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1. Describe etymological meaning of philosophy!

Etymology is the branch of linguistics that studies the origin of a word. Suppose the true etymology of the word is taken from the Dutch 'etymologie' rooted from the Greek; tymos (which means a word) and logos (science). In short, the etymology of the word itself comes from the Greek (tymos, the meaning of the word) and (logos, science). The word 'philosophy' in Indonesian is a loan word from Arabic , which is also taken from the Greek; philosophia. In Indonesia language, this word is a compound word and is derived from the words (philia = friendship, love, etc..) And (sophia = "wisdom"). So it literally means a "lover of wisdom". The word philosophy is collected from the Dutch language is also known in Indonesia. The latter form is more similar to the original. In Indonesian someone who explore the field of philosophy called "philosophers" The most common definition of thinking is the development of ideas and concepts / activities involving something that make our brain works.

2. Describe, what is the nature of thinking?


Thinking is that looking for something that is uknown with something that already known/ choose something that is wanted to be done or has been done before it is desirable or undesirable is happening or has happened.

3. Describe the distinction among commonsensical thought, critical thought, and radical thought! Strengthen your answer with a relevant example!
Commonsensical thought is thought that in a simple way to use mind to acquire knowledge especially in dealing with the problems of life, so that humans can survive. Examples: ice cubes made from the water that frozened/cooled

Critical thought is thought that is in the context of criticizing, doubting, and questioning everything, until it can find the basics of intellectual responsibility or fundamental arguments that could not be doubted or questioned again by anyone at any time. Example: when we eat rice it will taste sweet because it contains glucose, from there we can know that every carbohydrate contains glucose

Radical thought (radix = root). That is the characteristics of philosophical thought which wants to dig and delve fact or idea to its very roots, to find and lift the basics of his thought as a whole to the surface Example: in the garden, we can see there are grew a red rose and a white jasmine flower that grew in the middle of red roses. why do people grow a white jasmine between a bunch of red roses.

4. Mention, what is the object of philosophy?


Material object and Formal object

5. What is the meaning of deductive and inductive methods of thinking? Describe and support your answer with a good examples!
Deduction means drawing conclusions from the general circumstances, find the particular from the general. Deduction is a way of thinking that was arrested or taken from general statements and then draw the special conslusions. Deductive inferences typically use patterns of thinking are called silogismus. Deductive thingking is a method of thinking that applying a common things in advance so it will connected to the parts that are specialized. Example: Indonesian Society are consumptive (general) due to changes in the meaning of success (special) and imitation activities (special) because of the entertainment media that displays the consumptive lifestyle as social achievements and the mark of social status. Induction is the opposite way to learn something from the things or events to determine the common law. Induction is a way of thinking in which a drawn general conclusions from various individual cases. Inductive reasoning begins by arguing the statements that have the typical scope and limited in formulating arguments. Its end with general statements. Inductive thingking is a method used to think the opposite of those things particular to the general. fenomena concluded that the law applicable to the investigated similar phenomena that have not been studied. Generalization is a form of inductive thinking method. Example: Tiger who have leafy ears breed with childbirth. Pig have leafy ears breed childbirth. Whales breed also have leafy ears breed with childbirth too. Conclusion: all animals who have a leafy ears breed with childbirth.

6. Rene Descartes (Rni d kA:t) had a famous quote cogito ergo sum (I think therefore I am). Describe the implication from his thought to the raise of modern science!
Cogito ergo sum is a philosophical proposition by Rene Descrates. The simple meaning is about the existence of proves by itself that Iam exist because I must to thingking. This proposition is become th basic element of Western phylosophy percieved form the foundation for all knowledge. Well other knowledge can be a part of the imagination, the very act of fraud or error in the extensive doubt thinking itself is arguably serves as proof of the reality of his own existence, or at least a person's thinking.

7. One of the way of thinking is problem solving. Describe the thinking process of problem solving along with a relevant example!
Krulik and Rudnick define problem solving is a way of a person by using the knowledge, skills and understanding to meet the demands of the situation that unroutine. Intellectual process of finding and solving problems based on accurate data and information. 1. Find the cause of the problem 2. Looking for a way to resolve the problem Problem: How do spiders can obtain their food? Fact: In the spider webs often found insects stuck and die. Hypothesis: Spiders obtain their food from insects trapped in the nest.

8. Describe, how science can help human senses to avoid ilussionary understanding!
By providing proof of the evidance that can be get by observation and experiment.

9. Describe with your own words, the benefit of learning philosophy of science, both for academic purposes and your daily life!
philosophy helps us to think more critically and thoroughly. Philosophy help us to solve the problems we had in our lives everyday

10. Mention and describe MATERIAL SUBJECT dan FORMAL SUBJECT of philosophy!
a. Material object is anything or reality, there is hould be and there is not should be.

b. Formal object is the nature or principles and therefore the philosophy constanting the principles of truth and false. Philosophy is all the material objects that exist with a variety of substances and levels. This material objects can be studied from various angles according to the description of the desired focus. The variation of research paper which refers to formal objects that spawned numerous studies in the field of philosophy and describes systematics.

11. Describe the distinctions between human being and animal in term of their thinking abilities.
Man was created and given the sense, so it can distinguish between good and bad, humans also revealed beliefs or religion, so there is a guide to run his life. While the animals had created only lust, not given a spiritual sense as humans, so animal act without reason and norms. 1. Humans have the ability to ask; 2. Humans have the ability to knowledgeable; 3. Humans have free will; 4. Humans can behave as per the norm (moral); 5. Humans are social creatures and cultured; 6. Humans have the ability to think reflectively in the totality of the conscious self; 7. Man is a creature that has the ability to believe in God.

12. Describe what scientific attitudes is and what the most important attitude of a student should be!
Scientific attitudes is the attitude that must have for a scientist or academic in themselves when faced with scientific issues. The scientific attitudes are the attitude of curious, critical, open minded, objective, respect other people's rights, dare to defend the truth, and also can to separate the fact and opinion. Curiousity is the most important for student because the student can asked about various issues which related to the field of studies.

13. Describe the nature of FALSIFICATION according to Karl popper in his book titled The Logic of Scientific Discovery!
Falsification = blame A scientific statement should the POSSIBLE FAULTS. If the possibility of mistakes can not found, then the statement is not a scientific statement. Falsification = systematic criticism of error; blame. If there are more theories that pass from falsification, it give more advanced for a science. The decision by scientists is to support or reject a theory based on the objective considerations that something is pass or not from falsification test

14. Describe the nature of PARADIGM as mentioned by Thomas S. Kuhn in his famous work, The Structure of Scientific Revolution!
construct a discourse capable of thinking for scientific discovery: that the conceptualization Kuhn: a discourse to new scientific findings. So it can be concluded that the paradigm can be used in the sciences as a model, an example, a pattern that can be used as the basis for selecting the various problems and patterns to look for and find the problems that exist in science to solve research problems . So in short terms is a whole constellation of paradigm beliefs, values and techniques that are owned by a scientific community of looking at things (phenomena). Helped formulate the paradigm of what should be learned, what issues need to be answered and what rules should be followed in interpreting the answers obtained. The application of science requires an ethical dimension in mind and which have an influence on the further development process. Ethical responsibilities regarding the activities and the use of science. In this case the development of science should pay attention to human nature, human dignity, the balance of the ecosystem, is universal, and so on, because basically science is to develop and strengthen human existence and not to destroy it. New discoveries in science can change the rules of nature and humans. This requires ethical responsibility to always keep the embodied is the best result for the development of science and human existence as a whole. Publication is an important event in the history, philosophy, and sociology of scientific knowledge and sparked ongoing worldwide assessment and reaction to - and beyond - the scientific communities. Kuhn challenged the prevailing view of progress in "normal science". Normal progress of science is seen as "development by accumulation" accepted facts and theories. Kuhn argues for episodec models in which period such conceptual continuity in normal science interrupted by periods revolutionaru scuence. The ddiscovery of "anomalies" during the revolution inscience leads to a new paradigm. New paradigm then ask a new question old data, moving beyond mere "puzzle - solving" of the previous paradigm, changing the rules of the game ads "map" directing new research.

15. Explain why we have to consider ethical aspects in developing science!


Because ethics is the fundamental in developing science. In addition, ethics will also be the balance in the application of science, and also, ethics will be a guide in directing the science.

16. Describe the meaning of ONTOLOGY, EPISTEMOLOGY, and AXIOLOGY in term of philosophy of science! Give a good example for such aspects!
a. Ontology : Discusses about the existing, which is not bound by one particular embodiment. Discussing about the existing, universal, and universal display universe of thought. b. Epistemology : The branch of philosophy that deals with the origin, nature, character, and types of knowledge. c. Axiology : (theoretical value) addressed the issue of the investigation to know the value of nature, criteria and status, of the metaphysical value.

17. Describe, what is the distinction between enjoying life and thinking about life dealing to the existence of human being in this universe? Support your answer with the and a relevant example!
Enjoy life: enjoying your life. Thinking about life: we think about the purpose of life and we are facing problems in your life Examples: easy-assume all existing problems in your life -Think about what will happen, a problem that we will face in the future will 18.Describe with your own words, the benefits from learning philosophy, both for your academic study in this university and for your daily life! 19.Give an example based on your true story during your lifetime that is a situation or an event which influenced you so strong and generated your radical consciousness (philosophical consciousness) about the meaning of life! 20.Based on the certain philosopher to whom your group made poster and presenting his thought, please describe: (a) concise biography of him; (b) path/flow of his thought; and (c) implication of his thought to the development of science.