of the mean value.
13)
15 cm if compacted by internal vibrators
14)
The nes content < 0.063 mm determined during initial testing and
increased by the binder content must not be exceeded by more
than 2.0% by mass.
2.7.11.1 Table: Summary of requirements on base layers with hydraulic binders in accordance
with ZTV Beton-StB
a)
a)
Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of base layers with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements
b)
Compressive strength
c)
Mean compressive strength
d)
Single compressive strength test results
Stabilized layer
Hydraulically bound base Concrete base
Mixed-in-place process Mixed-in-plant process
Degree of compaction of the layer to be stabilized 100%
1)

Degree of compaction of the stabilized layer 98%
1)
Deviation of surface from the design level
(correct vertical and horizontal position)
1.5 cm
2)
+ 0.5 cm or -1.5 cm
3)
Evenness 1.5 cm / 4 m
Permissible deviation of paving thickness
6)
/
paving weight
7)
single values 3.0 cm
mean 10%
single values 2.5 cm
mean 10%
Compressive strength within the parameters
of initial testing
7.0 N / mm
2

4) 8) 9)
15.0 N / mm
2

3) 8) 9)
f
ck
b)
Compressive strength within the parameters
of compliance testing
3.5 N / mm
2 4) 10)
n = 1 6.0 N / mm
2 3) 8) 10)
n 8 8.0 N / mm
2 3) 8) 11)
n 9 10.0 N / mm
2 3) 8) 11)
f
ci
d)
f
ck
b)

- 4 N / mm
2
f
cm
c)
f
ck
b)
+ 4 N / mm
2
Strength class C 12 / 15 to C 20 / 25
Frost resistance at a fines content < 0.063 mm
of between 5% and 15% by mass
change of length 1
Minimum binder quantity > 3.0 M.-%
Binder quantity within the parameters
of compliance testing
12)
mean -5 to +8% rel.
single values -10 to
+15% rel.
4) 5)

Minimum thickness of each layer
15 cm ( 0 / 45)
20 cm (> 0 / 45)
12 cm ( 0 / 32)
15 cm (0 / 45)
20 cm (> 0 / 45)
12 cm (0 / 32)
15 cm (0 / 45)
12 cm
13)
Requirements on grading
< 0.063 mm 15% by mass,
> 2 mm between 55% and 84% by mass,
coarsest fraction 10% by mass,
oversize 10% by mass
according to
DIN 1045 or
DIN EN 206
respectively
Permissible deviation from grading determined in the
mix design (% by mass)

for 2 mm, 8 mm and 16 mm
8 < 0.063 mm
14)

112 // 113
Stabilized layer
Hydraulically bound base Concrete base
Mixed-in-place process Mixed-in-plant process
Degree of compaction of the layer to be stabilized 100%
1)

Degree of compaction of the stabilized layer 98%
1)
Deviation of surface from the design level
(correct vertical and horizontal position)
1.5 cm
2)
+ 0.5 cm or -1.5 cm
3)
Evenness 1.5 cm / 4 m
Permissible deviation of paving thickness
6)
/
paving weight
7)
single values 3.0 cm
mean 10%
single values 2.5 cm
mean 10%
Compressive strength within the parameters
of initial testing
7.0 N / mm
2

4) 8) 9)
15.0 N / mm
2

3) 8) 9)
f
ck
b)
Compressive strength within the parameters
of compliance testing
3.5 N / mm
2 4) 10)
n = 1 6.0 N / mm
2 3) 8) 10)
n 8 8.0 N / mm
2 3) 8) 11)
n 9 10.0 N / mm
2 3) 8) 11)
f
ci
d)
f
ck
b)

- 4 N / mm
2
f
cm
c)
f
ck
b)
+ 4 N / mm
2
Strength class C 12 / 15 to C 20 / 25
Frost resistance at a fines content < 0.063 mm
of between 5% and 15% by mass
change of length 1
Minimum binder quantity > 3.0 M.-%
Binder quantity within the parameters
of compliance testing
12)
mean -5 to +8% rel.
single values -10 to
+15% rel.
4) 5)

Minimum thickness of each layer
15 cm ( 0 / 45)
20 cm (> 0 / 45)
12 cm ( 0 / 32)
15 cm (0 / 45)
20 cm (> 0 / 45)
12 cm (0 / 32)
15 cm (0 / 45)
12 cm
13)
Requirements on grading
< 0.063 mm 15% by mass,
> 2 mm between 55% and 84% by mass,
coarsest fraction 10% by mass,
oversize 10% by mass
according to
DIN 1045 or
DIN EN 206
respectively
Permissible deviation from grading determined in the
mix design (% by mass)

for 2 mm, 8 mm and 16 mm
8 < 0.063 mm
14)

The paving mix formula has to be determined by


means of initial testing.
2.8.1 Requirements on paving mixes for stabilized layers
2.8 Producing stabilized layers
2.8.2 Production
In soil stabilization, each layer must be produced
so as to be of consistent quality and comply with
the specied requirements.
Work sections and daily sections have to be verti-
cal in design over the entire paving thickness. Any
loose material has to be removed prior to placing a
layer immediately adjacent to a previously placed,
already hardened stabilized layer.
Additional layers may be applied on top of the
freshly placed stabilized layer provided that the
stabilized layer is not squeezed excessively and is
not deprived of the water required for hardening.
Stabilized layers can be produced using the
mixed-in-place or mixed-in-plant process.
2.8.3 Mixed-in-place process
In a rst step, the layer intended for stabilization
has to be levelled off to the cross-section to be
produced. At the same time, the layer has to be
compacted until the specied degree of compac-
tion and required evenness have been achieved.
In the process, care needs to be taken that the
optimum water content for the stabilized layer is
not exceeded and the degree of compaction is not
lower than specied.
In the mixed-in-place process, the compacted
soil or construction material mixture intended
for stabilization is mixed with the required binder
quantity in-situ using a milling machine. A spreader
with metering unit spreads the binder quantity
determined during initial testing.
In the next work step, the binder is mixed into
the soil using suitable high-performance milling
machines. Any additional water must be added no
earlier than after the rst mixing pass or during the
mixing pass when using a single-pass stabilizer.
The water is added via sprinkler trucks or a spray
bar installed in the milling rotor housing.
Mixing of the soil intended for stabilization and the
specied binder quantity must be organized and
coordinated in such a way that the stabilized layer
is produced rapidly in the time frame available for
processing the paving mix over the entire cross-
section (processing time from adding standard ce-
ment to completion of compaction is max. 2 hours
at temperatures of up to 20C and max. 1.5 hours
if temperatures are higher).
114 // 115
Stabilized layers produced in single, adjacent cuts
have to be placed fresh-in-fresh. Each nished
cut has to be milled and compacted together with
the new, adjacent cut at a minimum overlap width
of 20 cm.
2.8.4 Mixed-in-plant process
In the mixed-in-plant process, a compulsory mixer
is used to mix the soil or construction material
mixture with the specied binder quantity and mix-
ing water. It is not permitted to use gravity mixers.
The source material is metered either by weight or
by volume. The mixing plants must have sufcient
capacity to enable rapid placing and compaction.
Mixing of the binder, water and soil or construc-
tion material mixture needs to continue until a
homogeneous paving mix of uniform colour has
been produced.
The nished paving mix has to be protected from
the effects of weather and transported to the con-
struction site where it is typically placed by road
pavers. Prior to placing, the subsoil or subgrade
must be levelled off to the specied level and
generally requires moistening in order to prevent
dehydration of the paving mix to be placed.
The paving mix has to be placed evenly in order to
prevent segregation and ensure that the specied
layer thickness, surface evenness and degree of
compaction are achieved.
2.8.5 Placing and compaction
If the mixed-in-place process is used, the fresh,
compactable paving mix is produced in-situ on the
paving site. The paving mixes produced in-plant
are transported to the paving site in trucks. In case
of adverse weather or longer transport distances,
the mix needs to be covered with tarpaulins. The
paving mix can be placed using road pavers, grad-
ers or bulldozers.
Depending on the maximum particle size and type
of paving mix, the minimum paving thickness for
each layer after compaction must be
12 cm for paving mixes of particle size
0 / 32 mm;
15 cm for paving mixes of particle size
0 / 45 mm; and
20 cm for paving mixes of particle sizes
> 0 / 45 mm.
Concrete base layers must have a minimum
thickness of 12 cm.
Fresh-in-fresh paving is the method of choice
to achieve a perfect bond between layers. A
compacted, yet still fresh base layer with hydraulic
binders has to be roughened prior to applying the
next layer.
Removing or, even more importantly, applying
fresh paving mixes to produce a surface of correct
vertical and horizontal position should be avoided.
The following compaction equipment (optional
or in combination) is used for compaction of the
paving mixes:
pneumatic-tyred rollers, weight between
15 t and 32 t
single-drum compactors, weight between
12 t and 25 t
large surface vibrators
2.8.6 Requirements on the degree of compaction
Layers intended for stabilization using the mixed-
in-place process must have a minimum degree of
compaction D
Pr
of 100% of the Proctor density of
the soil or construction material mixture.
The compacted, not yet hardened layer must have
a minimum degree of compaction D
Pr
of 98% of
the Proctor density of the paving mix.
116 // 117
The optimal paving mix formula has to be deter-
mined within the parameters of initial testing.
When placing the paving mix, the optimum water
content must not be exceeded and the degree of
compaction must not be lower than specied.
Compared with initial testing, the aggregate frac-
tions in the paving mix larger than 2 mm, 8 mm
and 16 mm may be higher or lower by no more
than 8% by mass relative to the dry construction
material mixture. The nes content < 0.063 mm of
the dry construction material mixture must not be
exceeded by more than 2.0% by mass.
2.9 Producing hydraulically bound base layers
2.9.1 Requirements on the paving mix
2.9.2 Production, transport and placing
The paving mix for hydraulically bound base lay-
ers is produced in-plant in accordance with initial
testing.
The paving mix is transported to the paving site in
trucks. In the event of adverse weather or longer
transport distances, it needs to be covered with
tarpaulins.
The paving mix has to be conveyed and placed in
such a way that no segregation occurs.
The paving mix is typically placed by road pavers.
If new cuts are produced adjacent to the existing
cuts of a hydraulically bound base layer, vertical
joints have to be created, and any loose material
having accumulated along the edges of the hard-
ened base layer has to be removed.
Additional layers may be applied on top of the
base layer provided that the paving process
does not cause any excessive squeezing in the
hardening base layer and that the base layer is not
deprived of the water required for hardening.
The following compaction equipment (optional
or in combination) is used for compaction of the
paving mixes:
pneumatic-tyred rollers, weight between
12 t and 25 t
single-drum compactors, weight between
12 t and 18 t
large surface vibrators
A compacted hydraulically bound base layer that
has not yet hardened must have a degree of com-
paction of no less than 98%.
When underlying a concrete surfacing, the com-
pressive strength of a hydraulically bound base
layer must not be lower than
6.0 N / mm for each single value; and
8.0 N / mm in the mean calculated from less
than 9 related single values; or
10.0 N / mm in the mean calculated from more
than 8 related single value
determined after 28 days within the parameters of
compliance testing using specimens with a height
of 125 mm and diameter of 150 mm.
When underlying an asphalt surfacing, the com-
pressive strength of a hydraulically bound base
layer must not be lower than
3.5 N / mm for each single value; and
8.0 N / mm in the mean calculated from less
than 9 related single values; or
10.0 N / mm in the mean calculated from more
than 8 related single values
determined after 28 days within the parameters of
compliance testing using specimens with a height
of 125 mm and diameter of 150 mm.
The concrete must comply with strength classes
C12 / 15 to C20 / 25 in accordance with DIN EN
206-1.
Concrete base layers have to be produced in
accordance with DIN 1045-3 and have to be cured
for a minimum period of 3 days.
Road pavers are typically used to place the con-
crete uniformly, fully compacting it in the paving
process. Paper layers or polyethylene lms under-
lying the concrete base layer may be omitted.
Where appropriate, the subsoil or subgrade below
the concrete base layer has to be moistened if
there is a risk of dehydration of the concrete base
layer. Additional layers may be applied on top of
the base layer provided that it has hardened suf-
ciently.
2.9.3 Requirements on the nished layer
2.10 Producing concrete base layers
118 // 119
Soils and construction material mixtures with a
maximum particle size of up to 63 mm are suitable
for use in stabilized layers. The nes content
< 0.063 mm must not exceed 15% by mass.
If the nes content < 0.063 mm ranges between
5% by mass and 15% by mass, adequate frost
resistance of the hardened paving mix must be
veried as part of initial testing. Adequate frost re-
sistance has been achieved if the change of length
of the hardened paving mix during frost resistance
testing does not exceed 1.
The binder quantity has to be selected to ensure
that, during initial testing, the mean compressive
strengths of three related test specimens (diameter
= 150 mm, height = 125 mm) are
7.0 N / mm when underlying an asphalt
surfacing; and
15.0 N / mm when underlying a concrete
surfacing.
The following requirements must be complied with
during initial testing:
The minimum binder quantity is 3.0% by mass of
the dry soil or construction material mixture.
For a stabilized layer underlying an asphalt layer,
the mean compressive strength of three related
test specimens must be 7 N / mm. If the com-
pressive strength of 7 N / mm is exceeded at the
minimum binder quantity of 3.0% by mass, the
minimum binder content is applicable.
For a stabilized layer underlying a concrete
surfacing, the mean compressive strength of three
related test specimens must not be lower than
15 N / mm.
The single compressive strength values for each
binder quantity selected must not be higher or
lower than the related mean value by more than
2.0 N / mm.
The change of length determined during frost
resistance testing must not exceed 1. If a
higher binder quantity is determined as a result of
frost resistance testing, the higher binder quantity
is applicable.
2.11 Type and scope of testing
2.11.1 Initial testing for stabilized layers
Criteria for determining the binder quantity during initial testing of paving mixes for
stabilized layers:
The requirements on compressive strength relate to a test specimen with a height A of 125 mm and diameter
D of 150 mm.
Type of soils and / or
construction material
mixtures
Frost resistance
Change of length
Compressive strength
after 28 days
[]
under asphalt layers
[N / mm
2
]
under concrete surfacings
[N / mm
2
]
Fines contents in soils
and / or construction
material mixtures
5% by mass

7 15.0
Fines contents in soils
and / or construction
material mixtures
> 5% by mass and 15%
by mass
l 1.0
Flow chart for determining the minimum
binder quantity:
Soils or construction
material mixtures
Fines content < 0.063 mm
5% by mass
Soils or construction
material mixtures
Fines content < 0.063 mm
> 5% by mass and 15% by mass
Frost testing
l 1
Minimum binder
quantity
3.0% by mass
Binder content for construction
Compressive strength after 28 days
Asphalt design
7 N / mm
Concrete design
15 N / mm
2
Binder content from initial testing
3% by mass
(standard case)
3% by mass
(special case)
Compressive strength after 28 days
Asphalt design
7 N / mm
Concrete design
15 N / mm
2
120 // 121
Construction material mixtures with a maximum
particle size of up to 31.5 mm or 45 mm are suitable
for use in hydraulically bound base layers. The ag-
gregate fraction larger than the maximum particle
size must not exceed 10% by mass, and the nes
content 0.063 mm must not exceed 15% by mass.
In addition, the aggregate fraction 2 mm must be
between 16% by mass and 45% by mass, and the
aggregate fraction passing the next smaller sieve
than the maximum particle size (22.4 mm or
31.5 mm respectively) must be lower than 90% by
mass. The binder quantity must not be lower than
3.0% by mass relative to the dry construction mate-
rial mixture.
The binder quantity has to be determined by means
of interpolation. If the nes content 0.063 mm
ranges between 5% by mass and 15% by mass,
adequate frost resistance of the hardened paving
mix must be veried as part of initial testing.
The binder quantity has to be selected to ensure
that, during initial testing, the mean compressive
strengths of three related test specimens
(diameter = 150 mm, height = 125 mm) are
7.0 N / mm when underlying an asphalt
surfacing; and
15.0 N / mm when underlying a concrete
surfacing.
The following requirements must be complied with
during initial testing:
The minimum binder quantity is 3.0% by mass
of the dry construction material mixture.
For a hydraulically bound base layer underlying
an asphalt layer, the mean compressive strength
of three related specimens must be 7 N / mm.
If the compressive strength of 7 N / mm is
exceeded at the minimum binder quantity of
3.0% by mass, the minimum binder content is
applicable.
For a hydraulically bound base layer underlying
a concrete surfacing, the mean compressive
strength of three related test specimens must
not be lower than 15 N / mm.
The single compressive strength values for each
binder quantity selected must not be higher or
lower than the related mean value by more than
2.0 N / mm.
The change of length determined during frost
resistance testing must not exceed 1. If a
higher binder quantity is determined as a result
of frost resistance testing, the higher binder
quantity is applicable.
2.11.2 Initial testing for hydraulically bound base layers
The concrete must comply with compressive
strength classes C 12 / 15 to C 20 / 25. In initial
testing, verications have to be provided in ac-
cordance with DIN EN 206-1 and DIN 1045-2.
The process of paving base layers with hydraulic
binders has to be monitored by means of internal
control and compliance testing.
Type and scope of the tests to be performed can
be inferred from the following table.
Criteria for determining the binder quantity during initial testing for hydraulically bound base layers:
The requirements on compressive strength relate to a test specimen with a height A of 125 mm and diameter
D of 150 mm.
2.11.3 Initial testing for concrete base layers
2.11.4 Internal control and compliance testing for stabilized layers
Type of soils and / or
construction material
mixtures
Frost resistance
Change of length
Frost resistance
Change of length
[]
under asphalt layers
[N / mm]
under concrete
surfacings [N / mm
2
]
Fines contents in soils
and / or construction
material mixtures
5% by mass

7 15.0
Fines contents in soils
and / or construction
material mixtures
> 5% by mass and
15% by mass
l 1.0
122 // 123
1. Stabilized layer
Internal control testing Compliance testing
Paving mix
a) Conformity with initial testing
comparison of delivery notes
or visual inspection for each
delivery
b) Compressive strength or
binder content
at least every 500 m or part
thereof, or every 6,000 m of
base layer
When overlaid with an asphalt
layer, the binder content may be
tested instead of compressive
strength.
at least every 100 m or part
thereof, or every 1,000 m,
but at least once per day
On the layer prepared for soil stabilization by means of the mixed-in-place method
a) Degree of compaction
every 250 m or part thereof, or
every 3,000 m or part thereof
b) Correct vertical and horizontal
position
as required
c) Binder quantity as required
On the stabilized layer
(immediately after compaction regardless of the construction method
used and type of overlying layer)
a) Layer thickness as required
at least every 100 m or part
thereof, or every 1,000 m
b) Correct vertical and horizontal
position and evenness
as required at intervals not exceeding 50 m
c) Degree of compaction
at least every 250 m or part
thereof, or every 3,000 m
at least every 500 m or part
thereof, or every 6,000 m, but at
least once per day
The process of paving base layers with hydraulic
binders has to be monitored by means of internal
control and compliance testing.
Type and scope of the tests to be performed can
be inferred from the following table.
2.11.5 Internal control and compliance testing for hydraulically bound base layers
2. Hydraulically bound base
Internal control testing Compliance testing
On the paving mix or on the finished work
a) Conformity with initial testing
comparison of delivery notes or
visual inspection for each delivery
b) Grading
as required, at least every 6,000 m
of base layer or part thereof
c) Proctor density at least twice per day
d) Compressive strength tested on
specimen (diameter D = 150 mm,
height H = 125 mm)
as required, at least every 6,000 m
of base layer or part thereof
e) Condition of aggregate visual inspection
f) Water content
every 3,000 m or part thereof,
but at least twice per day
On the finished work
a) Paving thickness / Paving weight
every 250 m or part thereof,
or every 3,000 m or part thereof
at least every 100 m or part thereof,
or every 1,000 m
b) Correct vertical and horizontal
position and evenness
as required at intervals not exceeding 50 m
c) Degree of compaction
(of the not yet hardened layer)
at intervals of less than 500 m, but
at least every 6,000 m
or part thereof
as required, at least every 6,000 m
of base layer or part thereof
124 // 125
The process of paving base layers with hydraulic
binders has to be monitored by means of internal
control and compliance testing.
Type and scope of the tests to be performed can
be inferred from the following table.
2.11.6 Internal control and compliance testing for concrete base layers
3. Concrete base
Internal control testing Compliance testing
On the paving mix or on the finished work
a) Conformity with initial testing
comparison of delivery notes or
visual inspection for each delivery
b) Consistency and apparent density
of the fresh concrete
at least every 3,000 m as required
c) Water-cement ratio of the fresh
concrete
at least every 3,000 m
d) Compressive strength and ap-
parent density of the hardened
concrete
at least every 3,000 m every 3,000 m or part thereof
e) Paving thickness at least every 3,000 m every 3,000 m or part thereof
f) Correct vertical and horizontal
position and evenness
as required at intervals not exceeding 50 m
This section provides additional details on the use of
construction material mixtures containing more than
30% by mass of reclaimed asphalt and on the use of
reclaimed tar-bound road construction materials in
base layers with hydraulic binders.
Reclaimed tar-bound road construction materials
can be used for stabilized layers or hydraulically
bound base layers because processing with hydrau-
lic binders combined with proper paving and com-
paction in accordance with requirements signicantly
reduces the leachability of harmful substances from
the nished layer. This is based on the Directives for
the environmentally compatible use of reclaimed ma-
terials containing tar-bound matter and for the use
of reclaimed asphalt in road construction (Richt-
linien fr die umweltvertrgliche Verwertung von
Ausbaustoffen mit pechhaltigen Bestandteilen sowie
die Verwertung von Ausbauasphalt im Straenbau
[RuVA-StB]).
They have to be complied with.
Reclaimed tar-bound road construction materi-
als have to be mixed with binder and water using
the in-plant mixing process in accordance with the
Code of practice for the use of reclaimed tar-bound
road construction materials and reclaimed asphalt in
bituminous base layers by cold processing in mixing
plants (Merkblatt fr die Verwertung von pechhalti-
gen Straenausbaustoffen und von Asphaltgranulat
in bitumengebundenen Tragschichten durch Kaltauf-
bereitung in Mischanlagen [M VB-K]).
2.12.1 General
2.12 Using reclaimed asphalt and reclaimed
tar-bound road construction materials in base
layers with hydraulic binders
2.12.2 Source materials Aggregates
Mixing reclaimed tar-bound road construction
materials with non-tar-bound materials should be
avoided.
A maximum quantity of 15% by mass of new ag-
gregates in accordance with the Technical delivery
terms for aggregates in road construction (TL
Gestein-StB) relative to the dry aggregate mixture
and / or additives may be added to the tar-bound
materials in order to achieve an impermeable struc-
ture of the highest possible density. Where appropri-
ate, adequate frost resistance has to be veried.
A minimum quantity of 25% by mass of the aggre-
gate mixture used must pass the 2 mm sieve.
The maximum particle size is limited to 45 mm.
An oversize percentage of 10% by mass is permissible
for a particle size of up to 56 mm. Reclaimed asphalt
must comply with the Technical delivery terms for
reclaimed asphalt (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr
Asphaltgranulat [TL AG-StB]). It has to be reclaimed
and stocked in accordance with the Code of practice
for the use of reclaimed asphalt (Merk blatt fr die
Verwertung von Asphaltgranulat [M VA-G]).
2.12.3 Additives
Suitable additives (ller) are ller aggregates in
accordance with the Technical delivery terms for
aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB)
or coal y ash in accordance with DIN EN 450.
During (intermediate) storage, reclaimed tar-bound
road construction materials must be protected
from water ingress in order to prevent any leakage
of soluble harmful substances. If not stored under
cover, the materials may only be stockpiled on a
watertight surface with seepage water collection.
They must be protected against the penetration of
moisture by means of a watertight cover. The safe
disposal of any seepage water has to be ensured.
2.12.4 Storing reclaimed tar-bound road construction materials
2.12.5 Construction material mixtures
In addition to the civil engineering requirements
to be considered during initial testing, the use of
reclaimed tar-bound road construction materials
requires the amount of hydraulic binder and / or
the additives content to be selected so as to
ensure that the structure is sufciently dense to
comply with the requirements of the Directives for
the environmentally compatible use of reclaimed
materials containing tar-bound matter and for the
use of reclaimed asphalt in road construction
(RuVA-StB) in terms of the leachability of harmful
substances.
2.12.6 Requirements
When using reclaimed tar-bound road construction
materials, the percentage < 2 mm of the aggregate
mixture must not be higher or lower by more than
8% by mass than the value specied in the mix
design.
2.12.7 Initial testing
If reclaimed asphalt or reclaimed tar-bound road
construction materials recycled on a trial basis are
used for initial testing, grading has to be varied so
as to cover the full grading range possible during
the actual recycling process.
In addition to these tests, the use of tar-bound
materials requires leaching tests to be performed
in accordance with Part 7.1.2 of the Technical
testing regulations for aggregates in road con-
struction (TP Gestein-StB) in order to verify the
reduction of harmful substances.
The eluates are obtained from compacted Proc-
tor specimens after 28 days using the trough
method and are tested for polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons according to EPA. The phenol index
is determined in accordance with the Technical
delivery terms for aggregates in road construction
(TL Gestein-StB).
126 // 127
Eifert, H.; Vollpracht, A.; Hersei, O.:
Straenbau heute Betondecken, 2004
Published by: BetonMarketing Deutschland
GmbH, Erkrath
Verlag Bau+Technik GmbH, Dsseldorf
Eifert, H.:
Straenbau heute Tragschichten, Planung und
Ausfhrung, 2006
Published by: BetonMarketing Deutschland
GmbH, Erkrath
Verlag Bau+Technik GmbH
Hersei, O.; Drrwang, R.; Hotz, C.:
Zementstabilisierte Bden Anwendung, Planung,
Ausfhrung, 2007
Published by: BetonMarketing Deutschland
GmbH, Erkrath
Verlag Bau+Technik GmbH
Gemische fr Tragschichten mit hydraulischen
Bindemitteln
Zement Merkblatt Straenbau p. 3, 6.2007
Helmut Eifert, Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e.V.,
Dsseldorf www.vdz-online.de
Der Bau von Tragschichten mit hydraulischen
Bindemitteln
Zement Merkblatt Straenbau p. 3, 6.2007
Helmut Eifert, Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e.V.,
Dsseldorf www.vdz-online.de
Lohmeyer, G.; Ebeling, K.:
Betonbden fr Produktions- und Lagerhallen,
2006
Verlag Bau+Technik GmbH, Dsseldorf
Kalk Kompendium, Bodenverbesserung,
Bodenverfestigung mit Kalk
Bundesverband der Deutschen Kalkindustrie e.V.
www.kalk.de
Die Reaktionsfhigkeit von Mischbindemitteln
im Vergleich zu Kalk und Zement
Hans-Werner Schade, Institut fr Materialprfung
Dr. Schellenberg, Leipheim
Lecture at the 3rd specialist conference of the
GBB Gtegemeinschaft Bodenverfestigung Bo-
denverbesserung in Stuttgart, 2008
Bodenbehandlung im Straenbau
Oliver Kuhl, Hessisches Landesamt fr Straen-
und Verkehrswesen, Wiesbaden
Lecture at the 4th specialist conference of the
GBB Gtegemeinschaft Bodenverfestigung Bo-
denverbesserung in Walsrode, 2009
Erwnschte und unerwnschte Reaktions-
mechanismen bei der Bodenstabilisierung mit
Bindemitteln
Karl-Josef Witt, Bauhaus-Universitt, Weimar
Lecture at the 4th specialist conference of the
GBB Gtegemeinschaft Bodenverfestigung Bo-
denverbesserung in Walsrode, 2009
References
128 // 129
Body of technical rules and regulations
DIN
1)
Source: ) Beuth Verlag GmbH, Burggrafenstr. 6, 10787 Berlin, Germany
Phone: +49 (0) 30 - 26 01-22 60; Fax: +49 (0) 30 - 26 01-12 60
E-mail: info@beuth.de; Internet: www.beuth.de
VOB / B German construction contract procedures - Part B: General conditions of contract relating to the
execution of construction work DIN 1961 (Vergabe- und Vertragsordnung fr Bauleistungen Teil B:
Allgemeine Vertragsbedingungen fr die Ausfhrung von Bauleistungen DIN 1961)
VOB / C German construction contract procedures - Part C: General technical specications in construction
contracts (Vergabe- und Vertragsordnung fr Bauleistungen Teil C: Allgemeine Technische Vertrags-
bedingungen fr Bauleistungen [ATV])
DIN 1045 Concrete and reinforced concrete; design and execution (Beton und Stahlbeton; Bemessung und Aus-
fhrung)
DIN 1048 Testing concrete (Prfverfahren fr Beton)
DIN 1164 Special cement composition, requirements and conformity evaluation (Zement mit besonderen Eigen-
schaften Zusammensetzung, Anforderungen, bereinstimmungsnachweis)
DIN 4020 Geotechnical investigations for civil engineering purposes (Geotechnische Untersuchungen fr bautech-
nische Zwecke)
DIN 4030 Assessment of water, soil and gases for their aggressiveness to concrete (Beurteilung betonangreifender
Wsser, Bden und Gase)
DIN 4123 Excavations, foundations and underpinnings in the area of existing buildings (Ausschachtungen, Grn-
dungen und Unterfangungen im Bereich bestehender Gebude)
DIN 4124 Excavations and trenches Slopes, planking and strutting breadths of working spaces (Baugruben und
Grben Bschungen, Verbau, Arbeitsraumbreiten)
DIN 4301 Ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgical slag for civil engineering and building construction use (Eisenht-
tenschlacke und Metallschlacke im Bauwesen)
DIN 18121 Soil, investigation and testing Water content (Baugrund Untersuchung von Bodenproben Wasserge-
halt)
DIN 18125 Soil, investigation and testing Determination of density of soil (Baugrund, Untersuchung von Bodenpro-
ben Bestimmung der Dichte des Bodens)
DIN 18127 Soil, investigation and testing Proctor test (Baugrund Untersuchung von Bodenproben Proctorver-
such)
DIN 18134 Soil Testing procedures and testing equipment Plate load test (Baugrund; Versuche und Versuchsge-
rte Plattendruckversuch)
DIN 18196 Earthworks and foundations Soil classication for civil engineering purposes (Erd- und Grundbau
Bodenklassikation fr bautechnische Zwecke)
DIN 18299 German construction contract procedures Part C: General technical specications in construction
contracts General rules applying to all types of construction work (VOB Teil C: Allgemeine Technische
Vertragsbedingungen fr Bauleistungen [ATV] Allgemeine Regelungen fr Bauarbeiten jeder Art)
DIN 18300 German construction contract procedures Part C: General technical specications in construction
contracts Earthworks (VOB - Teil C: Allgemeine Technische Vertragsbedingungen fr Bauleistungen
[ATV] Erdarbeiten)
DIN 18311 German construction contract procedures Part C: General technical specications in construction
contracts Dredging work (VOB - Teil C: Allgemeine Technische Vertragsbedingungen fr Bauleistungen
[ATV] Nassbaggerarbeiten)
DIN 18315 German construction contract procedures Part C: General technical specications in construction con-
tracts Road construction Surfacings without binder (VOB Teil C: Allgemeine Technische Vertragsbe-
dingungen fr Bauleistungen [ATV] Verkehrswegebauarbeiten Oberschichten ohne Bindemittel)
DIN 18316 German construction contract procedures Part C: General technical specications in construction
contracts Road construction Surfacings with hydraulic binders (VOB Teil C: Allgemeine Technische
Vertragsbedingungen fr Bauleistungen [ATV] Verkehrswegebauarbeiten Oberbauschichten mit hyd-
raulischen Bindemitteln)
DIN 18506 Hydraulic soil and road binders Composition, specications and conformity criteria (Hydraulische
Boden- und Tragschichtbinder Zusammensetzung, Anforderungen und Konformittskriterien)
DIN 18915 Vegetation technology in landscaping Soil working (Vegetationstechnik im Landschaftsbau Bodenarbeiten)
DIN 18916 Vegetation technology in landscaping Plants and plant care (Vegetationstechnik im Landschaftsbau
Panzen und Panzarbeiten)
DIN 18920 Vegetation technology in landscaping Protection of trees, plantations and vegetation areas during
construction work (Vegetationstechnik im Landschaftsbau Schutz von Bumen, Panzenbestnden
und Vegetationschen bei Baumanahmen)
DIN 50929 Corrosion of metals; probability of corrosion of metallic materials when subject to corrosion from the
outside (Korrosion der Metalle, Korrosionswahrscheinlichkeit metallischer Werkstoffe bei uerer
Korrosionsbelastung)
Parts 1 and 3 Part 1: Corrosion of metals; probability of corrosion of metallic materials when subject to corrosion from
the outside; general (Teil 1: Korrosion der Metalle; Korrosionswahrscheinlichkeit metallischer Werkstoffe
bei uerer Korrosionsbelastung; Allgemeines)
Part 3: Corrosion of metals; probability of corrosion of metallic materials when subject to corrosion from
the outside; buried and underwater pipelines and structural components (Teil 3: Korrosion der Metalle;
Korrosionswahrscheinlichkeit metallischer Werkstoffe bei uerer Korrosionsbelastung; Rohrleitungen
und Bauteile in Bden und Wssern)
DIN EN 206-1 Concrete Part 1: Specication, performance, production and conformity (Beton Teil 1: Festlegung,
Eigenschaften, Herstellung und Konformitt)
DIN EN 197-1 Cement Part 1: Composition, specications and conformity criteria for common cements
(Zement Teil 1: Zusammensetzung, Anforderungen und Konformittskriterien von Normalzement)
DIN EN 197-4 Cement Part 4: Composition, specications and conformity criteria for low early-strength blast-furnace
cements (Zement Teil 4: Zusammensetzung, Anforderungen und Konformittskriterien von Hochofen-
zement mit niedriger Anfangsfestigkeit)
DIN EN 459-1 Building lime - Part 1: Denitions, specications and conformity criteria (Baukalk Teil 1: Denitionen,
Anforderungen und Konformittskriterien)
DIN EN 1097-6 Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates Part 6: Determination of particle density and
water absorption (Prfverfahren fr mechanische und physikalische Eigenschaften von Gesteinskrnun-
gen Teil 6: Bestimmung der Rohdichte und der Wasseraufnahme)
DIN EN 1367-1 Tests for thermal and weathering properties of aggregates Part 1: Determination of resistance to
freezing and thawing (Prfverfahren fr thermische Eigenschaften und Verwitterungsbestndigkeit von
Gesteinskrnungen Teil 1: Bestimmung des Widerstandes gegen Frost-Tau-Wechsel)
DIN EN 12350 Testing fresh concrete (Prfung von Frischbeton)
DIN EN 12390 Testing hardened concrete (Prfung von Festbeton)
DIN EN 13055-2 Lightweight aggregates Part 2: Lightweight aggregates for bituminous mixtures and surface treatments
and for unbound and bound applications (Leichte Gesteinskrnungen Teil 2: Leichte Gesteinskrnun-
gen fr Asphalte und Oberchenbehandlungen sowie fr ungebundene und gebundene Verwendung)
DIN EN 14227-1 Hydraulically bound mixtures Specications Part 1: Cement bound granular mixtures (Hydraulisch
gebundene Gemische Anforderungen Teil 1: Zementgebundene Gemische)
DIN EN ISO 14688 Geotechnical investigation and testing Identication and classication of soil (Geotechnische Erkun-
dung und Untersuchung Benennung, Beschreibung und Klassizierung von Boden)
DIN EN ISO 14689 Geotechnical investigation and testing Identication and classication of rock (Geotechnische Erkun-
dung und Untersuchung Benennung, Beschreibung und Klassizierung von Fels)
DIN EN ISO 17025 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (Allgemeine Anforderun-
gen an die Kompetenz von Prf- und Kalibrierlaboratorien)
130 // 131
DIN EN ISO 22475 Geotechnical investigation and testing Sampling methods and groundwater measurements (Geotechni-
sche Erkundung und Untersuchung Probenentnahmeverfahren und Grundwassermessungen)
DIN EN ISO 22476 Geotechnical investigation and testing Field testing (Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung
Felduntersuchungen)
DIN report Geotextiles and geotextile-related products On-site quality control (Geotextilien und geotextil-
CEN / TR 15019 verwandte Produkte Baustellenkontrolle
FGSV
2)
Source: ) FGSV Verlag GmbH, Wesselinger Str. 17, 50999 Kln, Germany
Phone: +49 (0) 22 36 - 38 46 30; Fax: +49 (0) 22 36 - 38 46 40
E-mail: info@fgsv-verlag.de; Internet: www.fgsv-verlag.de
ATV General technical specications in construction contracts (Allgemeine Technische Vertragsbedingungen
fr Bauleistungen [FGSV 024])
DBT Code of practice for porous concrete base layers (Merkblatt fr Drnbetontragschichten [FGSV 827])
FDVK Continuous dynamic compaction control (Flchendeckende Dynamische Verdichtungskontrolle [FGSV
547])
HBS Manual for the design of road trafc systems (Handbuch fr die Bemessung von Straenverkehrsanlagen
[FGSV 299])
H GeoMess Guidelines for the use of geotechnical and geophysical measuring procedures in road construction (Hin-
weise zur Anwendung geotechnischer und geophysikalischer Messverfahren im Straenbau [FGSV 558])
MAFS-H Code of practice for asphalt base layers in hot-application (Merkblatt fr Asphaltfundationsschichten im
Heieinbau [FGSV 759])
MBEB Code of practice for the structural maintenance of concrete trafc areas (Merkblatt fr die Bauliche Erhal-
tung von Verkehrschen aus Beton [FGSV 823])
MFP1 Code of practice for stone pavings and slab pavings, Part 1: Standard construction method (unbound
design) (Merkblatt fr Flchenbefestigungen mit Pasterdecken und Plattenbelgen, Teil 1: Regelbauwei-
se (Ungebundene Ausfhrung) [FGSV 618 / 1])
MGUB Code of practice on geotechnical investigations and designs in road construction (Merkblatt ber geo-
technische Untersuchungen und Berechnungen im Straenbau [FGSV 511])
MKRC Code of practice on in-situ cold recycling in the road pavement (Merkblatt fr Kaltrecycling in situ im
Straenoberbau [FGSV 636])
MLs Code of practice on the use of volcanic slag in road construction (Merkblatt ber die Verwendung von
Lavaschlacke im Straen- und Wegebau [FGSV 611])
MOB Code of practice for the production of surface textures on concrete pavements (Merkblatt fr die Herstel-
lung von Oberchentexturen auf Fahrbahndecken aus Beton [FGSV 829])
MRC Code of practice on the reuse of mineral construction materials as recycled construction materials in
road construction (Merkblatt ber die Wiederverwertung von mineralischen Baustoffen als Recycling-
Baustoffe im Straenbau [FGSV 616 / 3])
MVB-K Code of practice for the use of reclaimed tar-bound road construction materials and reclaimed asphalt in
bituminous base layers by cold processing in mixing plants (Merkblatt fr die Verwertung von pech-
haltigen Straenausbaustoffen und von Asphaltgranulat in bitumengebundenen Tragschichten durch
Kaltaufbereitung in Mischanlagen [FGSV 535])
M Geok E Code of practice for the application of geosynthetics in road construction earthworks (Merkblatt fr die
Anwendung von Geokunststoffen im Erdbau des Straenbaues (FGSV 535)
Code of practice for the design and production of crib walls (Merkblatt fr den Entwurf und die Herstel-
lung von Raumgitterwnden und -wllen [FGSV 540])
Code of practice for the compaction of subsoil and subgrade in road construction (Merkblatt fr die
Verdichtung des Untergrundes und Unterbaues im Straenbau [FGSV 516])
Code of practice for the use of EPS rigid foam materials in the construction of road embankments (Merk-
blatt fr die Verwendung von EPS-Hartschaumstoffen beim Bau von Straendmmen [FGSV 550])
Code of practice for simple, environmentally compatible methods of site stabilization (Merkblatt fr ein-
fache landschaftsgerechte Sicherungsbauweisen [FGSV 229)]
MGUB Code of practice for geotechnical investigations and designs in road construction (Merkblatt ber geo-
technische Untersuchungen und Berechnungen im Straenbau [FGSV 511])
M TS E Code of practice on construction methods for technical safeguarding measures when using soils and
construction materials containing environmentally relevant substances in earthworks (Merkblatt ber
Bauweisen fr technische Sicherungsmanahmen beim Einsatz von Bden und Baustoffen mit umwelt-
relevanten Inhaltsstoffen im Erdbau [FGSV 559])
Code of practice on soil improvement and soil stabilization with binders (Merkblatt ber Bodenverbesse-
rungen und Bodenverfestigungen mit Bindemitteln [FGSV 551])
Code of practice on the inuence of the backll on structures (Merkblatt ber den Einuss der Hinterfl-
lung auf Bauwerke [FGSV 526])
Code of practice on the treatment of soils and construction materials with binders to reduce the leachabi-
lity of environmentally relevant substances (Merkblatt ber die Behandlung von Bden und Baustoffen
mit Bindemitteln zur Reduzierung der Eluierbarkeit umweltrelevanter Inhaltsstoffe [FGSV 560])
Code of practice on the non-aggressive execution of blasting and removal work on rock slopes (Merk-
blatt ber die gebirgsschonende Ausfhrung von Spreng- und Abtragsarbeiten an Felsbschungen
[FGSV 537])
Code of practice on the use of expanded clay as a lightweight construction material in the subgrade
and subsoil of roads (Merkblatt ber die Verwendung von Blhton als Leichtbaustoff im Unterbau und
Untergrund von Straen [FGSV 556])
Code of practice on rock group description for civil engineering purposes in road construction (Merkblatt
ber Felsgruppenbeschreibung fr bautechnische Zwecke im Straenbau [FGSV 532])
Code of practice on continuous dynamic procedures for testing compaction in earthworks (Merkblatt
ber chendeckende dynamische Verfahren zur Prfung der Verdichtung im Erdbau [FGSV 547])
Code of practice for road construction on subsoil of poor bearing capacity (Merkblatt ber Straenbau
auf wenig tragfhigem Untergrund [FGSV 542])
Code of practice for the production of surface textures on concrete pavements (Merkblatt fr die Herstel-
lung von Oberchentexturen auf Fahrbahndecken aus Beton [M OB])
Code of practice for the reuse of concrete from pavements (Merkblatt zur Wiederverwendung von Beton
aus Fahrbahndecken)
Code of practice for the construction of base layers and combined base and surface layers using roller-
compacted concrete for trafc areas (Merkblatt fr den Bau von Tragschichten und Tragdeckschichten
mit Walzbeton fr Verkehrschen)
RAA Directives for the construction of motorways (Richtlinien fr die Anlage von Autobahnen [FGSV 202])
RAS-Ew Directives for the construction of roads, Part: Drainage (Richtlinien fr die Anlage von Straen [RAS], Teil:
Entwsserung [FGSV 539])
RAS-LG Directives for the construction of roads, Part: Landscape design, Section: Biological engineering (Richt-
linien fr die Anlage von Straen [RAS], Teil: Landschaftsgestaltung [RAS-LG], Abschnitt: Lebendverbau
[FGSV 293 / 3])
RAS-LP Directives for the construction of roads, Part: Landscape maintenance, Section 4: Protection of trees,
existing vegetation and animals in construction measures (Richtlinien fr die Anlage von Straen, Teil:
Landschaftspege (RAS-LP), Abschnitt 4: Schutz von Bumen, Vegetationsbestnden und Tieren bei
Baumanahmen [FGSV 293 / 4])
RAS-Q Directives for the construction of roads, Part: Cross-sections (Richtlinien fr die Anlage von Straen
(RAS), Teil: Querschnitte [FGSV 295])
132 // 133
RAA Directives for the construction of urban roads (Richtlinien fr die Anlage von Stadtstraen [FGSV 200])
RAP Stra Directives for accreditation of test centres for building materials and building material mixtures in road
construction (Richtlinien fr die Anerkennung von Prfstellen fr Baustoffe und Baustoffgemische im
Straenbau [FGSV 916])
RiStWag Directives for civil engineering measures on roads in water protection areas (Richtlinien fr bautechnische
Manahmen an Straen in Wasserschutzgebieten [FGSV 514])
RLW Directives for rural road construction (Richtlinien fr den lndlichen Wegebau [FGSV 675 / 1])
RStO Directives for the standardization of the superstructures of trafcked surfaces (Richtlinien fr die Stan-
dardisierung des Oberbaues von Verkehrschen [FGSV 499])
RuA-StB Directives for the environmentally compatible use of industrial by-products and recycled construction
materials in road construction (Richtlinien fr die umweltvertrgliche Anwendung von industriellen Neben-
produkten und Recycling-Baustoffen im Straenbau [FGSV 642])
RuVA-StB Directives for the environmentally compatible use of reclaimed materials containing tar-bound matter and
for the use of reclaimed asphalt in road construction (Richtlinien fr die umweltvertrgliche Verwertung
von Ausbaustoffen mit teer- / pechtypischen Bestandteilen sowie fr die Verwertung von Ausbauasphalt
im Straenbau [FGSV 795])
TL Asphalt-StB Technical delivery terms for asphalt mix for the construction of paved trafc areas (Technische Liefer
bedingungen fr Asphaltmischgut fr den Bau von Verkehrschenbefestigungen [FGSV 797])
TL BE-StB Technical delivery terms for bitumen emulsions (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Bitumenemulsionen
[FGSV 793])
TL Beton-StB Technical delivery terms for construction materials and construction material mixtures for base layers with
hydraulic binders and concrete pavements (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Baustoffe und Baustoffge-
mische fr Tragschichten mit hydraulischen Bindemitteln und Fahrbahndecken aus Beton [FGSV 891])
TL G SoB-StB Technical delivery terms for construction material mixtures and soils for the production of unbound gra-
nular layers in road construction, Part: Quality control (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Baustoffgemi-
sche und Bden zur Herstellung von Schichten ohne Bindemittel im Straenbau, Teil: Gteberwachung
[FGSV 696])
TL BuB E-StB Technical delivery terms for soils and construction materials in earthworks for road construction (Techni-
sche Lieferbedingungen fr Bden und Baustoffe im Erdbau des Straenbaues [FGSV 597])
TL Gestein-StB Technical delivery terms for aggregates in road construction (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Gesteins-
krnungen im Straenbau [FGSV 613])
TL Geok E-StB Technical delivery terms for geosynthetics in earthworks for road construction (Technische Lieferbedin-
gungen fr Geokunststoffe im Erdbau des Straenbaues [FGSV 549])
TL NBM-StB Technical delivery terms for liquid concrete curing agents (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr ssige
Beton-Nachbehandlungsmittel [FGSV 814])
TL Paster-StB Technical delivery terms for construction products for the production of stone pavings, slab pavings and
kerbs (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Bauprodukte zur Herstellung von Pasterdecken, Plattenbel-
gen und Einfassungen [FGSV 643])
TL SoB-StB Technical delivery terms for construction material mixtures and soils for the production of unbound
granular layers in road construction, Part: Quality control (Technische Lieferbedingungen fr Baustoffge-
mische und Bden fr Schichten ohne Bindemittel im Straenbau; Teil: Gteberwachung [FGSV 697])
TP Asphalt-StB Technical testing regulations for asphalt (Technische Prfvorschriften fr Asphalt [FGSV 756])
TP Beton-StB Technical testing regulations for base layers with hydraulic binders and concrete pavements (Technische
Prfvorschriften fr Tragschichten mit hydraulischen Bindemitteln und Fahrbahndecken aus Beton [FGSV
892])
TP BF-StB Technical testing regulations for soil and rock in road construction (Technische Prfvorschriften fr Boden
und Fels im Straenbau [FGSV 591])
TP D-StB Technical testing regulations to determine the thicknesses of superstructure layers in road construction
(Technische Prfvorschriften zur Bestimmung der Dicken von Oberbauschichten im Straenbau [FGSV 974])
TP Eben Technical testing regulations for evenness measurements on road surfaces in longitudinal and transverse
directions, Part: Measurements with contact (Technische Prfvorschriften fr Ebenheitsmessungen auf
Fahrbahnoberchen in Lngs- und Querrichtung, Teil: Berhrende Messungen (TP Eben - Berhrende
Messungen) [FGSV 404 / 1])
TP Eben Technical testing regulations for evenness measurements on road surfaces in longitudinal and transverse
directions, Part: Measurements without contact (Technische Prfvorschriften fr Ebenheitsmessungen
auf Fahrbahnoberchen in Lngs- und Querrichtung, Teil: Berhrungslose Messungen (TP Eben - Be-
rhrungslose Messungen) [FGSV 404 / 2])
TP Gestein-StB Technical testing regulations for aggregates in road construction (Technische Prfvorschriften fr Ge-
steinskrnungen im Straenbau [FGSV 610])
TP HGT-StB Technical testing regulations for base layers with hydraulic binders (Technische Prfvorschriften fr Trag-
schichten mit hydraulischen Bindemitteln [FGSV 822; AP 52])
VOB Construction contract procedures (Vergabe- und Vertragsordnung fr Bauleistungen [FGSV 024])
ZTV A-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for excavations in trafc areas (Zustzliche
Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr Aufgrabungen in Verkehrschen [FGSV 976])
ZTV Asphalt-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of asphalt pavements
(Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr den Bau von Verkehrschenbefesti-
gungen aus Asphalt [FGSV 799])
ZTV BEA-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the structural maintenance of trafc areas
Asphalt design (Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr die Bauliche Erhaltung
von Verkehrschen Asphaltbauweisen [FGSV 798])
ZTV BEB-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the structural maintenance of trafc areas
Concrete design (Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr die Bauliche Erhaltung
von Verkehrschen Betonbauweisen [FGSV 898 / 1])
ZTV Beton-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of base layers with hydrau-
lic binders and concrete pavements (Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr den
Bau von Tragschichten mit hydraulischen Bindemitteln und Fahrbahndecken aus Beton [FGSV 899])
ZTV E-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for earthworks in road construction (Zustzliche
Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr Erdarbeiten im Straenbau [FGSV 599])
ZTV Ew-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of drainage systems in road
construction (Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr den Bau von Entwsse-
rungseinrichtungen im Straenbau [FGSV 598])
ZTV-ING Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for civil engineering works (Zustzliche Techni-
sche Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr Ingenieurbauten [FGSV 340; 782 / 1])
ZTV-Lsw Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the execution of noise barriers along roads
(Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr die Ausfhrung von Lrmschutzwnden
an Straen [FGSV 258])
ZTV-Lsw Design and calculation principles for bored pile foundations and steel posts of noise barriers along
(supplement) roads; supplement to the Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the execution of
noise barriers along roads (Entwurfs- und Berechnungsgrundlagen fr Bohrpfahlgrndungen und Stahl-
pfosten von Lrmschutzwnden an Straen; Ergnzung zu den Zustzlichen Technischen Vorschriften
und Richtlinien fr die Ausfhrung von Lrmschutzwnden an Straen [FGSV 552])
ZTVLW Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the paving of rural roads (Zustzliche Tech-
nische Vorschriften und Richtlinien fr die Befestigung lndlicher Wege [FGSV 675])
ZTV Paster-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the production of stone pavings, slab
pavings and kerbs (Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien zur Herstellung von
Pasterdecken, Plattenbelgen und Einfassungen [FGSV 699])
ZTV SoB-StB Additional technical conditions of contract and directives for the construction of unbound granular layers
in road construction (Zustzliche Technische Vertragsbedingungen und Richtlinien fr den Bau von
Schichten ohne Bindemittel im Straenbau [FGSV 698])
134 // 135
Illustrations are without obligation. Technical details are subject to change without notice.
Performance data depend on operating conditions. No. 2316602 49-51 EN - 04/13 by Wirtgen GmbH 2013 Printed in Germany
Wirtgen GmbH
Reinhard-Wirtgen-Strasse 2 53578 Windhagen Germany
Phone: +49 (0) 26 45 / 131-0 Fax: +49 (0) 26 45 / 131-392
Internet: www.wirtgen.com E-Mail: info@wirtgen.com